The belief that Operation Barbarossa(1941) was a massive military success in its initial stages tends to be the accepted norm amongst many military historians. However, though Operation Barbarossa made huge inroads into the Soviet Union the warning signs of major problems ahead were never heeded by the senior military command who were basking in the success of the Nazi war machine as Barbarossa drove back the Red Army and captured millions of men and destroyed vast amounts of Soviet military machinery.
The Bill of Rights is seen by some historians as the start of constitutional monarchy - whereby a king or queen was effectively tied by law as to what he/she could do and more particularly what they could not do. “An Act Declaring the Rights and Liberties of the Subject and Settling the Succession of the Crown Whereas the Lords Spiritual and Temporal and Commons assembled at Westminster, lawfully, fully and freely representing all the estates of the people of this realm, did upon the thirteenth day of February in the year of our Lord one thousand six hundred eighty-eight [old style date] present unto their Majesties, then called and known by the names and style of William and Mary, prince and princess of Orange, being present in their proper persons, a certain declaration in writing made by the said Lords and Commons in the words following, viz.
The fighting that took place within Delville Wood was fierce in the extreme. By the time the fighting finished not one tree in Delville Wood was left untouched and the immediate landscape was littered with just the stumps of what had been trees. It was not surprising that soldiers who fought there referred to it as 'Devil's Wood' as opposed to Delville Wood.
The 1819 Factory Act : no children under 9 to work in factories. Children from 9 to 16 allowed to work a maximum of 72 hours per week with one and a half hours a day for meals. 1833 Althorp's Factory Act : children from 9 to 13 to work a maximum of 42 hours per week; also children aged 13 to 16 to work a maximum of 69 hours a week.
The evacuation of Allied troops from Dunkirk and the nearby beaches in 1940 was viewed by some in the British government as a major achievement. This was not totally shared by Winston Churchill who made the comment that wars were not won when forces retreat. However, those at the sharp end of 'Operation Dynamo' - the men on the beaches and the 'little boats' that came to rescue them - went through an experience that no one there would forget.