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  • c. 454 CE - 526 CE

  • 483 CE

    Promoted to Master of Soldiers in the Roman Army.

  • 484 CE

    Theodoric awarded with a Consulship.

  • 488 CE - 493 CE

    Theodoric the Great of the Ostrogoths conquers Italy.

  • 488 CE

    Theodoric invades Odoacer's Kingdom of Italy.

  • 488 CE - 493 CE

    Theodoric the Great conquers Italy from Odoacer.

  • 493 CE

    Theodoric assassinates Odoacer and becomes King of Italy.

  • 493 CE - 526 CE

  • 497 CE

  • 500 CE - 513 CE

    Theodoric's consolidation of his kingdom and military campaigns.

  • 522 CE - 524 CE

    Theodoric's persecution of Trinitarian Christians.

  • 526 CE


Theodoric the Great

Theodoric the Great (454 - August 30, 526), known to the Romans as Flavius Theodoricus, was king of the East Goths, the Ostrogoths (488-526), ruler of Italy (493-526), and regent of the Visigoths (511-526).

The man who ruled under the name of Theodoric (Gothic Thiudareiks, meaning "King of the People") was born in 454 on the banks of the Neusiedler See near Carnuntum, a year after the Ostrogoths had thrown off nearly a century of domination by the Huns. The son of the King Theodemir, Theodoric went to Constantinople as a young boy, as a hostage to secure the Ostrogoths' compliance with a treaty Theodemir had concluded with the Eastern Emperor Leo.

He lived at the court of Constantinople for many years and learned a great deal about Roman government and military tactics, which served him well when he became the Goth ruler of a mixed but largely Romanized people. Treated with favor by the Emperors Leo I and Zeno, he became Magister militum (or Master of Soldiers) in 483,and one year later he became consul. He afterwards returned to live among the Ostrogoths when he was in his early twenties, and became their king in 488.

At the time, the Ostrogoths were settled in Byzantine territory as foederati (allies) of the Romans, but were becoming restless and increasingly difficult for Zeno to manage. Not long after Theodoric became king, the two men worked out an arrangement beneficial to both sides. The Ostrogoths needed a place to live, and Zeno was having serious problems with Odoacer, the King of Italy who had overthrown the western Roman Empire in 476. Ostensibly a viceroy for Zeno, Odoacer was menacing Byzantine territory and not respecting the rights of Roman citizens in Italy. At Zeno's encouragement, Theodoric invaded Odoacer's kingdom.

Theodoric came with his army to Italy in 488, where he won the battles at the Isonzo and at Milan in 489 and at the Adda in 490. In 493 he took Ravenna. Odoacer surrendered and was killed by Theodoric himself.

Like Odoacer, Theodoric was technically only a viceroy for the emperor in Constantinople. In reality, he was able to avoid imperial supervision, and dealings between the emperor and Theodoric were as equals. However, unlike Odoacer, Theodoric respected the agreement he had made and allowed Roman citizens within his kingdom to be subject to Roman law and the Roman judicial system. The Goths, meanwhile, lived under their own laws and customs.

Theodoric the Great was allied with the Franks by his marriage to Audofleda, sister of Clovis I, and with the Visigoths, Vandals and Burgundian kings. Clovis I's ambitions to also rule over the Goths brought on intermittent warfare between 506 and 523. For much of his reign, Theodoric was the de facto king of the Visigoths as well, becoming regent for an infant Visigothic king around 505. The Franks were able to wrest control of Aquitaine from the Visigoths in 507, but otherwise, Theodoric was able to defeat their incursions. Theodoric also stopped the Vandals from raiding his territories by threatening the weak Vandal king Thrasamund with invasion.

Theodoric the Goth was no Frank or Hun. He had great respect for the Roman culture he saw himself as representing. He had an eye for outstanding talent. In about 520 the philosopher Boethius became his magister officiorum, (head of all the government and court services). Boethius was a man of science, a dedicated Hellenist bent on translating all the works of Aristotle into Latin and harmonizing them with the works of Plato, not an easy task. Eventually Boethius fell out of favor with Theodoric, perhaps out of a suspicion that he was in sympathy with Justinian, emperor of the East, for Arian Theodoric was always somewhat of an outsider among these Christians. Theodoric ordered Boethius executed in 525. In the meantime Cassiodorus had succeeded Boethius as magister in 523. The pliant historian and courtier could be counted on to provide refined touches to official correspondence. "To the monarch you [Cassiodorus] were a friendly judge and an honored intimate. For when he got free of his official cares he looked to your conversation for the precepts of the sages, that he might make himself a worthy equal to the great men of old. Ever curious, he wanted to hear about the courses of the stars, the tides of the sea, and legendary fountains, that his earnest study of natural science might make him seem to be a veritable philosopher in the purple" (Cassiodorus' letterbook, Variae 9.24.8). The gulf was widening between the ancient senatorial aristocracy whose center was Rome and the adherents of Gothic rule at Ravenna: other distinguished public figures followed Boethius to the block. Theoderic in his final years was no longer the disengaged Arian patron of religious toleration that he had seemed earlier in his reign. "Indeed, his death cut short what could well have developed into a major persecution of Catholic churches in retaliation for measures taken by Justin in Constantinople against Arians there" O'Donnell 1979, ch. 1 (http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/jod/texts/cassbook/chap1.html) .

Theodoric was of Arian faith. At the end of his reign quarrels arose with his Roman subjects and the Byzantine emperor Justin I over the Arianism issue. Relations between the two nations deteriorated, although Theodoric's ability dissuaded the Byzantines from waging war against him. After his death, that reluctance faded quickly. Theodoric the Great was interred in Ravenna. His mausoleum is one of the finest monuments in Ravenna.

After his death his daughter Amalasuntha reigned as regent for Theodoric's grandson Athalaric, with the able Cassiodorus to smooth the transition,


Contents

The man who would later rule under the name of Theoderic was born in 454 AD, on the banks of the Neusiedler See near Carnuntum. This was just a year after the Ostrogoths had thrown off nearly a century of domination by the Huns. The son of the King Theodemir and Ereleuva, Theoderic went to Constantinople as a young boy, as a hostage to secure the Ostrogoths' compliance with a treaty Theodemir had concluded with the Byzantine Emperor Leo the Thracian (ruled 457–474).

He lived as a hostage at the court of Constantinople for many years and learned a great deal about Roman government and military tactics, which served him well when he became the Gothic ruler of a mixed but largely Romanized "barbarian people". Treated with favor by the Emperors Leo I and Zeno (ruled 474–475 and 476–491), he became magister militum (Master of Soldiers) in 483, and one year later he became consul. Afterwards, he returned to live among the Ostrogoths when he was 31 years old and became their king in 488.


Ruler of Italy

Like Odoacer, Theoderic was ostensibly only a viceroy for the emperor in Constantinople. In reality, he was able to avoid imperial supervision, and dealings between the emperor and Theoderic were as relations between equals. Unlike Odoacer, however, Theoderic respected the agreement he had made and allowed Roman citizens within his kingdom to be subject to Roman law and the Roman judicial system. The Goths, meanwhile, lived under their own laws and customs. In 519, when a mob burned down the synagogues of Ravenna, Theoderic ordered the town to rebuild them at its own expense.

Theoderic the Great sought alliances with, or hegemony over, the other Germanic kingdoms in the West. He allied with the Franks by his marriage to Audofleda, sister of Clovis I, and married his own female relatives to princes or kings of the Visigoths, Vandals, and Burgundians. He stopped the Vandals from raiding his territories by threatening the weak Vandal king Thrasamund with invasion, and sent a guard of 5,000 troops with his sister Amalafrida when she married Thrasamund in 500.

For much of his reign, Theoderic was the de facto king of the Visigoths as well, becoming regent for the infant Visigothic king, his grandson Amalaric, following the defeat of Alaric II by the Franks under Clovis in 507. The Franks were able to wrest control of Aquitaine from the Visigoths, but otherwise Theoderic was able to defeat their incursions. The term “Visigoth” was actually an invention of this period. Cassiodorus, a Roman in the service of Theoderic the Great, invented the term “Visigothi” to match that of “Ostrogothi” he thought of these terms as signifying “western Goths” and “eastern Goths” respectively. The western–eastern division was a simplification (and a literary device) of 6th-century historians political realities were more complex. Both tribes had variable relations with Rome throughout their history, ranging from direct conflict to treaties and mutual support.


Theodoric the Great

King of the Ostrogoths and conqueror of Italy, Theodoric the Great (c. 453-526) was the second barbarian to rule as king in Italy after the fall of the Roman Empire in 476.

Theodoric was the son of Theudemir, king of the Ostrogoths, a Germanic people who moved into the Roman Empire in the 5th century and who were initially retained as military allies by the Roman emperors. Theodoric was born in Pannonia. In 461, in keeping with barbarian-Roman custom, he was sent to the imperial court at Constantinople as a hostage for his people's behavior. He attracted imperial attention and received a Roman education before returning to his people in 471.

Upon his father's death in 474, Theodoric became king of the Ostrogoths. He was a vigorous and intelligent ruler, and although allied with Rome, he disliked Roman officials and possibly the terms of the treaty allying him with the Romans. On several occasions he threatened Roman settlements, and in 487 he began a march on Constantinople. The emperor Zeno convinced Theodoric that the Western part of the empire offered richer plunder than the East, and he commissioned Theodoric to go to Italy and to punish the barbarian general Odoacer, who had in 476 dismissed Zeno's coemperor and assumed his rule. Theodoric's mission was to defeat Odoacer and pacify Italy.

Theodoric marched into Italy, and by 493 he had defeated Odoacer's army, killed the usurper, and established himself with the official title of Patrician and Master of Soldiers as the actual ruler of Italy. His position, however, was not secure. He had been given his Italian commission primarily to prevent him from capturing Constantinople. His titles did not prevent Roman aristocrats in both East and West from regarding him as an uncouth barbarian invader, little better than Odoacer. Moreover, Theodoric and the Ostrogoths were Arians, their heretical version of Christianity being particularly repellent to orthodox Romans.

Theodoric's Roman education, however, offered him a means of reconciling some of the profound differences between Goths and Romans. He genuinely admired many of the Romans' social institutions, and he employed as ministers Roman aristocrats, first the philosopher Boethius and later the statesman and author Casiodorus. Theodoric retained royal title over his own subjects, but he did not claim to be king of the Romans in Italy. He depended upon his "official" status as Master of Soldiers, and his documents consistently echoed his view that the Goths were in Italy only to protect and to preserve Roman civilization by force of arms. His personal "Romanism" and the propaganda work of his subordinate officials thus made him and his people, for a time at least, acceptable to the Romans. Theodoric ruled from Ravenna, not Rome, and he beautified his capital with magnificent architectural works. He restored cities, cultivated the arts, and repeatedly announced his admiration of Roman antiquity.

After 507, however, the Arianism of the Goths and their presence in Italy began increasingly to alienate the Romans. In a fit of cruelty, Theodoric imprisoned and later executed his secretary, Boethius. The growing hostility of the Emperor at Constantinople made Theodoric distrustful of the Romans, and he persecuted Pope John I in 526 and later demanded that all churches be turned over to the Arians. During the last years of his reign, Theodoric attempted to rule within a loose framework of Roman institutions and pro-Roman propaganda. However, rebellions sprang up, his Gothic subjects grew restive under Roman rule, and the military power of the East fomented distrust and revolt among the Romans. When Theodoric died in 526, he was succeeded by his grandson Athalaric under the regency of Theodoric's daughter Amalasuntha.


This Ansis earned his moniker during the century-long Halo Scourge's Invasion. His dedication to the Imperium was only equaled by his strategic acumen. Of all the Eagles' leaders, he is described as the coldest, a determined and patient warrior, who rose to prominence among his more savage brethren because he was deadly in battle and so charismatic that none dare pretend that he wasn't fit to lead grand-sons of the Khan. He is also the only Ansis widely known by the Imperium.

Indeed, where his predecessors were content to preserve the Chapter's memories in song, legends and allegorical stories, he was the first to establish an actual archive, where data was compiled scrupulously, even if he never managed -indeed, never wanted- to change the Marauding Eagles favored means of preserving their past. He was also one of the very few Ansis to lead his chapter away from Gauntgund and the savage border this world lies on, participating in several minor but still important actions with the larger Imperium.


Ancient Rome—Fall of Empire

Military Anarchy—The 43-year Severan dynasty was brought to an abrupt end at the hands of Maximinus , a Thracian barbarian of enormous physical strength who had risen to a high position in the emperor's private guard. He had served the Severan family for over thirty years when he suddenly murdered Alexander Severus , seized the throne, and plunged the imperial government into chaos. He killed his enemies, which included virtually anyone from the ruling classes without mercy. He was murdered by his own troops after three wretched years in power, but the empire never recovered from this upheaval. The military anarchy which followed lasted until the reign of Diocletian , saw over twenty emperors in the space of fifty years, only one of whom died a natural death. None were distinguished, and the only notable event of the period was the rebellion of Queen Zenobia in Syria. She came close to conquering the eastern half of the Roman empire, but was put down by the emperor Aurelian in 272.

Diocletian and Constantine— Diocletian , who came to the throne in 284, finally brought order to an empire in chaos. He divided the empire into four districts, two in the east and two in the west, and appointed a junior and senior governor of each division (called caesar and emperor respectively). Upon the death or retirement of the emperor, the caesar would be elevated to emperor and appoint another caesar. This system worked for exactly one generation, but it allowed Diocletian to retire in peace and die a natural death, an accomplishment nearly unprecedented in imperial history.

A LARIC RECEIVING PRESENTS FROM THE A THENIANS
One of the caesars appointed by Diocletian was Constantius, the father of Constantine . When Constantius died, Constantine was elected to replace him. He spent the early part of his reign consolidating power by fighting off rivals from both the east and west. The second half of his reign was dedicated to civil reforms and building his new capital at Constantinople. Most notably, Constantine was the first Christian emperor, and his edict of Milan in 313 made Christian worship legal throughout the empire. From this point on, with the exception only of Julian the Apostate , the imperial court was at least nominally Christian.

The peace and prosperity which took root during the thirty year reign of Constantine was short lived. On his death the empire was divided among his three sons but they quarreled among themselves while the empire sunk slowly back into disorder. All of Constantine's sons died without heirs, and after the death of his nephew, Julian the Apostate, the empire was permanently divided into an eastern and a western half. The only remaining emperor of note was Theodosius , who ably governed the eastern empire from 379 to 395, and put down some of the early Visigoth invaders . He is remembered for his willingness to do public penance for the slaughter of the Thessalonians, which was imposed on him by Ambrose , Bishop of Milan. The idea that even emperors were subject to the laws of God was a radically new idea that made a permanent mark upon Western civilization.

Fall of the Western Empire—Meanwhile, the empire of the west was already suffering from waves of barbarian invaders that the government was powerless to put down. By the time that the city of Rome was overrun by the Visigoths in 410, most of Gaul had already been abandoned to the invading Franks and the legions had been pulled from Britain in hopes of defending Italy.

The waves of barbarians that descended upon Italy during the fifth century only finished off a process that was already under way. The Western empire had ceded much of its territory without a fight, most wealthy families had moved away from Rome and the emperor himself had moved to Ravenna. By the time the city of Rome was invaded there was not even an army to send in its defense, since the cowardly Honorius , who sought only to appease the Visigoths, had murdered Stilicho , his most capable general. Still, the Visigoth invasion of 410 was mild compared to that of the Vandals , who plundered the city to ruin in 455. The Visigoths were at least Christian, semi-civilized, and desired a treaty with the Western Empire that would allow them self-governing territories. This they eventually obtained, and a Visigoth empire was established in Spain shortly after the death of Alaric the Visigoth . The Visigoths were allies of the Western Empire as long as it lasted and helped to ward off Attila the Hun , who overran Western Europe in 450.

By this time the area actually controlled by the Western emperor was reduced to Italy, and when it passed from the last Roman emperor, Romulus Augustus, to the barbarian chief Odoacer in 476, it caused hardly a ripple. Odoacer was soon overthrown by Theodoric the Ostrogoth , who ruled Italy for many years but made no pretense of being an emperor. Ten years later, the last Gallo-Roman province of France, was conquered by Clovis . At that point, all of the old Roman provinces in Gaul, Hispania, and Italy were controled by German chieftains, who preserved some of the old Roman customs, but governed as independent commanders.

Christianity and Church Fathers—As the western empire collapsed, the power and influence of Christianity increased. Because of the fluid organization of the church, it was able to adapt and grow in an environment of political unrest. Kingdoms, chieftains, and empires might come and go, but the church provided a degree of continuity and civilization that was increasingly attractive to citizens of the collapsed empire. Many important leaders of the church who arose during this time of chaos while political powers rose and fell. Some of the influential christian leaders who lived during the decline of the Roman Empire were St. Jerome , Augustine of Hippo , Ambrose , Eusebius, Athanasius , and Benedict of Nursia .


Religion [ edit | edit source ]

In about 520 the philosopher Boethius became his magister officiorum (head of all the government and court services). Boethius was a man of science, a dedicated Hellenist bent on translating all the works of Aristotle into Latin and harmonizing them with the works of Plato. Eventually Boethius fell out of favor with Theoderic, perhaps out of a suspicion that he was in sympathy with Justinian, emperor of the East, for Arian Theoderic was always somewhat of an outsider among Nicaean Christians. Theoderic ordered Boethius executed in 525.

In the meantime Cassiodorus had succeeded Boethius as magister in 523. The pliant historian and courtier could be counted on to provide refined touches to official correspondence. "To the monarch you [Cassiodorus] were a friendly judge and an honored intimate. For when he got free of his official cares he looked to your conversation for the precepts of the sages, that he might make himself a worthy equal to the great men of old. Ever curious, he wanted to hear about the courses of the stars, the tides of the sea, and legendary fountains, that his earnest study of natural science might make him seem to be a veritable philosopher in the purple" (Cassiodorus' letterbook, Variae 9.24.8). The gulf was widening between the ancient senatorial aristocracy whose center was Rome and the adherents of Gothic rule at Ravenna: other distinguished public figures followed Boethius to the block.

Theoderic in his final years was no longer the disengaged Arian patron of religious toleration that he had seemed earlier in his reign. "Indeed, his death cut short what could well have developed into a major persecution of Catholic churches in retaliation for measures taken by Justinian in Constantinople against Arians there" Β]

Theoderic was of Arian faith. At the end of his reign quarrels arose with his Roman subjects and the Byzantine emperor Justin I over the Arianism issue. Relations between the two nations deteriorated, although Theoderic's ability dissuaded the Byzantines from waging war against him. After his death, that reluctance faded quickly.


Theodoric Essay

Theodoric the Great was king of the Germanic tribe of the Ostrogoths, who dominated the western Balkans in the fifth century c.e. He received a Roman education during his teenage years spent as a political hostage in Constantinople under the watchful eyes of the Byzantine government. When he returned to his people, Theodoric took up arms against the empire and gained additional land, a position in the Byzantine military command, and imperial rank. Faced with a powerful and sometimes hostile neighbor, Byzantine emperor Zeno encouraged Theodoric to attack Italy where another German, Odovacar, had deposed the last legitimate Roman ruler, Romulus Augustulus. Theodoric and his Ostrogoths migrated to Italy, defeated Odovacar, and ruled as the representative of the Byzantine emperor. His capital was in the northeastern Italian city of Ravenna, located on the Adriatic Sea.

As ruler of Italy, Theodoric attended to the redevelopment of this land. He encouraged settlement to areas that had been depopulated due to war and fostered agricultural production and trade. He was also concerned with the repairing and building of walls, aqueducts, churches, and other buildings in Roman cities. Several of his impressive monuments still stand in Ravenna, including the Church of St. Apollinare Nuovo, the Arian Baptistery, and his own mausoleum.

Although a German king, Theodoric respected Roman traditions. Since the majority of the subject population was Roman, Theodoric respected prevailing structures of government, from local urban magistrates to the Roman Senate, as well as Roman law. Many Romans served in his court, such as Boethius and Cassiodorus, two of the most important Latin authors of the period. Even the pope and the Roman Senate received him in the city of Rome, where he stayed for a short period before returning to Ravenna. Besides developing a certain harmony between cultures, Theodoric was also a shrewd and powerful German king, cognizant of the reality of German power in the West. He sought to expand his kingdom and also to secure his position. He married a sister of Clovis, the king of the Franks and founder of the Merovingian dynasty, and joined his family by marriage to the kings of the Vandals, Visigoths, and Burgundians.

The Italian cultural harmony was made more difficult by the fact that the Ostrogoths were Arian Christians, while the Roman population was Orthodox Christian. They differed theologically over their understanding of Jesus’s relationship to God the Father, whether he was created (Arian) or begotten (Orthodox). The Orthodox condemned Arian theology at the Council of Nicaea (325) and Council of Constantinople (381). At first Germans and Romans joined together as allies against the East. But when rapprochement occurred between Rome and Constantinople, Theodoric feared a Byzantine invasion with potential Roman support.

Making matters worse, the Byzantine government began to persecute Arians in the early 520s. Theodoric commenced a more hostile approach to his Roman population. Roman officials were accused of collaboration and arrested, among them Boethius, who wrote his Consolation of Philosophy while awaiting his execution. Theodoric sent the pope to negotiate with Constantinople but did not trust him and, upon his return, imprisoned him. Theodoric died in 526, only a few years before the start of the Byzantine invasion that did, in fact, end Ostrogothic rule.


Stamboom Homs » Theodoric "the Great" King of the Ostrogoths (Theodoric "the Great") "King of the Ostrogoths" King of the Ostrogoths (± 454-526)

(1) He had a relationship with Theodora of the Goths .

Notes about Theodoric "the Great" King of the Ostrogoths (Theodoric "the Great") "King of the Ostrogoths" King of the Ostrogoths

Theodoric the Great
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Theodoric the Great (454 - August 30, 526), known to the Romans as Flavius Theodoricus, was king of the Ostrogoths (488-526), ruler of Italy (493-526), and regent of the Visigoths (511-526).
Contents
[hide]

* 1 Biography
* 2 Assessment
* 3 Family
* 4 Fictional treatments
* 5 Further reading
* 6 Sources
* 7 External links

The man who ruled under the name of Theodoric (Gothic Þiudareiks, meaning "King of the People") was born in 454 on the banks of the Neusiedler See near Carnuntum, a year after the Ostrogoths had thrown off nearly a century of domination by the Huns. The son of the King Theodemir, Theodoric went to Constantinople as a young boy, as a hostage to secure the Ostrogoths' compliance with a treaty Theodemir had concluded with the Byzantine Emperor Leo.

He lived at the court of Constantinople for many years and learned a great deal about Roman government and military tactics, which served him well when he became the Goth ruler of a mixed but largely Romanized people. Treated with favor by the Emperors Leo I and Zeno, he became Magister militum (or Master of Soldiers) in 483, and one year later he became consul. He afterwards returned to live among the Ostrogoths when he was 20 years old, and became their king in 488.

At the time, the Ostrogoths were settled in Byzantine territory as foederati (allies) of the Romans, but were becoming restless and increasingly difficult for Zeno to manage. Not long after Theodoric became king, the two men worked out an arrangement beneficial to both sides. The Ostrogoths needed a place to live, and Zeno was having serious problems with Odoacer, the King of Italy who had overthrown the western Roman Empire in 476. Ostensibly a viceroy for Zeno, Odoacer was menacing Byzantine territory and not respecting the rights of Roman citizens in Italy. At Zeno's encouragement, Theodoric invaded Odoacer's kingdom.

Theodoric came with his army to Italy in 488, where he won the Battle of Isonzo (489) and at the Battle of Milan (489) and at the Adda in 490. In 493 he took Ravenna. Odoacer surrendered and was killed by Theodoric himself.

Like Odoacer, Theodoric was ostensibly only a viceroy for the emperor in Constantinople. In reality, he was able to avoid imperial supervision, and dealings between the emperor and Theodoric were as equals. However, unlike Odoacer, Theodoric respected the agreement he had made and allowed Roman citizens within his kingdom to be subject to Roman law and the Roman judicial system. The Goths, meanwhile, lived under their own laws and customs.

Theodoric the Great was allied with the Franks by his marriage to Audofleda, sister of Clovis I, and with the Visigoths, Vandals and Burgundian kings. Clovis I's ambitions to also rule over the Goths brought on intermittent warfare between 506 and 523. For much of his reign, Theodoric was the de facto king of the Visigoths as well, becoming regent for the infant Visigothic king, his grand-son Amalric, around 505. The Franks under Clovis were able to wrest control of Aquitaine from the Visigoths in 507, defeating Alaric II, but otherwise, Theodoric was able to defeat their incursions. In 515, Theodorich married his daughter Amalasuntha to Eutharic, but Eutharic died shortly after this, so no lasting dynastic connection of Ostrogoths and Visigoths was established.

Theodoric also stopped the Vandals from raiding his territories by threatening the weak Vandal king Thrasamund with invasion. In 519, when a mob had burned down the synagogues of Ravenna, Theodoric ordered the town to rebuild them at its own expense.
[edit]

Theodoric the Goth was no Frank or Hun. He had great respect for the Roman culture he saw himself as representing.[citation needed] He had an eye for outstanding talent.[citation needed] In about 520 the philosopher Boethius became his magister officiorum, (head of all the government and court services). Boethius was a man of science, a dedicated Hellenist bent on translating all the works of Aristotle into Latin and harmonizing them with the works of Plato, not an easy task. Eventually Boethius fell out of favor with Theodoric, perhaps out of a suspicion that he was in sympathy with Justinian, emperor of the East, for Arian Theodoric was always somewhat of an outsider among these Christians. Theodoric ordered Boethius executed in 525. In the meantime Cassiodorus had succeeded Boethius as magister in 523. The pliant historian and courtier could be counted on to provide refined touches to official correspondence. "To the monarch you [Cassiodorus] were a friendly judge and an honored intimate. For when he got free of his official cares he looked to your conversation for the precepts of the sages, that he might make himself a worthy equal to the great men of old. Ever curious, he wanted to hear about the courses of the stars, the tides of the sea, and legendary fountains, that his earnest study of natural science might make him seem to be a veritable philosopher in the purple" (Cassiodorus' letterbook, Variae 9.24.8). The gulf was widening between the ancient senatorial aristocracy whose center was Rome and the adherents of Gothic rule at Ravenna: other distinguished public figures followed Boethius to the block. Theodoric in his final years was no longer the disengaged Arian patron of religious toleration that he had seemed earlier in his reign. "Indeed, his death cut short what could well have developed into a major persecution of Catholic churches in retaliation for measures taken by Justin in Constantinople against Arians there" O'Donnell 1979, ch. 1.

Theodoric was of Arian faith. At the end of his reign quarrels arose with his Roman subjects and the Byzantine emperor Justin I over the Arianism issue. Relations between the two nations deteriorated, although Theodoric's ability dissuaded the Byzantines from waging war against him. After his death, that reluctance faded quickly. Theodoric the Great was interred in Ravenna. His mausoleum is one of the finest monuments in Ravenna.
[edit]

Theodoric was born in 454 as the child of king Theodemir, and Erelieva. He was married twice. It is not known who his first wife was, but he had two children with her: Arevagni and Theodegotho. His second wife was Audofleda with whom he had Amalasuntha.

After his death in Ravenna in 526, Theodoric was succeeded by his grandson Athalaric. Athalaric was at first represented by his mother, Amalasuntha, who was a regent queen from 526 till 534. The kingdom of the Ostrogoths however began to wane, and was conquered by Justinian I from 535, finally ending in 553 with the Battle of Mons Lactarius.
[edit]

Theodoric's afterlife was described in epic poetry. Dietrich von Bern in the German epic Nibelungenlied is based on Theodoric the Great. He is also mentioned on the Rök Stone, carved in Sweden in the 800s, and in the Old English Deor and Widsith poems.

A fictionalized, but impressively researched, version of Theodoric's career is presented in Raptor, a novel by Gary Jennings.

The German historian Felix Dahn wrote a fictional treatment on the end of the Ostrogoth kingdom that was influential in spreading a 'völkische' view on the early middle ages and glorified heroism in the face of certain defeat.
[edit]

* John Moorhead, 1992. Theoderic in Italy (Oxford: Oxford University Press) ISBN 0-19-814781-3

Preceded by:
Theodemir King of the Ostrogoths
488–526 Succeeded by:
Athalaric
Preceded by:
Odoacer King of Italy
493–526
[edit]

* O'Donnell, James J. 1979, Cassiodorus. (University of California Press) [1]

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# ID: I19650
# Name: Theodoric Ist King of the OSTROGOTHS 1 2 3 4 5 6
# Sex: M
# Birth: ABT 453 1 2 3 4 5 6
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2 SOUR S332582
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4 TEXT Date of Import: 14 Jan 2004

Father: Theodomir "Amaling" King of the OSTROGOTHS b: ABT 433
Mother: CRELIEVA b: ABT 433 in X

Marriage 1 Andelfida Princess of the FRANKS** b: ABT 469

1. Has Children Theodoric II of OSTROGOTHS b: ABT 484

Marriage 2 Princess Of The Ostrogoths THEODORA b: 477

1. Has Children Lady Of The Ostrogoths THEODOGOTHO b: 480
2. Has Children Lady Of The Ostrogoths THEODOSIA b: 515

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Parents:
*King Theodemir of the Ostrogoths (449-474)
*Ereleuva, Concubine of Theodemir

Siblings:
*1. Amalafrida (d. 523/525), Queen of the Vandals (500-523)
*3. Theodimund, military leader in 479 campaign
*4. Unknown daughter of Theodemir (d. c479)

Spouse: Audofledis of the Salian Franks
*Child: Amalasuintha (c493 - 535), Queen of Italy

Concubine: Woman of Moesia
*Children:
**1. Theodegotha/Thiudigotho, wife of Alaric II, King of the Visigoths
**2. Ostrogotho (475/480 - before 520), wife of King Sigismund of Burgundy

No other relationships should be attached to this person without a source provided. (Note: A Theodoric I of the Visigoths does exist, who had 8 children, though these should be peeled off this Theodoric's tree by now. There were also Theodoric IIs in both the Amal and Balti families. To underscore the confusion between all the Theodorics, it should be noted that the painting given as a picture of the Ostrogoth Theodoric on the Italian Wikipedia page is actually of the Visigoth Theodoric, who died at the Battle of Chalons.)

Basic information and justifications:

Birth: 454 - Lake Nieusidl, Pannonia (based on Theodoric the Goth, by Thomas Hodgkin, with corroboration by English Wikipedia that names the Neusiedler See/Lake Neusiedl near ancient Carnuntum on the present Austrian-Hungarian border)

Death: 26 August 526 - Ravenna, Italy (no longer Roman Empire after 476)

Burial: Mausoleo di Teodorico (an entry on Find-A-Grave designates this as the Santa Maria Rotonda, but this name does not appear on either the English or Italian Wikipedia entries, and is probably not a locally used name for the mausoleum: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mausoleum_of_Theodoric).

No baptismal information as yet (though it appears that the Mormons have him "christened" in 510 for no readily apparent reason).

Occupation: King of the Ostrogoths (474-526), Roman Viceroy/King of Italy (493-526), Regent for Amalric of the Visigoths (507-526)

Mostly from Wikipedia. He was Roman Viceroy in Italy, but was wholly independent of rule from Constantinople, thus the King label (also, his daughter would become Queen of Italy after his death).

Alternate names: Flavius Amalus Theodericus, Theodericus, Þiudareiks/Thiudareiks, Θευδέριχος/Theυderichos, Þēodrīc/Theodric, Theoderich der Große, Þjóðrekr/Thiodrekr, Þiðrek/Thidrek, Teodorico el Grande, Théodoric le Grand, Teoderik den store, Theodorik de Grote, Teodorico il Grande, Теодорих Великий/Teodorikh Velikiy, among others from FMG and Wikipedia (various languages)

From the Foundation for Medieval Genealogy page on Italy:

THEODORIC, son of THEODEMIR King of the Ostrogoths in Pannonia & his concubine Ereleuva --- ([451][262]-Ravenna 30 Aug 526).

Iordanes names "Theodericum" as son of Theodemir, in a later passage naming his mother "Erelieva concubina"[263]. Herimannus names "Theodericus, Theodmari filius, rex Ostrogothorum" when recording his arrival in Italy[264].

He was sent as a hostage to Constantinople at the age of 7 in [459/61], returning in [469/70] to assume control of the part of the kingdom formerly ruled by his uncle Valamir, under his father as overall king[265].

He left Pannonia with his father in [473], settling at Kyrrhos in Macedonia where his father named him as his successor in 474. However, by 476 Theodoric had moved back across the Danube and settled in lower Moesia in the city of Novae-Svištov.

While Emperor Zeno was planning to resettle his contingent in Dacia, Theodoric marched westwards to join his relative Sidimund at Durazzo[266]. He marched against Greece in 482 and forced Emperor Zeno to conclude a treaty under which Theodoric was named consul for 484 at Constantinople and given Dacia ripensis and parts of lower Moesia[267].

He acquired Roman citizenship to serve as consul, adopting the name FLAVIUS AMALUS THEODERICUS[268]. Procopius records that “duce Theoderico” was "patricius" and later was appointed to the "consularem" by Byzantium[269].

In 487, he began an offensive against Constantinople, but was bought off by rich presents brought by his half-sister Amalafrida. He led the Ostrogoths on the move again in 488 into Italy, where he put King Odovacar to flight in Aug 489. Theodoric captured Verona, then Milan and Pavia, establishing his capital in the latter[270]. King Odovacar counter-attacked, but was again defeated 11 Aug 490. He compromised with Theodoric in Feb 493, agreeing to joint rule over Italy, but Theodoric captured and personally killed Odovacar after entering Ravenna[271].

He was proclaimed THEODORIC "the Great" King of Italy[272] by the Gothic army in Mar 493, with his capital at Ravenna. He was recognised as ruler in the west by Emperor Anastasius at Constantinople in 498[273]. Relations with the Franks, cemented by King Theodoric's marriage in [492], deteriorated somewhat in [506] when the Franks persecuted the Alamanni who were under Theodoric's protection[274]. However, despite the close family ties with the Visigothic kingdom after his daughter's marriage with the Visigothic king, King Theodoric was unable or unwilling to provide the necessary military support for his son-in-law against the Franks at the battle of the Vouillé in 507[275].

King Theodoric acted nominally as regent in the kingdom of the Visigoths 507-526 during the minority of his grandson Amalric King of the Visigoths, but declared himself king of the Visigothic kingdom in 511, although he appointed his sword-bearer Teudis (who later succeeded as king of the Visigoths) as governor[276]. He annexed the Visigothic territory between the Alps and the Rhône to the kingdom of Italy, and re-established the Gallic prefecture at Arles in 510[277].

The Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica records the death in 526 of "Theudoricus rex Gothorum in urbe Ravenna"[278]. He died from dysentery[279].

m ([492]) AUDOFLEDIS, daughter of CHILDERIC I King of the Franks & his wife Basina ---.

Gregory of Tours names Audofleda as the sister of King Clovis, recording that she married Theodoric King of Italy[280]. Iordanes records the marriage of Theodoric and "Lodoin Francorum regem filiam eius Audefledam" and names her brothers "Celdebertum et Heldebertum et Thiudebertum"[281], although this is presumably an incorrect reference to her nephews and great-nephew with similar names.

Iordanes records that Theodoric's two daughters were born "ex concubina…in Moesia" before his marriage to Audofledis[282]. The name of the concubine of Theodoric is not known.

King Theodoric & his wife had one daughter:

1. AMALASUINTHA [Amalswinde] ([493]-murdered [30 Apr] 535).

Iordanes names "Amalasuentham" as daughter of Theodoric[283]. Gregory of Tours records that King Theodoric left his wife Audofleda "with a small daughter…Amalasuntha" when he died[284], although this appears misleading with regard to her age bearing in mind the chronology of events established in other sources. In a passage which appears to be a complete fabrication, Gregory records that Amalasuntha eloped with one of her slaves, Traguilla, who was later killed by her mother's emissaries who brought Amalasuntha back after "a good beating". Gregory then recounts that she murdered her mother by poisoning her communion chalice, but was herself killed by "Theudat King of Tuscany" whom the people had called to rule over them[285]. This story may have been Gregory's way of justifying King Theodebert's subsequent attack on Italy, the account of which follows in the succeeding paragraph. She was regent in Italy for her son in 526. Procopius records that “ex filia nepos Atalaricus” succeeded on the death of "Theoderico" under the rule of "Amalasuntha matre"[286]. She renounced the territory north of the River Durance in favour of the Burgundians in 530 in the name of her son[287]. On the death of her son in 534, she declared herself AMALASUINTHA Queen of Italy, appointing her cousin Theodahad as co-regent. Theodahad arrested her end-534 and imprisoned her on an island in Lake Bolsena, where "after spending a very few days in sorrow, she was strangled in the bath by his hirelings" according to Jordanes[288].

m (515) EUTHARICH [Eutarico], son of VETERIC & his wife --- (-[522/23]). Iordanes names "Eutharicum" as son of "Vetericus" and as husband of "Amalasuentham" and father of their two children[289]. The Chronicle of Cassiodorus records the marriage in 515 of "Theodericus filiam usam dominam Amalasuintam" and "gloriosi viri dn Eutharici"[290]. Eutharic was adopted by Emperor Justin in recognition of his father-in-law's decision to designate him as his successor after his marriage. He was given Roman citizenship and became first consul in 519 as FLAVIUS EUTHARICUS CILLIGA[291]. Wolfram estimates that Eutharich died in [522/23][292]. Jordanes specifies that Eutharich predeceased King Theodoric's nomination of his son Athalaric as his successor.

Eutharic & Amalasuintha had two children.

King Theodoric had two illegitimate daughters by his concubine:

2. THEODEGOTHA [Thiudigotho].

Iordanes names "unam…Thiudigoto et aliam Ostrogotho" as the two daughters of Theodoric born "ex concubina…in Moesia" before his marriage to Audofledis, specifying that they came to Italy and were married "unam Alarico Vesegotharum et aliam Sigismundo Burgundzonorum"[300]. Procopius records that “regi Visigothorum Alarico” married "Theoderici…Theudichusam virginem filiam"[301].

m ([494][302]) ALARIC II King of the Visigoths, son of EURIC King of the Visigoths & his wife --- (-killed in battle Poitiers 507).

3. OSTROGOTHO ([475/80]-before [520]).

Iordanes names "unam…Thiudigoto et aliam Ostrogotho" as the two daughters of Theodoric born "ex concubina…in Moesia" before his marriage to Audofledis, specifying that they came to Italy and were married "unam Alarico Vesegotharum et aliam Sigismundo Burgundzonorum"[303]. Her father arranged her marriage as part of his negotiations for an alliance with the Burgundians. According to Settipani[304], this marriage took place soon after Theoderic arrived in Italy. Wolfram suggests[305] that Theodoric's alliance with the Burgundians was settled in 496.

m ([494/96]) as his first wife, SIGISMUND of Burgundy, son of GONDEBAUD King of Burgundy & his wife Caratena (-murdered 523, bur Agaune). He succeeded his father in 516 as SIGISMUND King of Burgundy.

[262] Wolfram, H. (1998) History Of The Goths (Berkeley, California), p. 262.

[263] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, pp. 77 and 128.

[264] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 482, MHG SS V, p. 84.

[265] Wolfram (1998), p. 267. According to Settipani, C. and Kerrebrouck, P. van (1993) La préhistoire des Capétiens 481-987, 1ère partie, Mérovingiens, Carolingiens et Robertiens (Villeneuve d'Ascq), p. 52, Theoderic returned in [475].

[268] Wolfram (1998), pp. 277 and 286.

[269] Procopius, Vol. II, De Bello Gothico I.1, p. 7.

[272] His title was Flavius Theodericus rex, rather than rex Gothorum, see Wolfram (1998), p. 286.

[278] Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica 526, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 235.

[280] Gregory of Tours III.31, p. 187.

[281] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 131.

[282] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 131.

[283] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 77.

[284] Gregory of Tours III.31, p. 187.

[285] Gregory of Tours III.31, pp. 187-8.

[286] Procopius, Vol. II, De Bello Gothico I.2, p. 12.

[289] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 77 and 123.

[290] Cassiodori Senatoris Chronica 515, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 159.

[292] Wolfram (1998), p. 521 footnote 490..

[300] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 131.

[301] Procopius, Vol. II, De Bello Gothico I.12, p. 65.

[302] Date estimated on the basis of the marriage taking place soon after King Theoderic came to Italy, which is suggested by Iordanes.

[303] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 131.

[304] Settipani (1993), p. 61, footnote 97.

English Wikipedia page on Theodoric the Great:

Theodoric the Great (Gothic: Þiudareiks Latin: Flāvius Theodericus Greek: Θευδέριχος, (Theυ'ðerichos, [θɛuˈðɛrixos]) Old English: Þēodrīc German: Theoderich der Große Old Norse: Þjóðrekr, Þiðrek 454 – August 30, 526), was king of the Ostrogoths (471-526),[1] ruler of Italy (493–526), regent of the Visigoths (511–526), and a viceroy of the Eastern Roman Empire.

His Gothic name "Þiuda reiks" translates into "people's king". He became a hero of Germanic legend.

The man who ruled under the name of Theodoric was born in 454 AD on the banks of the Neusiedler See near Carnuntum, a year after the Ostrogoths had thrown off nearly a century of domination by the Huns. The son of the King Theodemir and Erelieva, Theodoric went to Constantinople as a young boy, as a hostage to secure the Ostrogoths' compliance with a treaty Theodemir had concluded with the Byzantine Emperor Leo.

He lived at the court of Constantinople for many years and learned a great deal about Roman government and military tactics, which served him well when he became the Gothic ruler of a mixed but largely Romanized "barbarian people". Treated with favor by the Emperors Leo I and Zeno, he became magister militum (Master of Soldiers) in 483, and one year later he became consul. Afterwards, he returned to live among the Ostrogoths when he was 31 years old and became their king in 488.

Maximum extent of territories ruled by Theodoric, in 523.At the time, the Ostrogoths were settled in Byzantine territory as foederati (allies) of the Romans, but were becoming restless and increasingly difficult for Zeno to manage. Not long after Theodoric became king, the two men worked out an arrangement beneficial to both sides. The Ostrogoths needed a place to live, and Zeno was having serious problems with Odoacer, the King of Italy who had overthrown the Western Roman Empire in 476. Ostensibly a viceroy for Zeno, Odoacer was menacing Byzantine territory and not respecting the rights of Roman citizens in Italy. At Zeno's encouragement, Theodoric invaded Odoacer's kingdom.

Theodoric came with his army to Italy in 488, where he won the battles of Isonzo and Verona in 489 and at the Adda in 490. In 493 he took Ravenna. On February 2, 493, Theodoric and Odoacer signed a treaty that assured both parties would rule over Italy. A banquet was organised in order to celebrate this treaty. It was at this banquet that Theodoric, after making a toast, killed Odoacer with his own hands.

Like Odoacer, Theodoric was ostensibly only a viceroy for the emperor in Constantinople. In reality, he was able to avoid imperial supervision, and dealings between the emperor and Theodoric were as equals. Unlike Odoacer, however, Theodoric respected the agreement he had made and allowed Roman citizens within his kingdom to be subject to Roman law and the Roman judicial system. The Goths, meanwhile, lived under their own laws and customs. In 519, when a mob had burned down the synagogues of Ravenna, Theodoric ordered the town to rebuild them at its own expense.

Theodoric the Great sought alliances with, or hegemony over, the other Germanic kingdoms in the west. He allied with the Franks by his marriage to Audofleda, sister of Clovis I, and married his own female relatives to princes or kings of the Visigoths, Vandals and Burgundian. He stopped the Vandals from raiding his territories by threatening the weak Vandal king Thrasamund with invasion, and sent a guard of 5,000 troops with his sister Amalafrida when she married Thrasamund in 500. For much of his reign, Theodoric was the de facto king of the Visigoths as well, becoming regent for the infant Visigothic king, his grandson Amalric, following the defeat of Alaric II by the Franks under Clovis in 507. The Franks were able to wrest control of Aquitaine from the Visigoths, but otherwise Theodoric was able to defeat their incursions.

Thedoric's achievements began to unravel even before his death. He had married his daughter Amalasuntha to the Visigoth Eutharic, but Eutharic died in 522 or 523, so no lasting dynastic connection of Ostrogoths and Visigoths was established. In 522, the Catholic Burgundian king Sigismund killed his own son, Theodoric's grandson, Sergeric. Theodoric retaliated by invading the Burgundian kingdom and then annexing its southern part, probably in 523. The rest was ruled by Sigismund's Arian brother Godomar, under Gothic protection against the Franks who had captured Sigismund. This brought the territory ruled by Theodoric to its height (see map), but in 523 or 524 the new Catholic Vandal king Hilderic imprisoned Amalfrida and killed her Gothic guard. Theodoric was planning an expedition to restore his power over the Vandal kingdom when he died in 526.

Theodoric was married once.

He had a concubine in Moesia, name unknown, and had two daughters:

1. Theodegotha (ca. 473 – ?). In 494, she was married to Alaric II as a part of her father's alliance with the Visigoths.

2. Ostrogotha or Arevagni (ca. 475 – ?). In 494 or 496, she was married to the king Sigismund of Burgundy as a part of her father's alliance with the Burgundians.

Married to Audofleda in 493 and had one daughter:

2a. Amalasuntha, Queen of the Goths. She was married to Eutharic and had two children: Athalaric and Matasuentha (the latter being married to Witiges first, then, after Witiges' death, married to Germanus Justinus, neither had children). Any hope for a reconciliation between the Goths and the Romans in the person of a Gotho-Roman Emperor from this family lineage was shattered.

After his death in Ravenna in 526, Theodoric was succeeded by his grandson Athalaric. Athalaric was at first represented by his mother Amalasuntha, who was a regent queen from 526 until 534. The kingdom of the Ostrogoths, however, began to wane and was conquered by Justinian I starting after the rebellion of 535 and finally ending in 553 with the Battle of Mons Lactarius.

Dietrich catches the dwarf Alfrich (1883), by Johannes Gehrts.Theodoric was included into epic poetry as Dietrich von Bern, who is depicted as the archetype of the wise and just ruler. The Encyclopædia Britannica (1911) noted that "the legendary history of Dietrich differs so widely from the life of Theodoric that it has been suggested that the two were originally unconnected." Anachronisms abound, for example in making Ermanaric (died 376) and Attila (died 453) contemporary with Theodoric (born 454). Bern is the Middle High German form of Verona, which was one of the historical Theodoric's residences.

Dietrich figures in a number of surviving works, and it must be assumed that these draw on long-standing oral tradition. He first appears in the Hildebrandslied and the Nibelungenlied, in neither of which is Dietrich a central character, and other epics, which were composed or written down after 1250. In Scandinavia he appears on the Rök Stone, carved in Sweden in the 800s, in Guðrúnarkviða II and III of the Poetic Edda and in Þiðrekssaga. He moreover appears in the Old English Waldere, Deor and Widsith poems.

The earliest evidence of the legend is provided by the heroic lay, the Hildebrandslied, recorded in around 820. In this, Hadubrand recounts the story of his father Hildebrand's flight eastwards in the company of Dietrich, to escape the enmity of Odoacer (this character would later become his uncle Ermanaric). Hildebrand reveals that he has lived in exile for 30 years. Hildebrand has an arm ring given to him by the (unnamed) King of the Huns, and is taken to be an "old Hun" by Hadubrand. The obliqueness of the references to the Dietrich legend, which is just the background to Hildebrand's story, indicates an audience thoroughly familiar with the material. In this work Dietrich's enemy is the historically correct Odoacer (though in fact Theodoric the Great was never exiled by Odoacer), indicating that the figure of Ermaneric belongs to a later development of the legend.

In the heroic epic the Nibelungenlied (c. 1200), Dietrich is living in exile at the court of Etzel (Attila), the Hunnish King. He fights on Etzel's side against the Burgundians, and his whole retinue apart from Hildebrand is slain. He ends the conflict by capturing Hagen and then Gunther in single combat.

The Norse saga deals with Dietrich's return home. The most familiar version is that by an Icelandic or Norwegian author writing in Norway in the 13th century, who compiled a consecutive account of Dietrich, with many additional episodes. This Norse prose version, known as the Þiðrekssaga (Thidrek's saga), incorporates much extraneous matter from the Nibelungen and Weyland legends.

The late Heinz Ritter-Schaumburg reinspected the Old Swedish version of the Thidreks saga for the historical information it supposedly contained, and firmly believed in its topographical accuracy. He theorized that these oldest of the "Dietrich" sources cannot refer to Theodoric the Great of the Goths, whose movements are moderately well known, mainly because of topographical contradictions. Ritter-Schaumburg proposed that their narration relates instead to a contemporary of the famous Goth, who bore the same name, rendered Didrik in Old Swedish. Moreover, he identified Berne as Bonn to which was ascribed, in the medieval age, an alternative (Latinized) name Verona of unknown origin. According to Ritter-Schaumburg, Dietrich lived as a Frankish petty king in Bonn.[2] This theory has found much opposition by other scholars.[3]

Another modern author, Rolf Badenhausen, starts from Ritter-Schaumburg's approach but ends up with a different result. He claims Berne, where Thidrek/Didrik started his rise, to be identical with Varne, south of Aachen, the Roman Verona cisalpina, in the district of the northern Rhine/Eiffel lands. Thidrek/Didrik could be identified with Theuderich son of Clovis I, a royal Frank mentioned with approval by Gregory of Tours and in Fredegar's royal Frankish chronicle.

In the Book of Bern (Buch von Bern) written in the late 13th century partly by Henry the Fowler, Dietrich tries to regain his empire with the help of the Huns.

In the collection of the Heldenbuch ("Book of Heroes"), Dietrich's story is related in Dietrichs Flucht ("Dietrich's Flight"), the Rabenschlacht ("The Battle of Ravenna") and Alpharts Tod ("Alphart's Death")

The legendary figure of Dietrich also appears in the 13th-century Rosengarten zu Worms ("Rosegarden at Worms"), the Epos of Biterolf, of Goldemar, of Ecke, Sigenot and Laurin.

An impressively researched, though fictionalized, version of Theodoric's career is presented in Raptor, a novel by Gary Jennings.

1.^ Grun, Bernard (1991) [1946]. The Timetable of History (New Third Revised Edition ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster. pp. 30–31. ISBN 0-671-74271-X.

2.^ Heinz Ritter-Schaumburg: Dietrich von Bern. König zu Bonn. Herbig: Munich / Berlin 1982

3.^ See, for example, the critical review by Henry Kratz, in The German Quarterly 56/4 (November 1983), p. 636-638.

Peter Heather, 1996, "The Goths" (Blackwell, Oxford)

O'Donnell, James J. 1979, Cassiodorus. (University of California Press) [1]

Encyclopaedia Britannica 1911: "Dietrich of Bern"

Rolf Badenhausen, "Merovingians by the Svava?": discussion based on the Skokloster Svava, Stockholm catalogued as Skokloster-Codex-I/115&116 quarto, E 9013.

John Moorhead, 1992. Theoderic in Italy (Oxford: Oxford University Press) ISBN 0-19-814781-3.

Theodoric the Great at MiddleAges.net

Theodoric the Goth, 1897, by Thomas Hodgkin, from Project Gutenberg

Theodoric the Great at the Catholic Encyclopedia

FMG on Theodoric the Great, King of Italy

The following passages, from Jordanes, Gaetica [The Origin and Deeds of the Goths], translated by Charles C. Mierow (Princeton Univ. Press, 1915) describes the family relationships of King Theodoric.

(Ben M. Angel notes: Gaetica, about as close as you'll come to primary source material on Theodoric and the Ostrogoths, is available online at:

The Origin and Deeds of the Goths

It was in the third year after his entrance into Italy, as we

have said, that Theodoric, by advice of the Emperor Zeno, laid aside the garb of a private citizen and the dress of his race and assumed a costume with a royal mantle, as he had now become the ruler over both Goths and Romans. He sent an embassy to Lodoin, king of the Franks, and asked for his daughter Audefleda in marriage.

(296) Lodoin freely and gladly gave her, and also his sons Celdebert and Heldebert and Thiudebert, believing that by this alliance a league would be formed and that they would be associated with the race of the Goths. But that union was of no avail for peace and harmony, for they fought fiercely with each other again and again for the lands of the Goths but never did the Goths yield to the Franks while Theodoric lived.

(297) Now before he had a child from Audefleda, Theodoric had children of a concubine, daughters begotten in Moesia, one named Thiudigoto and another Ostrogotho. Soon after he came to Italy, he gave them in marriage to neighboring kings, one to Alaric, king of the Visigoths, and the other to Sigismund, king of the Burgundians.

(298) Now Alaric begat Amalaric. While his grandfather Theodoric cared for and protected him--for he had lost both parents in the years of childhood--he found that Eutharic, the son of Veteric, grandchild of Beremud and Thorismud, and a descendant of the race of the Amali, was living in Spain, a young man strong in wisdom and valor and health of body. Theodoric sent for him and gave him his daughter Amalasuentha in marriage.

(299) And that he might extend his family as much as possible, he sent his sister Amalafrida (the mother of Theodahad, who was afterwards king) to Africa as wife of Thrasamund, king of the Vandals, and her daughter Amalaberga, who was his own niece, he united with Herminefred, king of the Thuringians.

(300) Now he sent his Count Pitza, chosen from among the chief men of his kingdom, to hold the city of Sirmium. He got possession of it by driving out its king Thrasaric, son of Thraustila, and keeping his mother captive. Thence he came with 2,000 infantry and 500 horsemen to aid Mundo against Sabinian, Master of the Soldiery of Illyricum, who at that time had made ready to fight with Mundo near the city named Margoplanum, which lies between the Danube and Margus rivers, and destroyed the Army of Illyricum.

(301) For this Mundo, who traced his descent from the Attilani of old, had put to flight the tribe of the Gepidae and was roaming beyond the Danube in waste places where no man tilled the soil. He had gathered around him many outlaws and ruffians and robbers from all sides and had seized a tower called Herta, situated on the bank of the Danube. There he plundered his neighbors in wild license and made himself king over his vagabonds. Now Pitza came upon him when he was nearly reduced to desperation and was already thinking of surrender. So he rescued him from the hands of Sabinian and made him a grateful subject of his king Theodoric.

(302) Theodoric won an equally great victory over the Franks through his Count Ibba in Gaul, when more than thirty thousand Franks were slain in battle. Moreover, after the death of his son-in-law Alaric, Theodoric appointed Thiudis, his armor-bearer, guardian of his grandson Amalaric in Spain. But Amalaric was ensnared by the plots of the Franks in early youth and lost at once his kingdom and his life. Then his guardian Thiudis, advancing from the same kingdom, assailed the Franks and delivered the Spaniards from their disgraceful treachery. So long as he lived he kept the Visigoths united.

(303) After him Thiudigisclus obtained the kingdom and, ruling but a short time, met his death at the hands of his own followers. He was succeeded by Agil, who holds the kingdom to the present day. Athanagild has rebelled against him and is even now provoking the might of the Roman Empire. So Liberius the Patrician is on the way with an army to oppose him. Now there was not a tribe in the west that did not serve Theodoric while he lived, either in friendship or by conquest.

(304) When he had reached old age and knew that he should soon depart this life, he called together the Gothic counts and chieftains of his race and appointed Athalaric as king. He was a boy scarce 10 years old, the son of his daughter Amalasuentha, and he had lost his father Eutharic. As though uttering his last will and testament Theodoric adjured and commanded them to honor their king, to love the Senate and Roman People and to make sure of the peace and good will of the Emperor of the East, as next after God.

(305) They kept this command fully so long as Athalaric their king and his mother lived, and ruled in peace for almost eight years. But as the Franks put no confidence in the rule of a child and furthermore held him in contempt, and were also plotting war, he gave back to them those parts of Gaul which his father and grandfather had seized. He possessed all the rest in peace and quiet. Therefore when Athalaric was approaching the age of manhood, he entrusted to the Emperor of the East both his own youth and his mother's widowhood. But in a short time the ill-fated boy was carried off by an untimely death and departed from earthly affairs.

(306) His mother feared she might be despised by the Goths on account of the weakness of her sex. So after much thought she decided, for the sake of relationship, to summon her cousin Theodahad from Tuscany, where he led a retired life at home, and thus she established him on the throne. But he was unmindful of their kinship and, after a little time, had her taken from the palace at Ravenna to an island of the Bulsinian lake where he kept her in exile. After spending a very few days there in sorrow, she was strangled in the bath by his hirelings.

(307) When Justinian, the Emperor of the East, heard this, he was aroused as if he had suffered personal injury in the death of his wards. Now at that time he had won a triumph over the Vandals in Africa, through his most faithful Patrician Belisarius. Without delay he sent his army under this leader against the Goths at the very time when his arms were yet dripping with the blood of the Vandals.

(308) This sagacious general believed he could not overcome the Gothic nation, unless he should first seize Sicily, their nursing-mother. Accordingly he did so. As soon as he entered Trinacria, the Goths, who were besieging the town of Syracuse, found that they were not succeeding and surrendered of their own accord to Belisarius, with their leader Sinderith. When the Roman general reached Sicily, Theodahad sought out Evermud, his son-in-law, and sent him with an army to guard the strait which lies between Campania and Sicily and sweeps from a bend of the Tyrrhenian Sea into the vast tide of the Adriatic.

(309) When Evermud arrived, he pitched his camp by the town of Rhegium. He soon saw that his side was the weaker. Coming over with a few close and faithful followers to the side of the victor and willingly casting himself at the feet of Belisarius, he decided to serve the rulers of the Roman Empire. When the army of the Goths perceived this, they distrusted Theodahad and clamored for his expulsion from the kingdom and for the appointment as king of their leader Vitiges, who had been his armor bearer.

(310) This was done and presently Vitiges was raised to the office of king on the Barbarian Plains. He entered Rome and sent on to Ravenna the men most faithful to him to demand the death of Theodahad. They came and executed his command. After King Theodahad was slain, a messenger came from the king--for he was already king in the Barbarian Plains--to proclaim Vitiges to the people.

From the Spanish Wikipedia page on Teodorico el Grande:

Teodorico el Grande (Dacia 454 - Ravena 526), también conocido como Teodorico el Amalo, rey de los ostrogodos (474-526). Hijo del caudillo ostrogodo Teodomiro, del linaje de los Amalos, fue enviado por su padre como rehén a la ciudad de Constantinopla (actual Estambul), siendo un niño (462). Allí recibió una educación basada en la cultura grecolatina. Sucedió en 474 a su padre como líder de los ostrogodos.

Fue nombrado patricio y magister militum por el augusto Zenón, emperador de Oriente. Éste le cedió en 488 el gobierno de Italia con la condición de vencer a Odoacro, rey de los hérulos que había depuesto a Rómulo Augústulo, último emperador romano de Occidente (476). Teodorico penetró en la península Itálica al frente de su pueblo, cuyo número se estima en unas cien mil personas, y consiguió ocupar Ravena, donde finalmente murió Odoacro (493).

Se proclamó rey de Italia (494), fijando su residencia en Ravena, y fue reconocido como rex Italiam por el augusto Anastasio, emperador de Oriente, en 497, a quien debía una teórica sumisión. Mantuvo las diferencias entre los ostrogodos, de religión arriana, que retuvieron el poder militar, y los romanos, católicos, que concentraron el poder civil, dentro de un difícil equilibrio. Teodorico se consideraba heredero del mundo romano y por ello respetó las instituciones imperiales rodeándose de consejeros latinos, como Boecio y Casiodoro.

Deseaba crear un imperio germánico de Occidente, heredero del romano, que englobase a francos, vándalos, visigodos y ostrogodos. Con este objetivo, realizó una hábil política de alianzas matrimoniales entre su familia y los reyes de los otros pueblos germánicos, que, si bien no llegaría a materializar su sueño, lo convirtió en el principal soberano occidental de su época.

En 511 intervino de forma decisiva en la resolución de la crisis de la monarquía visigoda, abierta a raíz de la muerte de Alarico II en la batalla de Vouillé (507), en la que fue derrotado por los francos. Depuso al usurpador Gesaleico y coronó a su nieto Amalarico, hijo de Alarico y de su hija Tindigota. Asumió el gobierno del reino visigodo como tutor de su nieto, a quien colocó bajo la protección de Teudis, uno de sus generales. La regencia se mantuvo hasta la muerte del monarca ostrogodo (526), cuando Amalarico pudo gobernar libremente a su pueblo.

Favoreció el desarrollo de la agricultura y del comercio. Hizo de Ravena, su capital, un destacado centro artístico y cultural fomentando el cultivo de las artes y las letras. Permitió la coexistencia del catolicismo y del arrianismo durante la mayor parte de su reinado, pero esta tolerancia finalizó en los últimos años de su vida, debido a los enfrentamientos con el Papado y con el Imperio Bizantino, que lo llevaron a encerrar y decapitar a su consejero Boecio (524) y a encarcelar al papa Juan I.

Dejó como sucesor a su nieto, hijo de su hija Amalasunta, falleciendo el 30 de agosto del 526. El estallido de una guerra civil permitió al emperador Justiniano convertir a Italia en una nueva provincia bizantina y dispersar a los ostrogodos, que desaparecieron como pueblo (555).

Teodorico era miembro de la estirpe de los Amalos como hijo de Teodomiro. En el año 462 fue capturado por los romanos y llevado a Constantinopla como prisionero donde se educó en los valores romanos, conociendo también las debilidades de la corte en un momento de crisis. Regresó a las tierras ostrogodas donde se convirtió en un potente líder, apoyando a Zenón como emperador de Constantinopla. Sin embargo, no recibió el apoyo imperial para su proyecto más importante: liberar las tierras italianas controladas por Odoacro, rey de los Hérulos. A pesar de carecer del permiso imperial, Teodorico se dirigió hacia la península Itálica para poner en marcha un plan de conquista que fue lento debido a la resistencia de Odoacro, quien se refugió en Ravena. Teodorico se dirigió a la ciudad y en el año 493 acababa controlándola y asesinando a Odoacro. De esa manera Teodorico y los ostrogodos se hacía dueños de Italia aunque apenas se produjeron cambios en las instituciones existentes, rodeándose de consejeros de origen romano e incluso permitiendo la coexistencia de la Iglesia romana, a pesar de profesar el arrianismo. Intentó armonizar las relaciones entre romanos y bárbaros, sin renunciar a las diferencias existentes entre ambas sociedades, tarea difícil que pudo sacar adelante. Su política exterior también es digna de mención ya que puso en marcha un amplio plan de alianzas -que incluían los enlaces matrimoniales- para convertirse en el líder hegemónico de los pueblos bárbaros. Especialmente intensas fueron las relaciones con los visigodos al convertirse Teodorico en tutor de Amalarico, quien sería el rey de España. En sus últimos años, Teodorico participó activamente en el conflicto religioso que vivía Oriente.

Pueblo ostrogodo, de Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre:

Reino ostrogodo en Italia. Los ostrogodos fueron un pueblo germánico procedente de la división que sufrieron los godos a raíz de las invasiones de los hunos, hacia el 370.

Los ostrogodos constituyeron un vasto reino al este del río Dniéster, en las tierras alrededor del mar Negro (lo que hoy es parte de la actual Ucrania y Bielorrusia). Los visigodos fueron los godos del occidente, cuyo dominio territorial se extendía desde el Dniéster hasta el Danubio.

Los ostrogodos estuvieron sometidos a los hunos desde 375, en que vencen al rey Hermanrico, hasta la muerte de Atila, ocurrida en 453, cuando recobraron su independencia y se establecieron como un pueblo federado de Roma. Posteriormente se les unieron otros godos que habían huido de sus tierras a la llegada de los hunos. En el 474 fue elegido rey Teodorico, el más conocido de los monarcas ostrogodos. Hubo varios períodos de guerras y treguas entre él y el emperador bizantino Zenón. En 488 Teodorico invadió Italia y en 493 derrotó y dio muerte en Adda a Odoacro, rey de los hérulos.

Tras su muerte en el 526, la situación se volvió tan violenta que en el 535 el emperador bizantino Justiniano I envió a su general Belisario en contra de los ejércitos ostrogodos en Italia. La superioridad del ejército bizantino fue la clave para el exterminio y el aplastamiento de la resistencia ostrogoda.

Este pueblo fue finalmente asimilado en forma gradual por otras tribus germánicas, tales como los vándalos y los francos.

From (Forrás / Source) Die Genealogie der Franken und Frankreichs, von Karl-Heinz Schreiber:

König der Ostgoten (471-526)

Einziger Sohn des Ostgoten-Königs Theodemirs aus dem Hause der AMALER und der Ereliva

Lexikon des Mittelalters: Band VIII Spalte 621

Theoderich der Große, König der Ostgoten

* 451(eher als 456), † 30. August 526

Der A MALER Theoderich wurde noch außerhalb des Römer-Reichs geboren. Sein Vater war Thiudimir, der mittlere von drei Brüdern (ältester: Valamir, Ostgoten-König in Pannonien 456/57 und 468/69 jüngster Vidimir). Theoderichs Mutter Ereleuva lebte mit ihrem Mann in nicht vollgültiger Ehe. Sie folgte ihrem Sohn nach Italien, wo sie als Königin galt und als Katholikin den Taufnamen Eusebia trug. Theoderich schloß seine erste vollgültige Ehe, die man kennt, wohl 493, mit der MEROWINGERIN Audofleda (Schwester Chlodwigs), von der er seine Erbtochter Amalasuintha (Amalasuntha) hatte. Aus (mindestens) einer älteren Verbindung gingen die 493 bereits heiratsfähigen Töchter Thiudigotho und Ostrogotho hervor, über deren Mutter (oder Mütter) nichts bekannt ist.

Theoderich lebte von etwa 459 bis gegen 469 als Geisel in Konstantinopel und erlernte hier zumindest die Grundregeln der schriftlichen antiken Verwaltungspraxis, so daß er sicher kein Analphabet war, wie später behauptet wurde. Als Theoderich spätestens 469 zu den pannonischen Ostgoten zurückkehrte, war sein Vater (nach dem Tode des Onkels Valamir) König geworden. Bereits um 470 unternahm Theoderich mit den Gotenkriegern des verstorbenen Onkels seinen ersten erfolgreichen Kriegszug, von dem an er sein Königtum datierte. In der zweiten Jahreshälfte 473 verließen die AMALER mit ihren Völkern Pannonien: Thiudimir und sein Sohn Theoderich zogen nach Makedonien, wo Theoderich dem 474 verstorbenen Vater als König nachfolgte. Bis 488 hatte sich Theoderich sowohl gegen den königlichen Konkurrenten Theoderich Strabo († 481) als auch gegen die kaiserliche Schaukelpolitik zu behaupten.

Theoderich wurde 481 Heermeister (Magister militum), trat am 1. Jan. 484 in Konstantinopel den Konsulat (consul) an (spätestens damals im Besitz des römischen Bürgerrechtes). Da er sich der kaiserlichen Macht auf die Dauer nicht gewachsen sah, schloß er mit Zenon 488 einen Vertrag, wonach er nach Italien ziehen und »nach der Besiegung Odoakers für seine Mühen an der Stelle des Kaisers, bis dieser dorthin komme, herrschen solle«. Nach jahrelangen Kämpfen, einer abermaligen Erhebung zum König 493 und der Ermordung Odoakers erhielt Theoderich 497 die kaiserliche Anerkennung, die seine Herrschaft in Italien (Italien A. I. 3) auf Dauer zu sichern schien. Aus gegebenem Anlaß versuchte Theoderich, sein italisch-gotisches Regnum gleichsam als Ebenbild des (übergeordneten) Kaiserreichs zu definieren. Kaiserlich war des Goten-Königs Herrschaft über die römische Bürokratie doch blieb das Recht Konstantinopels gewahrt, Senatoren, Patrizier und die West-Konsuln - auf Vorschlag Ravennas - zu ernennen. Theoderich entschied über die Zugehörigkeit zum Senat, übte die Blutgerichtsbarkeit wie das Gnadenrecht über alle Bewohner Italiens aus und besaß die Hoheit in kirchlichen Angelegenheiten eine Zuständigkeit, die über Theoderichs heermeisterliche Befugnisse wesentlich hinausging.

Da Theoderich den inneren Frieden Italiens sicherte, konnte er auch wie ein Kaiser wirtschaften. Dem allgemeinen Wohlergehen diente das Edictum Theoderici, welches das Kunststück fertigbrachte, das römische Kaiserrecht den gegebenen Umständen anzupassen, ohne in das Vorrecht der kaiserlichen Gesetzgebung einzugreifen. Der rasch erwirtschaftete Überschuß wurde für eine intensive, obgleich zumeist restaurative Bautätigkeit verwendet (Repräsentations- und Nutzbauten, etwa Wasserleitungen: Wiedererrichtung des trajanischen Aquädukts in Ravenna Verteidigungsanlagen). Die herrliche Ausgestaltung der Königsstadt Ravenna ist diejenige Leistung der Epoche Theoderichs, die am ehesten das Prädikat schöpferisch verdient. Theoderichs Staat bestand aus der italischen Präfektur, einem römisch verwalteten Großraum von durchaus kaiserlicher Dimensionen, der die spätantike Staatlichkeit bruchlos fortsetzte. Seit jeher bestand die Gewohnheit, daß der Kaiser durch persönliche Beauftragte, comites (comes I. 1), in den bürokratischen Instanzenzug eingriff und ihn überwachte. Diese Möglichkeit baute Theoderich als 'comitiva Gothorum' aus. Der Inhaber eines solchen Auftrags besaß militärische, in Ausnahmefällen auch zivile Aufgaben und die damit verbundenen richterlichen Befugnisse. Unmittelbar in den Jahren nach 493 gelang Theoderich die gotische Ansiedlung in Italien, ohne größere Eingriffe in die herkömmlichen Besitzstruktur vornehmen zu müssen. Wahrscheinlich wurde kein Grund und Boden konfisziert, vielmehr dürfte die wirtschaftliche Grundausstattung des Gotenheeres aus Anteilen des regulären Steueraufkommens genommen worden sein.

Nach Niederlage und Tod seines Schwiegersohnes Alarich II. (507) wurde Theoderich bis 511 in einen mehrjährigen innergotische Krieg verwickelt, der mit dem Ergebnis endete, daß er auch König der Westgoten wurde. Im Jahre 515 verheiratete er den westgotischen AMALER Eutharich mit seiner Tochter Amalasuintha und designierte ihn zu seinem Nachfolger. Diese Ordnung umfaßte alle Elemente von Theoderichs eigenem Königtum, nämlich Zugehörigkeit zu den AMALERN, Designation durch den und bald auch die kaiserliche Bestätigung (518 durch den neuen Kaiser Justin I.). Theoderichs Erbfolgeordnung scheiterte aber bald sein Schwiegersohn starb 522/523, und die römische Opposition nahm direkt mit dem Kaiser Verbindung auf. Die Antwort Ravennas war die unbarmherzige Verfolgung der römischen Senatoren, in deren Fall Boethius und sein Schwiegervater Symmachus verstrickt wurden. Als Theoderich am 30. August 526 - wie der Erzketzer Arius - an der Ruhr verschied, waren die meisten Katholiken von der Höllenfahrt des einst so gerechten Goten-Herrschers überzeugt.

Theoderichs gentile Politik vereinigte römische wie germanische Erfahrungen. Germanisch war die Heirats- und Bündnispolitik, mit der er Westgoten, Burgunder, Franken, Thüringer und Vandalen an sich zu binden und damit die Sicherheit Italiens zu gewährleisten suchte. Folgte Theoderich dem Vorbild kaiserlichen Barbarensieger, war er »Sieger und Triumphator«, »Verbreiter des römischen Namens« und »Beherrscher und Besieger der Barbarenvölker«, wie ihn die goldene Festmünze feierte, die er wahrscheinlich anläßlich seiner Dreißigjahrfeier prägen ließ. Tatsächlich gelang Theoderich die Wiedergewinnung römischer Provinzen sowohl westlich der Alpen als auch in Pannonien südlich der Drau. Anscheinend wollte Theoderich ein zweiter Konstantin sein, wie dies die Architektur des berühmten Mausoleums zu Ravenna verdeutlicht. Was die gentile Tradition betrifft, so suchte sie Theoderich im Sinne der amalischen Familie zu monopolisieren. Der Großteil der gotischen Bibelüberlieferung (Bibelübers., VIII) stammt aus dem Italien Theoderichs - Zur Sagenüberlieferung und literarischen Gestaltung Dietrich von Bern.

"Erzählende genealogische Stammtafeln zur europäischen Geschichte Band III Europäische Kaiser-, Königs- und Fürstenhäuser Ergänzungsband"

(der "Dietrich von Bern" der Sage)

461-472 Geisel in Byzanz folgte 475 als König führte jahrelang Kriegszüge im Balkanraum durch, rivalisiert dabei zuerst mit einem entfernten Cousin gleichen Namens, König Theoderich Strabo († 481) und steht 487 vor Byzanz, erzwingt damit die Verleihung des Patriziustitels und der Würde eines Magister militum per Illyricum erhält die Provinz Moesien offiziell zugestanden (vgl. Rom Xa).

Er bekriegt seitdem König Odoaker von Italien: Schlacht am Isonzo 489, 490 Schlacht an der Adda, 491-493 Belagerung von Ravenna ("Rabenschlacht" der Sage) zwingt König Odoaker zu Verhandlungen und stößt ihn dabei eigenhändig nieder (siehe Rom IX a dazu), damit König von Italien, 497 von Byzanz anerkannt beschert Italien letztmals für 1400 Jahre politische Einheit und Frieden, erobert Dalmatien, Norikum, Istrien und Raum Sirmium dazu und rettet die Westgoten vor den Franken und bewahrt den Westgoten Septimanien/Narbonne besetzt zum besseren Schutz für Westgoten und Burgunder die Provennce und gibt den Alemannen, die vor dem Schwager geflohen waren 497 ff., in Rätien Land und Schutz (vgl. MerowingerI/Burgunder und Westgoten I) versucht durch Bündnisse und verwandtschaftliche Verbindungen, eine große Koalition aller Germanen-Reiche zu erreichen gegen Byzanz, was am fränkischen Schwager scheitert, der sich mit Byzanz verbündet achtet auf strenge Trennung zwischen Goten und Italienern, denen er die Zivilverwaltung überläßt bleibt mit dem Volk arianisch, wodurch die Ostgoten nie verwurzeln gerät dabei auch gegen die Päpste, die sich auf Byzanz stützen prominentestes Opfert seiner Verfolgungen wird sein ehemaliger Kanzler, der Philosoph A.M.S. Boethius ("De consolatione philosphiae", 524 hingerichtet), ein weiterer berühmter Berater Theoderichs wurde Cassiodor († um 580, Politiker, Historiker, katholischer Heiliger), zwingt 525 Papst Johannes I. zur Reise nach Byzanz, um die Rücknahme aller Maßnahmen gegen Arianer zu erreichen läßt den Papst, der das nicht erreicht, 526 sogar einsperren und beginnt 525 Krrieg gegen die Vandalen wegen der Ermordung von Schwester und Schwager gerät auch gegen die Westgoten (vgl. Westgoten II) und besetzt in burgundischen Thronwirren die nördliche Provence bis zur Isere (vgl. Burgunder) bindet die Heruler eng an sich, macht König Rodulf (herrscht etwa im Raum Mähren) zum "Waffensohn" (= Adoption)

2. oo 493 AUDOFLEDA DER FRANKEN †

Tochter des MEROWINGER Franken-Königs Childerich I.

Theoderich kam mit acht Jahren als Geisel nach Konstantinopel. Nach seiner Rückkehr erreichte er von Byzanz für sein Volk Siedlungsgebiet in Niedermösien. Um ihn als drohende Gefahr loszuwerden, schickte ihn der oströmische Kaiser Zeno 487 mit seinem Volk gegen Odoaker und übertrug ihm die Herrschaft Italiens. Nach zwei Siegen schloß er seinen Gegner in Ravenna in und ermordete ihn 493, nachdem er sich wenige Tage vorher mit ihm über eine gemeinsame Regierung geeinigt hatte. Seitdem herrschte er ziemlich unabhängig über ganz Italien, wenn er auch formal die Oberhoheit des oströmischen Kaisers anerkannte. Militärische Stellen besetzte er mit Goten, während er für die innere Verwaltung bedeutende Römer wie Boethius und Cassiodorus heranzog. Auch gab ihm der Senat einigen Einfluß, ohne jedoch dadurch die Sympathien der Römer zu gewinnen. Unter seiner Herrschaft herrschte Ruhe und Ordnung, Ostrom versuchte vergebens, seine Herrschaft zu erschüttern. Seit 507 beherrschte er auch als Vormund seines Enkels das Westgotenreich. Gegen Ende seines Lebens ließ er wegen geheimer Beziehungen zu Byzanz den Bischof von Rom gefangennehmen und Boethius und Symmachus hinrichten. Er wurde in dem noch erhaltenen Mausoleum in Ravenna beigesetzt.

493 oo Audafleda, Tochter des Franken-Königs Childerich I.

1. Amalaswintha (496, † 30.4.535)

oo Sigismund König von Burgund † 516

oo Alarich II. König der Westgoten † 507

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Thiele, Andreas: Erzählende genealogische Stammtafeln zur europäischen Geschichte Band III Europäische Kaiser-, Königs- und Fürstenhäuser Ergänzungsband, R.G. Fischer Verlag 1994 Tafel 220

A portion of the German Wikipedia entry:

Theoderich, genannt der Große (Flavius Theodoricus Rex * 451/56 in Pannonien † 30. August 526 in Ravenna, Italien) war ein König der Ostgoten aus dem Geschlecht der Amaler. Theoderich, der als eine der bedeutendsten Persönlichkeiten der Völkerwanderungszeit gilt, fungierte auch zeitweise als Herrscher der Westgoten und herrschte nach seinem Sieg über Odoaker über Italien.

Sein Name im Gotischen lautet Þiuda-reiks, „des Volkes König“. Theoderich wird mit Dietrich von Bern in der Nibelungensage gleichgesetzt.

Band XI (1996)Spalten 833-836 Autor: Georgios Fatouros

THEODERICH der Große, Ostgotenkönig (ca. 455 - 30. August 526). - Von den zahlreichen Quellen zur Biographie des T. seien hier als die bedeutendsten erwähnt: Das Geschichtswerk des Jordanes (ed. Th. Mommsen, Iordanes Romana et Getica [MGH, Auct.ant.V 1), Berlin 1882 (Nachdr. 1961), Cassiodors Variae (ed Th. Mommsen (MGH, Auct.ant.XII), Berlin 1894), sowie die Lobrede des Ennodius auf T. (ed. F. Vogel [MGH, Auct.ant.VII), Berlin 1885) und der Anonymus Valesii (ed. Th.Mommsen [MGH, Auct.ant.IX 1], Berlin 1892). - Geboren in Pannonien, unweit des Plattensees, war T. der jüngste von drei Söhnen des ostgotischen Gaukönigs Thiudimer und seiner Konkubine Ereleuva-Eusebia.

Hungarian information on Theoderich:

Theoderich keleti gót király

-2. Ostrogota (∞ Sigismund [†524]),

-3. Theudigota (∞ II. Alarich [†507])

From (Forrás / Source) the Hungarian Wikipedia page on Nagy Theodorik:

Nagy Theodorik (454. – 526. augusztus 30.), az osztrogótok királya (488-526), Itália vezetője (493-526) és a vizigótok kormányzója (511-526).

A Kis-Balaton partján Valcum mellett született, egy évvel azután, hogy az osztrogótok megszabadultak a közel száz évig tartó hun uralomtól. Theodemir király fiaként Theodorikot gyermekkorában túszként Konstantinápolyba küldték, ezzel biztosítva a Theodemir és I. Leó bizánci császár által kötött béke feltételeinek betartását.

Szülei Theodemir király és Erelieva voltak. Kétszer nősült. Első feleségének neve nem ismert, tőle két gyermek született: Arevagni és Theodegotho. A második felesége Audofleda volt, gyermekük Amalasuntha.

Theodorik halála után unokája, Athalarik lett az utódja. Athalarik helyett az anyja, Amalasuntha uralkodott 526 és 534 között.

Theodoric was King of the Ostro-Goths in Italy, and King (511) of the Visigoths in Spain. "The dominion of Theodoric was not a barbarian but a civilized power. . He was at once national king of the Goths, and successor, though without any imperial titles, of the Roman emperors of the West. The two nations, differing in manners, language and religion, lived side by side on the soil of Italy each was ruled according to its own law, by the prince who was, in his two separate characters, the common sovereign of both."

". the greatest ruler that the Gothic nation produced. . The thirty-three years' reign of Theodoric was a time of unexampled happiness for Italy. Unbroken peace reigned within her borders. " Many physical and civic improvements were made.

Events in the life of Theodoric "the Great" Amali

0488.·continued the Ostrogoth's westward migrating and invades Italy, killing Odoacer, the first barbarian ruler,||This continued migration was to stay ahead of the Huns who in 446 began conquering Pannonia.

† death [1],[2],[3]. 30 Aug 0526, in Italy.

BETWEEN 0475 AND 0488, in Moesia.

moved the Ostrogoths westwards from Pannonia and resettled

0461.·was, at age 7, offered to the Romans as a hostage of peace

|"From the Goths the Romans received as a hostage of peace Theodoric, the young child of Thiudimer, whom we have mentioned above. He had now attained the age of seven years and was entering upon his eighth. While his father hesitated about giving him up, his uncle Valamir besought him to do it, hoping that peace between the Romans and the Goths might thus be assured. Therefore Theodoric was given as a hostage by the Goths and brought to the city of Constantinople to the Emperor Leo and, being a goodly child, deservedly gained the imperial favor."

lived a comfortable life in the court of Emperor Zeno of Byzantium||However, he had heard that his people, theOstrogoth's were facing pressures from the Huns and other tribes, and he asked that Zeno give him permission to return to his people and lead them to new territory. "Although the Emperor was grieved that he should go, yet when he heard this he granted what Theodoric asked, for he was unwilling to cause him sorrow. He sent him forth enriched by great gifts and commended to his charge the Senate and the Roman People."

0493.·assumed leadership of the Romans"It was in the third year after his entrance into Italy, as we have said, that Theodoric, by advice of the Emperor Zeno, laid aside the garb of a private citizen and the dress of his race and assumed a costume with a royal mantle, as he had now become the ruler over both Goths and Romans."

0497.·acknowledged as "King of Italy" by the Emperor Anastasius.

(Passage from Gaetica moved closer to top of this About Me passage to better highlight it.)

Panonnia-raised as a hostage in Constantinople, Eastern Roman Empire

Unattributed Spanish summary:

Rey de los Ostrogodos. Teodorico era miembro de la estirpe de los Amalos como hijo de Teodomiro. En el año 462 fue capturado por los romanos y llevado a Constantinopla como prisionero donde se educó en los valores romanos, conociendo también las debilidades de la corte en un momento de crisis. Regresó a las tierras ostrogodas donde se convirtió en un potente líder, apoyando a Zenón como emperador de Constantinopla. Sin embargo, no recibió el apoyo imperial para su proyecto más importante: liberar las tierras italianas controladas por Odoarco. A pesar de carecer del permiso imperial, Teodorico se dirigió hacia la península Itálica para poner en marcha un plan de conquista que fue lento debido a la resistencia de Odoacro, quien se refugió en Ravena. Teodorico se dirigió a la ciudad y en el año 493 acababa controlándola y asesinando a Odoacro. De esa manera Teodorico y los ostrogodos se hacían dueños de Italia aunque apenas se produjeron cambios en las instituciones existentes, rodeándose de consejeros de origen romano e incluso permitiendo la coexistencia de la Iglesia romana, a pesar de profesar el arrianismo. Intentó armonizar las relaciones entre romanos y bárbaros, sin renunciar a las diferencias existentes entre ambas sociedades, tarea difícil que pudo sacar adelante. Su política exterior también es digna de mención ya que puso en marcha un amplio plan de alianzas -que incluían los enlaces matrimoniales- para convertirse en el líder hegemónico de los pueblos bárbaros. Especialmente intensas fueron las relaciones con los visigodos al convertirse Teodorico en tutor de Amalarico, quien sería el rey de España. En sus últimos años, Teodorico participó activamente en el conflicto religioso que vivía Oriente.

According to "Bert's Geschiedenis Site":

Theoderik (Theodorik, Theoderic,, Thiudareiks) de Grote (471-526)

Na de dood van zijn vader Theodemir (474) werd Theoderik koning van de Ostrogoten.

Theoderik werd omstreeks 455 in Pannonia (het huidige Hongarije) geboren en stierf in 526 in Ravenna en werd dus circa 73 jaar. Van 462 tot 471 had hij als gijzelaar geleefd aan het Byzantijnse hof, waar hij de gelegenheid kreeg de cultuur en de staatsorganisatie te leren kennen. Daarna nam hij deel aan de oorlogen waarin zijn vader verwikkeld was. Hij voerde zijn volk in een verbintenis met de Oostromeinen aan de Beneden-Donau. Na de dood van zijn vader werd hij in 471 koning van de Ostrogoten in Pannonië. Hij voerde zijn volk in een verbintenis met de Oost-Romeinen aan de Beneden-Donau.

In 488 werd hij door de Oostromeinse keizer Zeno aangesteld als Magister Militium voor Illyria. In opdracht van Zeno hield hij met zijn gehele volk een veldtocht naar Italië om de "tiran" Odoacer (Odovacar) ten val te brengen. Hij trok de oostelijke Alpen over.

Nadat hij de Gepiden (489) had onderworpen, stond nog hetzelfde jaar op Italiaanse bodem. Odoacer trok hem tegemoet, maar werd verscheidene malen verslagen. In het moeilijk toegankelijke Ravenna hield hij bijna drie jaar stand.

Tenslotte beging Odoacer een enorme misslag door Theoderik in het belegerde Ravenna tijdens een opschorting van de vijandelijkheden toe te laten. De twee tegenstanders kwamen overeen om samen Italië te regeren. Daarop doodde Theoderik Odoacer met zijn eigen hand en zijn volgelingen vermoordden het merendeel van de krijgers van de vermoorde koning (492). Met deze onwaardige daad begon Theoderik een lange, verlichte regering, die wegens haar pogingen om het Romeinse levenspatroon te herstellen wel de eerste Renaissance mag worden genoemd.

Theoderik (Theodoric, Theoderic,, Thiudareiks) the Great (471-526)

After the death of his father, Theodemir (474), Theoderik became King of the Ostrogoths.

Theoderik was born about 455 in Pannonia (present Hungary) and died in 526 in Ravenna, and therefore lived approximately 73 years. From 462-471, he lived as a hostage in the Byzantine Court, where he was educated in culture and statesmanship. He then took part in the wars in which his father was engaged. After the death of his father in (474), he became King of the Ostrogoths in Pannonia. He committed his people to the suzerainty of the Eastern Romans on the Lower Danube.

In 488, he was appointed by the Eastern Roman Emperor Zeno to serve as Magister Militum for Illyria (present Croatia). On behalf of Zeno, he carried out a campaign in Italy to overthrow the "tyrant" Odoacer (Odovacar), who withdrew to the eastern Alps. After the Gepids (Sciri Goths) submitted (489), Odoacer continued to fight several battles on Italian soil, but each time was defeated. Ravenna was besieged for a period of nearly three years.

Finally, Odoacer committed a huge blunder by suspending hostilities during the siege of Ravenna. The two adversaries met and agreed to work together in governing Italy. During the meeting, Theoderik killed Odoacer with his own hands and his followers killed most of the warriors under the murdered king (492). This shameful act was foolowed by a long and enlightened government that restored the Roman pattern of life, and may well be called Italy's first Renaissance.

No longer a functioning link:

From the Find A Grave memorial for Theodoric the Great:

King of the Ostrogoths. Probably an illegitimate son of Theodomir of the royal Amal line of the Ostrogoths.

When the Ostrogoths sought to become a client kingdom of Rome the resultant treaty sent Theodoric to Constantinople as a royal hostage at the age of eight. At 18, he was sent home as an encouragement for his father to suppress an uprising led by Theodoric Strabo which threatened Roman power. Theodoric was given his own command and gained a victory over Strabo and was elevated to the joint kingship in 471 as a reward.

By 475 his father was dead, leaving the throne to Theodoric. He continued to campaign against Strabo to protect his throne, however. When Strabo died in 481, Theodoric received the titles of patricius and magister militum and in 484 was appointed a Roman consul by the emperor who then sent him to lead a campaign against the usurper Odoacer in Italy in order to regain it for the empire.

Theodoric crossed into Italy in 488, winning the battles at the Isonzo and Milan in 489, and at the Adda in 490 he besieged and took Ravenna in 493. At last, Odoacer consented to a treaty by which he was to share his authority with Theodoric. Invited to a banquet, Odoacer, his son, and chief officers were summarily murdered and Theodoric made himself master of Italy claiming to be its viceregent.

He respected Roman institutions, preserved Roman laws, and appointed Romans to civil offices he improved the harbors, and repaired the roads and public buildings while settling Goths throughout Italy.

Despite intermittent warfare with the Franks between 506 and 523, his reign was considered something of a golden age. In 507, he became king of all the Goths, uniting Spain and Italy under one rule. Apparently conspiracy against him in favor of a return to direct imperial rule began to grow as he entered old age, and the union of Goths and Romans he created began to fail.

He died in 526, naming his grandson Athalaric as his heir and his daughter Amalasuintha as regent. Barely a decade passed before Italy fell to Byzantine forces under Justinian. (bio by: Iola)

Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy

Maintained by: Find A Grave

Originally Created by: Mongoose

Find A Grave Memorial# 8122616

Theoderik den store, kung av ostrogoterna

Far: Theodemir, kung av ostrogoterna

King of ostrogoterna 474-526

Från åldrarna 7 till 17 var han en bysantinsk fånge, men återvände till sin faders rike efter och blev kung 474 vid hans faders död. Mellan 474 och 488, Theoderik och östra romerska kejsaren Zeno kämpade varandra. I 488 Theoderik allierade sig samtidigt med Zenon, invaderade Italien (då enligt germansk kung Odovakar), som togs i tre slag. Odovakar avstå 493, och blev dödad av Theoderik. Medan Theoderik var Arian, tolereras han alla sekter av kristendomen. Theoderik efterträddes på denna död i 526 av hans dotter Amalasuntha som förmyndare för sin son Athalaric.

Merovingian king of Reims from 511. Theodoric was the eldest son of Clovis I, but born of an unknown woman, unlike the other sons, whose mother was Clotilda. An able soldier, he played an important part in his father's campaigns against the Visigoths. On Clovis' death in 511 a fourfold division of his kingdom took place, each of his sons receiving some territories north of the Loire River and some to its south. No doubt, as the most experienced of the four, Theodoric received those northern lands (the future Austrasia) most exposed to attack their axis was the Rhine. In the 520s Theodoric gained a share of his brother Clodomir's kingdom when the dead king's sons were murdered by Theodoric's two other half-brothers, Childebert and Chlotar. Theodoric campaigned with Clodomir against the Burgundians in 524 and with Chlotar against the Visigoths in 532. His greatest success lay in the subjection of the Thuringians,achieved with the help of Chlotar c. 531. It was perhaps now that the Saxons were temporarily also reduced to dependence. As violent and unscrupulous as most of the other Merovingian rulers, Theodoric was arguably the most vigorous and effective of Clovis' sons. He was succeeded by his son, Theodebert I.

Copyright c 1994-2001 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

Theodoric was King of the Ostro-Goths in Italy, and King (511) of the Visigoths in Spain. "The dominion of Theodoric was

not a barbarian but a civilized power. . He was at once national king of the Goths, and successor, though without any imperial

titles, of the Roman emperors of the West. The two nations, differing in manners, language and religion, lived side by side on

the soil of Italy each was ruled according to its own law, by the prince who was, in his two separate characters, the common

sovereign of both." <-Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1956, 10:550 also see 22:59:>". the greatest ruler that the Gothic nation

produced. . The thirty-three years' reign of Theodoric was a time of unexampled happiness for Italy. Unbroken peace reigned

within her borders. " Many physical and civic improvements were made.

Events in the life of Theodoric "the Great" Amali

·continued the Ostrogoth's westward migrating and invades Italy, killing Odoacer, the first barbarian ruler,||This continued migration was to stay ahead of the Huns who in 446 began conquering Pannonia.

BETWEEN 0475 AND 0488, in Moesia.

·moved the Ostrogoths westwards from Pannonia and resettled

·was, at age seven, offered to the Romans as a hostage of peace||"From the Goths the Romans received as a hostage of peace Theodoric, the young child of Thiudimer, whom we have mentioned above. He had now attained the age of seven years and was entering upon his eighth. While his father hesitated about giving him up, his uncle Valamir besought him to do it, hoping that peace between the Romans and the Goths might thus be assured. Therefore Theodoric was given as a hostage by the Goths and brought to the city of Constantinople to the Emperor Leo and, being a goodly child, deservedly gained the imperial favor."

·lived a comfortable life in the court of Emperor Zeno of Byzantium||However, he had heard that his people, theOstrogoth's were facing pressures from the Huns and other tribes, and he asked that Zeno give him permission to return to his people and lead them to new territory. "Although the Emperor was grieved that he should go, yet when he heard this he granted what Theodoric asked, for he was unwilling to cause him sorrow. He sent him forth enriched by great gifts and commended to his charge the Senate and the Roman People."

·assumed leadership of the Romans"It was in the third year after his entrance into Italy, as we have said, that Theodoric, by advice of the Emperor Zeno, laid aside the garb of a private citizen and the dress of his race and assumed a costume with a royal mantle, as he had now become the ruler over both Goths and Romans."

·acknowledged as "King of Italy" by the Emperor Anastasius.

The following passages, from Jordanes, Gaetica [The Origin and Deeds of the Goths], translated by Charles C. Mierow (Princeton Univ. Press, 1915) describes the family relationships of King Theodoric.

The Origin and Deeds of the Goths

It was in the third year after his entrance into Italy, as we

have said, that Theodoric, by advice of the Emperor Zeno, laid aside

the garb of a private citizen and the dress of his race and assumed a

costume with a royal mantle, as he had now become the ruler over both

Goths and Romans. He sent an embassy to Lodoin, king of the Franks, and

asked for his daughter Audefleda in marriage. (296) Lodoin freely and

gladly gave her, and also his sons Celdebert and Heldebert and

Thiudebert, believing that by this alliance a league would be formed

and that they would be associated with the race of the Goths. But that

union was of no avail for peace and harmony, for they fought fiercely

with each other again and again for the lands of the Goths but never

did the Goths yield to the Franks while Theodoric lived.

(297) Now before he had a child from Audefleda, Theodoric had

children of a concubine, daughters begotten in Moesia, one named

Thiudigoto and another Ostrogotho. Soon after he came to Italy, he gave

them in marriage to neighboring kings, one to Alaric, king of the

Visigoths, and the other to Sigismund, king of the Burgundians. (298)

Now Alaric begat Amalaric. While his grandfather Theodoric cared for

and protected him--for he had lost both parents in the years of

childhood--he found that Eutharic, the son of Veteric, grandchild of

Beremud and Thorismud, and a descendant of the race of the Amali, was

living in Spain, a young man strong in wisdom and valor and health of

body. Theodoric sent for him and gave him his daughter Amalasuentha in

marriage. (299) And that he might extend his family as much as

possible, he sent his sister Amalafrida (the mother of Theodahad, who

was afterwards king) to Africa as wife of Thrasamund, king of the

Vandals, and her daughter Amalaberga, who was his own niece, he united

with Herminefred, king of the Thuringians.

(300) Now he sent his Count Pitza, chosen from among the chief

men of his kingdom, to hold the city of Sirmium. He got possession of

it by driving out its king Thrasaric, son of Thraustila, and keeping

his mother captive. Thence he came with two thousand infantry and five

hundred horsemen to aid Mundo against Sabinian, Master of the Soldiery

of Illyricum, who at that time had made ready to fight with Mundo near

the city named Margoplanum, which lies between the Danube and Margus

rivers, and destroyed the Army of Illyricum. (301) For this Mundo, who

traced his descent from the Attilani of old, had put to flight the

tribe of the Gepidae and was roaming beyond the Danube in waste places

where no man tilled the soil. He had gathered around him many outlaws

and ruffians and robbers from all sides and had seized a tower called

Herta, situated on the bank of the Danube. There he plundered his

neighbors in wild license and made himself king over his vagabonds. Now

Pitza came upon him when he was nearly reduced to desperation and was

already thinking of surrender. So he rescued him from the hands of

Sabinian and made him a grateful subject of his king Theodoric.

(302) Theodoric won an equally great victory over the Franks

through his Count Ibba in Gaul, when more than thirty thousand Franks

were slain in battle. Moreover, after the death of his son-in-law

Alaric, Theodoric appointed Thiudis, his armor-bearer, guardian of his

grandson Amalaric in Spain. But Amalaric was ensnared by the plots of

the Franks in early youth and lost at once his kingdom and his life.

Then his guardian Thiudis, advancing from the same kingdom, assailed

the Franks and delivered the Spaniards from their disgraceful

treachery. So long as he lived he kept the Visigoths united. (303)

After him Thiudigisclus obtained the kingdom and, ruling but a short

time, met his death at the hands of his own followers. He was succeeded

by Agil, who holds the kingdom to the present day. Athanagild has

rebelled against him and is even now provoking the might of the Roman

Empire. So Liberius the Patrician is on the way with an army to oppose

him. Now there was not a tribe in the west that did not serve Theodoric

while he lived, either in friendship or by conquest.

(304) When he had reached old age and knew that he should soon

depart this life, he called together the Gothic counts and chieftains

of his race and appointed Athalaric as king. He was a boy scarce ten

years old, the son of his daughter Amalasuentha, and he had lost his

father Eutharic. As though uttering his last will and testament

Theodoric adjured and commanded them to honor their king, to love the

Senate and Roman People and to make sure of the peace and good will of

the Emperor of the East, as next after God.

(305) They kept this command fully so long as Athalaric their

king and his mother lived, and ruled in peace for almost eight years.

But as the Franks put no confidence in the rule of a child and

furthermore held him in contempt, and were also plotting war, he gave

back to them those parts of Gaul which his father and grandfather had

seized. He possessed all the rest in peace and quiet. Therefore when

Athalaric was approaching the age of manhood, he entrusted to the

Emperor of the East both his own youth and his mother's widowhood. But

in a short time the ill-fated boy was carried off by an untimely death

and departed from earthly affairs. (306) His mother feared she might be

despised by the Goths on account of the weakness of her sex. So after

much thought she decided, for the sake of relationship, to summon her

cousin Theodahad from Tuscany, where he led a retired life at home, and

thus she established him on the throne. But he was unmindful of their

kinship and, after a little time, had her taken from the palace at

Ravenna to an island of the Bulsinian lake where he kept her in exile.

After spending a very few days there in sorrow, she was strangled in

the bath by his hirelings.

(307) When Justinian, the Emperor of the East, heard this, he

was aroused as if he had suffered personal injury in the death of his

wards. Now at that time he had won a triumph over the Vandals in

Africa, through his most faithful Patrician Belisarius. Without delay

he sent his army under this leader against the Goths at the very time

when his arms were yet dripping with the blood of the Vandals. (308)

This sagacious general believed he could not overcome the Gothic

nation, unless he should first seize Sicily, their nursing-mother.

Accordingly he did so. As soon as he entered Trinacria, the Goths, who

were besieging the town of Syracuse, found that they were not

succeeding and surrendered of their own accord to Belisarius, with

their leader Sinderith. When the Roman general reached Sicily,

Theodahad sought out Evermud, his son-in-law, and sent him with an army

to guard the strait which lies between Campania and Sicily and sweeps

from a bend of the Tyrrhenian Sea into the vast tide of the Adriatic.

(309) When Evermud arrived, he pitched his camp by the town of Rhegium.

He soon saw that his side was the weaker. Coming over with a few close

and faithful followers to the side of the victor and willingly casting

himself at the feet of Belisarius, he decided to serve the rulers of

the Roman Empire. When the army of the Goths perceived this, they

distrusted Theodahad and clamored for his expulsion from the kingdom

and for the appointment as king of their leader Vitiges, who had been

his armor bearer. (310) This was done and presently Vitiges was raised

to the office of king on the Barbarian Plains. He entered Rome and sent

on to Ravenna the men most faithful to him to demand the death of

Theodahad. They came and executed his command. After King Theodahad was

slain, a messenger came from the king--for he was already king in the

Barbarian Plains--to proclaim Vitiges to the people.
--------------------
born in Pannonia - raised as a hostage in Constantinople, Eastern Roma.

According to 6th century Gothic historian Jordanes, Goths originated in Scandinavia. In 4th cent, B.C.E. they were living along the shores of the Black Sea, and by the end of the 2nd cent C.E. they had migrated to the Danube. About 375 C.E. the

Huns destroyed the Gothic settlements along the Black Sea and many of the Goths fled to territories controlled by the Romans. In 378 C.E. Goths killed the Roman Emperor Valens in a battle near the city of Adrianople, Turkey. At about 400 C.E.

Alaric united the Goths in a group called the Visigoths. They marched west and established kingdoms in Spain and Gaul. In 507 the Franks conquered the Goths in Gaul. Visigoths rule in Spain lasted until 711.

After the death of Attila, the leader of the Huns, in 453, the eastern Goths united and were called the Ostragoths. They settled in the area south of Vienna, Austria and coexisted with the Roman Byzantine empire. Theodoric was sent to

Constantinople where he received a Roman education and became a favorite at court. He became king of the Ostragoths in 471 and decided to carve out a kingdom in Italy which was then ruled by the barbarian, Odoacer. He led about 100,000

(including 75,000 non-combatants) into Italy and fought Odoacer's forces from 488 to 493. He convinced Odoacer to accept joint rule and then murdered him at the celebratory banquet. Thus he became sole ruler with his capitol at Ravenna. His 33

year reign was characterized by peace, prosperity and tolerance. He maintained most of the old Roman laws and appointed Romans to civil offices. He recognized the authority of the Emperor in Constantinople. He left an architectural legacy,

constructing public buildings and repairing roads. Several of his structures remain standing in Ravenna today, including the church of Sant' Apollinare Nuova, an Arian baptistry, and his mausoleum.

Built to withstand eternity, his mausoleum resembles no other building in the Roman-Byzantine world. The tomb's domed roof is 36 feet in diameter, weighs about 300 tons and is carved from a single block of marble that was carved on the Istria

peninsula in modern Croatia. They do not know how the roof was cut, transported and hoisted into place. The purpose was apparently to discourage vandalism. The roof locks the Lower blocks into place so that would-be vandals would bring the

structure down on their head if they tampered with it. To increase the stony security, Theodoric included another protective feature which was a system of interlocking masonry joints. The tomb's walls seem to consist of regular ashlars of

squared masonry blocks but in fact many of them are not of standard size and therefore are not interchangeable. The ashlars have joints or protrusions that neatly interlock with the adjacent stones. These irregular, interlocking joints make it

extremely difficult, if not impossible to dismantle the structure. This fitted stonework makes the building like a Chinese puzzle. One particular piece must be removed before the subsequent pieces are chosen and unless the correct piece is

chosen, the whole structure remains intact , a solid interlocked mass.

(Excerpts from "The Mystery of Theodoric's Tomb Solved" by Harry Rand,

Archaeology Odyssey, Nov-Dec 2003, p 47-53, 57-58)

Encyclopedia Britannica, Treatise on

--------------------
Theudericus Magnus, rex Italiae1,2,3

b. circa 454, d. 30 August 526

FatherThiudimir, pietas4,5,6,3 b. circa 413, d. 471

MotherEreleuva , a concubine5,6,3 b. circa 423

"He sent an embassy to Lodoin, king of the Franks, and asked for his daughter Audefleda in marriage. Lodoin freely and gladly gave her, and also his sons Celdebert and Heldebert and Thiudebert, believing that by this alliance a league would be formed and that they would be associated with the race of the Goths." Sapientia.3 Also called Theoderic l' Amale French.7 Theudericus Magnus, rex Italiae was born circa 454. He was the son of Thiudimir, pietas and Ereleuva , a concubine.4,5,6,3 Theudericus Magnus, rex Italiae was was, at age seven, offered to the Romans as a hostage of peace in 461. "From the Goths the Romans received as a hostage of peace Theodoric, the young child of Thiudimer, whom we have mentioned above. He had now attained the age of seven years and was entering upon his eighth. While his father hesitated about giving him up, his uncle Valamir besought him to do it, hoping that peace between the Romans and the Goths might thus be assured. Therefore Theodoric was given as a hostage by the Goths and brought to the city of Constantinople to the Emperor Leo and, being a goodly child, deservedly gained the imperial favor."1 He was lived a comfortable life in the court of Emperor Zeno of Byzantium between 461 and 475. However, he had heard that his people, the Ostrogoth's were facing pressures from the Huns and other tribes, and he asked that Zeno give him permission to return to his people and lead them to new territory. "Although the Emperor was grieved that he should go, yet when he heard this he granted what Theodoric asked, for he was unwilling to cause him sorrow. He sent him forth enriched by great gifts and commended to his charge the Senate and the Roman People."1 He associated with N. N. of Moesia between 474 and 488 Concubine.5,8 Theudericus Magnus, rex Italiae was moved the Ostrogoths westwards from Pannonia and resettled between 475 and 488 at Moesia. He was Consul in 484. He was continued the Ostrogoth's westward migrating and invades Italy, killing Odoacer, the first barbarian ruler, in 488. This continued migration was to stay ahead of the Huns who in 446 began conquering Pannonia. He married Audofledis des Francs Saliens, daughter of Childericus I, rex Francorum and Basena, Frankenkönigin, circa 492 (His 2nd.).9,10,11,3,12 "Et quia Theudericus rex Italiae sororem Chlodovei in matrimonium habuit, ex qua parvulam filiam cum uxore reliquit, cum mater ei regis filium sociandum provideret, a servo, nomine Tranquillane , accipitur."12 Theudericus Magnus, rex Italiae was assumed leadership of the Romans"It was in the third year after his entrance into Italy, as we have said, that Theodoric, by advice of the Emperor Zeno, laid aside the garb of a private citizen and the dress of his race and assumed a costume with a royal mantle, as he had now become the ruler over both Goths and Romans." In 493.1 He was a witness where King Rodulf of the Herulians elected to "son of arms" by Theoderic the Great after 493.13 King of the Ostrogoths at Italy between 493 and 526.14,7 King of Italy in 497. Theudericus Magnus, rex Italiae was acknowledged as "King of Italy" by the Emperor Anastasius. In 497. He associated with Theodora (?) before 505 Concubine. Theudericus Magnus, rex Italiae was a witness where Chlodoveus I, rex Francorum, vir inluster took possession of the Visigoth Kingdom as far as the Pyrenees and the Rhone River after 507.15 Theudericus Magnus, rex Italiae was a witness where Athalaric, King of the Ostrogoths appointed king by his grandfather in 526.1 Theudericus Magnus, rex Italiae died on 30 August 526 at Italy.9,16,17


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