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USS Constitution Museum

USS Constitution Museum

The USS Constitution Museum is a floating museum dedicated to the oldest commissioned ship in the United States Navy that has survived to this day.

USS Constitution Museum history

Prior to independence, Brotain’s thirteen North American colonies enjoyed protection from pirates and foreign navies under the British Royal Navy. Once the United States gained its independence after the American Revolution, however, the young nation needed to protect itself.

In 1794, Congress authorized the construction of the first six warships to comprise the new United States Navy. Each of the six vessles were built at various ports along the eastern coast.

USS Constitution was built at Hartt’s shipyard in the North End of Boston. Construction began in 1794 and Constitution launched on the 21 October, 1797. She went on her first cruise the next year as the Quasi-War with France emerged. Later she served in engagements with pirates off the Barbary coast in the Mediterranean.

The greatest glory for the ship came during the War of 1812. USS Constitution’s crew defeated four British frigates during three separate engagements. She earned the nickname “Old Ironsides” because the cannon fire from enemy ships seemed as if they couldn’t penetrate her strong oak hull.

Before and after these voyages, Constitution had to undergo constant repairs and refits. Most of that work throughout her service was here in Boston at the Charlestown Navy Yard.

Established in 1800, the yard was one of six commissioned for the purpose of keeping the Navy afloat. After over 200 years in the Navy, Constitution still calls Charlestown home and relies on the same facilities for maintenance and repair.

USS Constitution Museum today

Naval officers and crew still serve aboard USS Constitution to this day. The Navy operates the ship as a historic site in cooperation with the National Park Service.

The Naval History and Heritage Command, Detachment Boston, is housed in Building 24 and is responsible for the maintenance, repair and restoration of USS Constitution at the Navy Yard.

Across the pier from Constitution in Building 22 is the USS Constitution Museum. The Museum serves as the memory and educational voice of USS Constitution and provides engaging and hands-on experiences for all visitors.

Getting to the USS Constitution Museum

Located right next to Boston National Historic Park, The USS Constitution Museum does not have a physical street address. For this reason, the museum’s webiste recommends entering in the Nautica Parking Garage into GPS Navigation.

If travelling to the museum via the Subway to reach the Charlestown Navy Yard, the closest stops are Bunker Hill Community College (Orange Line) and North Station (Green Line).

USS Constitution Museum Voted One of Top Five U.S. History Museums

Standing near the center of Old Ironsides last Friday, USS Constitution Museum Director Anne Grimes Rand and Ship Commander John Benda announced the exciting news that the Constitution Museum in the Navy Yard was voted the #5 best history museum in the United States by a USA Today reader’s poll.

“The USS Constitution Museum is pleased to announce we have been voted one of the Top 5 museums in the United States according to a USA Today 2021 Reader’s Choice travel awards poll,” said Rand. “They voted the Top 10 in the United States and we came in at number five.

“We are honored and thrilled by this award, especially in the company of so many prestigious history museums,” she continued. “Our heartfelt thanks to everyone who voted for us, and to our partners who supported our efforts to ‘get out the vote’ and achieve this wonderful distinction. The USS Constitution Museum looks forward to wowing our guests with great hands-on experiences as we share the stories of ‘Old Ironsides’ and her dedicated crew, both past and present.”

Commander Benda said the partnership between the Constitution and the Museum is a very special one, and it goes hand-in-hand.

“This not just a national-class museum, but a world-class museum,” he said. “We could not do what we do without the collaboration of our great partners in the Charlestown Navy Yard like the Constitution Museum.”

The USS Constitution Museum ranked #5 in USA Today’s 2021 10 Best Readers’ Choice travel awards in the category of “Best History Museum.” In a highly competitive category of top museums from around the United States, online votes determined the winners from a group of 20 initial nominees. The Museum was the sole nominee and winner in this category from New England.

The full list of the 10 Best Readers’ Choice Award-winners for Best History Museum is as follows:

•National Infantry Museum & Soldier Center (Columbus, GA)

•National Underground Railroad Freedom Center (Cincinnati, OH)

•National Museum of the Marine Corps (Triangle, VA)

•The Mob Museum (Las Vegas, NV)

•USS Constitution Museum (Boston, MA)

•Museum of History & Industry (Seattle, WA)

•Independence Seaport Museum (Philadelphia, PA)

•National WWII Museum (New Orleans, LA)

•Museum of Native American History (Bentonville, AR)

•The Henry Ford (Dearborn, MI)

The USS Constitution Museum opened last weekend, and it will be open daily for the summer beginning on Thursday, May 27. During Memorial Day weekend, Museum visitors can craft a poppy—a symbol of remembrance—to honor a fallen military service member in their life or share a message of gratitude and add it to our memorial poppy garden. The completed poppies will be featured in a Memorial Day ceremony on board USS Constitution.

Coming up

Created by Jodie McMenamin (jmcm. m.org) on January 30, 2012 - Monday - 9:05 pm (Eastern)
Edited by Lee Wright ([email protected] t.com) on April 25, 2012 - Wednesday - 7:55 pm (Eastern)
Edited by Lee Wright ([email protected] t.com) on June 28, 2012 - Thursday - 4:50 am (Eastern)
Edited by Lee Wright ([email protected] t.com) on August 17, 2012 - Friday - 3:09 pm (Eastern)
Edited by David Wedemeyer (dwed. m.org) on June 24, 2016 - Friday - 4:12 pm (Eastern)
Edited by David Wedemeyer (dwed. m.org) on October 13, 2018 - Saturday - 6:44 pm (Eastern)

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USS Constitution Museum

Charlestown Navy Yard
Building 22
Charlestown, MA 02129
View events


Monday 9:00 am - 6:00 pm
Tuesday 9:00 am - 6:00 pm
Wednesday 9:00 am - 6:00 pm
Thursday 9:00 am - 6:00 pm
Friday 9:00 am - 6:00 pm
Saturday 9:00 am - 6:00 pm
Sunday 9:00 am - 6:00 pm



Take "Sullivan Square/Charlestown" exit (#28). Go straight to the set of traffic lights. At rotary, turn onto Rutherford Avenue and drive past Bunker Hill Community College. At second traffic light, turn left onto Chelsea Street. Follow directions below.


Follow Rte. 1S over Tobin Bridge. Take Charlestown/Somerville exit. At traffic light, turn right onto Rutherford Avenue. At traffic light, turn left onto Chelsea Street. Follow directions below.


Take the I-93 North tunnel. Stay in the right lane. Take exit (#23) (Govt. Center/Aquarium). After exit, follow the sign for North Station. Proceed straight onto N. Washington Street and across the Bridge. Turn right at end of the bridge onto Chelsea Street. Follow directions below.


Take Massachusetts Turnpike (I-90) to the end. Take 1-93N and follow "From South" directions.

On Chelsea Street: Continue along Chelsea Street to the second traffic light and turn right onto Constitution Road. Look for the Nautica Garage public parking entrance on the right. Although public transportation is strongly recommended, discounted parking with Boston National Historical Park validation (which is offered at the Museum) is available at the Nautica Parking Garage.

For those with GPS Navigation: The Nautica Parking Garage is located at 88 Constitution Road, in Charlestown, MA.


Continue on Chelsea Street to first traffic light and turn right onto Warren Street. Make a left turn at the stop sign onto Constitution Road. Drop students off at 55 Constitution Road in front of the National Park Service Visitor Center (students will walk to entrance of Navy Yard just ahead on Constitution Road). To Park, continue on Constitution Road and make a right turn onto Chelsea Street. Take Chelsea to the end (under the Tobin Bridge), travel over a small water channel, follow signs for bus parking on fence, turn right into Mystic Pier 1 property and proceed to Station 1. Wait for attendant. Fee is $10 for school buses and $20 for coach buses per bus per day. No children allowed at bus parking.

MBTA Water Shuttle

Frequent service runs daily from Long Wharf (near the New England Aquarium). From the Water Shuttle's Charlestown pier, walk down to the end of the pier and take a left into the Charlestown Navy Yard. The Museum is the building on the left as you enter the Navy Yard.

Commuter Rail (Points South, West & East)

Old Colony & Fairmont Lines to South Station: From South Station take the Red Line (2 stops) to the Park Street stop and switch to the Green Line Eastbound (3 stops) to the North Station stop (see below for walking instructions) OR from South Station walk down Atlantic Avenue 5 blocks to Long Wharf by the New England Aquarium from which you can take the MBTA Water Shuttle to the Charlestown Navy Yard.

From all other Southside Lines: Get off at Back Bay Station and take the Orange Line directly to North Station (see below for walking instructions).

Commuter Rail (Points North): Directly into North Station (see below for walking instructions).

MBTA Subway

Take the Green or Orange line to North Station. Walk east on Causeway Street towards the Zakim Bridge/North End. At first light (N. Washington Street), turn left and cross the Charlestown Bridge. Follow Freedom Trail Red Line to the Charlestown Navy Yard and enter through Gate 1. Museum is in Building 22.


Take Bus #93 from the Haymarket or Sullivan Square Station to Charlestown Navy Yard stop.


In 1785, Barbary pirates began to seize American merchant vessels in the Mediterranean Sea, most notably from Algiers. In 1793 alone, 11 American ships were captured and their crews and stores held for ransom. To combat this problem, proposals were made for warships to protect American shipping, resulting in the Naval Act of 1794. [12] [13] The act provided funds to construct six frigates, but it included a clause that the construction of the ships would be halted if peace terms were agreed to with Algiers. [14]

Joshua Humphreys' design was unusual for the time, being deep, [15] long on keel, narrow of beam (width), and mounting very heavy guns. The design called for a diagonal riders intended to restrict hogging and sagging while giving the ships extremely heavy planking. This design gave the hull a greater strength than a more lightly built frigate. It was based on Humphrey's realization that the fledgling United States could not match the European states in the size of their navies, so they were designed to overpower any other frigate while escaping from a ship of the line. [16] [17] [18]

Her keel was laid down on 1 November 1794 at Edmund Hartt's shipyard in Boston, Massachusetts under the supervision of Captain Samuel Nicholson, master shipwright Colonel George Claghorn and Foreman Prince Athearn of the Martha's Vineyard Athearns. [19] [20] Constitution ' s hull was built 21 inches (530 mm) thick and her length between perpendiculars was 175 ft (53 m), with a 204 ft (62 m) length overall and a width of 43 ft 6 in (13.26 m). [2] [5] In total, 60 acres (24 ha) of trees were needed for her construction. [21] Primary materials consisted of pine and oak, including southern live oak which was cut from Gascoigne Bluff and milled near St. Simons, Georgia. [19]

A peace accord was announced between the United States and Algiers in March 1796, and construction was halted in accordance with the Naval Act of 1794. [22] After some debate and prompting by President Washington, Congress agreed to continue funding the construction of the three ships nearest to completion: United States, Constellation, and Constitution. [23] [24] Constitution ' s launching ceremony on 20 September 1797 was attended by President John Adams and Massachusetts Governor Increase Sumner. Upon launch, she slid down the ways only 27 feet (8.2 m) before stopping her weight had caused the ways to settle into the ground, preventing further movement. An attempt two days later resulted in only an additional 31 feet (9.4 m) of travel before the ship again stopped. After a month of rebuilding the ways, Constitution finally slipped into Boston Harbor on 21 October 1797, with Captain James Sever breaking a bottle of Madeira wine on her bowsprit. [25] [26]

Armament Edit

Constitution was rated as a 44-gun frigate, but she often carried more than 50 guns at a time. [27] Ships of this era had no permanent battery of guns such as those of modern Navy ships. The guns and cannons were designed to be completely portable and often were exchanged between ships as situations warranted. Each commanding officer outfitted armaments to his liking, taking into consideration factors such as the overall weight of stores, complement of personnel aboard, and planned routes to be sailed. Consequently, the armaments on ships changed often during their careers, and records of the changes were not generally kept. [28]

During the War of 1812, Constitution ' s battery of guns typically consisted of 30 long 24-pounder (11 kg) cannons, with 15 on each side of the gun deck. Another 22 guns were deployed on the spar deck, 11 per side, each a short 32-pounder (15 kg) carronade. Four chase guns were also positioned, two each at the stern and bow. [29]

All of the guns aboard Constitution have been replicas since her 1927–1931 restoration. Most were cast in 1930, but two carronades on the spar deck were cast in 1983. [30] A modern 40 mm (1.6 in) saluting gun was hidden inside the forward long gun on each side during her 1973–1976 restoration in order to restore the capability of firing ceremonial salutes. [31]

President John Adams ordered all Navy ships to sea in late May 1798 to patrol for armed French ships and to free any American ship captured by them. Constitution was still not ready to sail and eventually had to borrow sixteen 18-pound (8.2 kg) cannons from Castle Island before finally being ready. [3] She put to sea on the evening of 22 July 1798 with orders to patrol the Eastern seaboard between New Hampshire and New York. She was patrolling between Chesapeake Bay and Savannah, Georgia a month later when Nicholson found his first opportunity for capturing a prize. They intercepted Niger off the coast of Charleston, South Carolina on 8 September, a 24-gun ship sailing with a French crew en route from Jamaica to Philadelphia, claiming to have been under the orders of Great Britain. [32] Nicholson had the crewmen imprisoned, perhaps not understanding his orders correctly. He placed a prize crew aboard Niger and brought her into Norfolk, Virginia.

Constitution sailed south again a week later to escort a merchant convoy, but her bowsprit was severely damaged in a gale and she returned to Boston for repairs. In the meantime, Secretary of the Navy Benjamin Stoddert determined that Niger had been operating under the orders of Great Britain as claimed, and the ship and her crew were released to continue their voyage. The American government paid a restitution of $11,000 to Great Britain. [33] [34]

Constitution departed Boston on 29 December. Nicholson reported to Commodore John Barry, who was flying his flag in United States near the island of Dominica for patrols in the West Indies. On 15 January 1799, Constitution intercepted the English merchantman Spencer, which had been taken prize by the French frigate L'Insurgente a few days prior. Technically, Spencer was a French ship operated by a French prize crew but Nicholson released the ship and her crew the next morning, perhaps hesitant after the affair with Niger. [35] [36] Upon joining Barry's command, Constitution almost immediately had to put in for repairs to her rigging due to storm damage, and it was not until 1 March that anything of note occurred. On this date, she encountered HMS Santa Margarita [37] [38] whose captain was an acquaintance of Nicholson. The two agreed to a sailing duel, which the English captain was confident he would win. But after 11 hours of sailing, Santa Margarita lowered her sails and admitted defeat, paying off the bet with a cask of wine to Nicholson. [39] Resuming her patrols, Constitution managed to recapture the American sloop Neutrality on 27 March and, a few days later, the French ship Carteret. Secretary Stoddert had other plans, however, and recalled Constitution to Boston. She arrived there on 14 May, and Nicholson was relieved of command. [40]

Change of command Edit

Captain Silas Talbot was recalled to duty to command Constitution and serve as Commodore of operations in the West Indies. After repairs and resupply were completed, Constitution departed Boston on 23 July with a destination of Saint-Domingue via Norfolk and a mission to interrupt French shipping. She took the prize Amelia from a French prize crew on 15 September, and Talbot sent the ship back to New York City with an American prize crew. Constitution arrived at Saint-Domingue on 15 October and rendezvoused with Boston, General Greene, and Norfolk. No further incidents occurred over the next six months, as French depredations in the area had declined. Constitution busied herself with routine patrols and Talbot made diplomatic visits. [41] It was not until April 1800 that Talbot investigated an increase in ship traffic near Puerto Plata, Santo Domingo, and discovered that the French privateer Sandwich had taken refuge there. On 8 May the squadron captured the sloop Sally, and Talbot hatched a plan to capture Sandwich by utilizing the familiarity of Sally to allow the Americans access to the harbor. [42] First Lieutenant Isaac Hull led 90 sailors and Marines into Puerto Plata without challenge on 11 May, capturing Sandwich and spiking the guns of the nearby Spanish fort. [43] However, it was later determined that Sandwich had been captured from a neutral port she was returned to the French with apologies, and no prize money was awarded to the squadron. [44] [45]

Routine patrols again occupied Constitution for the next two months, until 13 July, when the mainmast trouble of a few months before recurred. She put into Cap Français for repairs. With the terms of enlistment soon to expire for the sailors aboard her, she made preparations to return to the United States and was relieved of duty by Constellation on 23 July. Constitution escorted 12 merchantmen to Philadelphia on her return voyage, and on 24 August put in at Boston, where she received new masts, sails, and rigging. Even though peace was imminent between the United States and France, Constitution again sailed for the West Indies on 17 December as squadron flagship, rendezvousing with Congress, Adams, Augusta, Richmond, and Trumbull. Although no longer allowed to pursue French shipping, the squadron was assigned to protect American shipping and continued in that capacity until April 1801, when Herald arrived with orders for the squadron to return to the United States. Constitution returned to Boston, where she lingered she was finally scheduled for an overhaul in October, but it was later canceled. She was placed in ordinary on 2 July 1802. [46]

The United States paid tribute to the Barbary States during the Quasi-War to ensure that American merchant ships were not harassed and seized. [47] In 1801, Yusuf Karamanli of Tripoli was dissatisfied that the United States was paying him less than they paid Algiers, and he demanded an immediate payment of $250,000. [48] In response, Thomas Jefferson sent a squadron of frigates to protect American merchant ships in the Mediterranean and to pursue peace with the Barbary States. [49] [50]

The first squadron under the command of Richard Dale in President was instructed to escort merchant ships through the Mediterranean and to negotiate with leaders of the Barbary States. [49] A second squadron was assembled under the command of Richard Valentine Morris in Chesapeake. The performance of Morris's squadron was so poor, however, that he was recalled and subsequently dismissed from the Navy in 1803. [51]

Captain Edward Preble recommissioned Constitution on 13 May 1803 as his flagship and made preparations to command a new squadron for a third blockade attempt. The copper sheathing on her hull needed to be replaced and Paul Revere supplied the copper sheets necessary for the job. [52] [53] She departed Boston on 14 August, and she encountered an unknown ship in the darkness on 6 September, near the Rock of Gibraltar. Constitution went to general quarters, then ran alongside the unknown ship. Preble hailed her, only to receive a hail in return. He identified his ship as the United States frigate Constitution but received an evasive answer from the other ship. Preble replied: "I am now going to hail you for the last time. If a proper answer is not returned, I will fire a shot into you." The stranger returned, "If you give me a shot, I'll give you a broadside." Preble demanded that the other ship identify herself and the stranger replied, "This is His Britannic Majesty's ship Donegal, 84 guns, Sir Richard Strachan, an English commodore." He then commanded Preble, "Send your boat on board." Preble was now devoid of all patience and exclaimed, "This is United States ship Constitution, 44 guns, Edward Preble, an American commodore, who will be damned before he sends his boat on board of any vessel." And then to his gun crews: "Blow your matches, boys!" [Note 2] Before the incident escalated further, however, a boat arrived from the other ship and a British lieutenant relayed his captain's apologies. The ship was in fact not Donegal but instead HMS Maidstone, a 32-gun frigate. Constitution had come alongside her so quietly that Maidstone had delayed answering with the proper hail while she readied her guns. [54] This act began the strong allegiance between Preble and the officers under his command, known as "Preble's boys", as he had shown that he was willing to defy a presumed ship of the line. [55] [56]

Constitution arrived at Gibraltar on 12 September where Preble waited for the other ships of the squadron. His first order of business was to arrange a treaty with Sultan Slimane of Morocco, who was holding American ships hostage to ensure the return of two vessels that the Americans had captured. Constitution and Nautilus departed Gibraltar on 3 October and arrived at Tangiers on the 4th. Adams and New York arrived the next day. With four American warships in his harbor, the Sultan was glad to arrange the transfer of ships between the two nations, and Preble departed with his squadron on 14 October, heading back to Gibraltar. [57] [58] [59]

Battle of Tripoli Harbor Edit

Philadelphia ran aground off Tripoli on 31 October under the command of William Bainbridge while pursuing a Tripoline vessel. The crew was taken prisoner Philadelphia was refloated by the Tripolines and brought into their harbor. [60] [61] To deprive the Tripolines of their prize, Preble planned to destroy Philadelphia using the captured ship Mastico, which was renamed Intrepid. Intrepid entered Tripoli Harbor on 16 February 1804 under the command of Stephen Decatur, disguised as a merchant ship. Decatur's crew quickly overpowered the Tripoline crew and set Philadelphia ablaze. [62] [63]

Preble withdrew the squadron to Syracuse, Sicily and began planning for a summer attack on Tripoli. He procured a number of smaller gunboats that could move in closer to Tripoli than was feasible for Constitution, given her deep draft. [64] Constitution, Argus, Enterprise, Scourge, Syren, the six gunboats, and two bomb ketches arrived the morning of 3 August and immediately began operations. Twenty-two Tripoline gunboats met them in the harbor Constitution and her squadron severely damaged or destroyed the Tripoline gunboats in a series of attacks over the coming month, taking their crews prisoner. Constitution primarily provided gunfire support, bombarding the shore batteries of Tripoli—yet Karamanli remained firm in his demand for ransom and tribute, despite his losses. [65] [66]

Preble outfitted Intrepid as a "floating volcano" with 100 short tons (91 t) of gunpowder aboard in a final attempt of the season. She was to sail into Tripoli harbor and blow up in the midst of the corsair fleet, close under the walls of the city. Intrepid made her way into the harbor on the evening of 3 September under the command of Richard Somers, but she exploded prematurely, killing Somers and his entire crew of thirteen volunteers. [67] [68]

Constellation and President arrived at Tripoli on the 9th with Samuel Barron in command Preble was forced to relinquish his command of the squadron to Barron, who was senior in rank. [69] Constitution was ordered to Malta on the 11th for repairs and, while en route, captured two Greek vessels attempting to deliver wheat into Tripoli. [70] On the 12th, a collision with President severely damaged Constitution ' s bow, stern, and figurehead of Hercules. The collision was attributed to an act of God in the form of a sudden change in wind direction. [71] [72]

Peace treaty Edit

Captain John Rodgers assumed command of Constitution on 9 November 1804 while she underwent repairs and resupply in Malta. She resumed the blockade of Tripoli on 5 April 1805, capturing a Tripoline xebec, along with two prizes that the xebec had captured. [73] Meanwhile, Commodore Barron gave William Eaton naval support to bombard Derne, while a detachment of US Marines under the command of Presley O'Bannon was assembled to attack the city by land. They captured it on 27 April. [74] A peace treaty with Tripoli was signed aboard Constitution on 3 June, in which she embarked the crew members of Philadelphia and returned them to Syracuse. [75] She was then dispatched to Tunis and arrived there on 30 July. Seventeen additional American warships had gathered in its harbor by 1 August: Congress, Constellation, Enterprise, Essex, Franklin, Hornet, John Adams, Nautilus, Syren, and eight gunboats. Negotiations went on for several days until a short-term blockade of the harbor finally produced a peace treaty on 14 August. [76] [77]

Rodgers remained in command of the squadron, sending warships back to the United States when they were no longer needed. Eventually, all that remained were Constitution, Enterprise, and Hornet. They performed routine patrols and observed the French and Royal Navy operations of the Napoleonic Wars. [78] Rodgers turned over the command of the squadron and Constitution to Captain Hugh G. Campbell on 29 May 1806. [79]

James Barron sailed Chesapeake out of Norfolk on 15 May 1807 to replace Constitution as the flagship of the Mediterranean squadron but he encountered HMS Leopard, resulting in the ChesapeakeLeopard affair and delaying the relief of Constitution. [80] Constitution continued patrols, unaware of the delay. She arrived in late June at Leghorn, where she took aboard the disassembled Tripoli Monument for transport back to the United States. Campbell learned the fate of Chesapeake when he arrived at Málaga, and he immediately began preparing Constitution and Hornet for possible war against Britain. The crew became mutinous upon learning of the delay in their relief and refused to sail any farther unless the destination was the United States. Campbell and his officers threatened to fire a cannon full of grapeshot at the crewmen if they did not comply, thereby putting an end to the conflict. Campbell and the squadron were ordered home on 18 August and set sail for Boston on 8 September, arriving there on 14 October. Constitution had been gone for more than four years. [81] [82]

Constitution was recommissioned in December with Captain John Rodgers again taking command to oversee a major refitting. She was overhauled at a cost just under $100,000 however, Rodgers inexplicably failed to clean her copper sheathing, leading him to later declare her a "slow sailer". She spent most of the following two years on training runs and ordinary duty. [83] Isaac Hull took command in June 1810, and he immediately recognized that she needed her bottom cleaned. "Ten waggon loads" of barnacles and seaweed were removed. [84]

Hull departed for France on 5 August 1811, transporting the new Ambassador Joel Barlow and his family they arrived on 1 September. Hull remained near France and the Netherlands through the winter months, continually holding sail and gun drills to keep the crew ready for possible hostilities with the British. Tensions were high between the United States and Britain after the events of the Little Belt affair the previous May, and Constitution was shadowed by British frigates while awaiting dispatches from Barlow to carry back to the United States. They arrived home on 18 February 1812. [85] [86]

War was declared on 18 June and Hull put to sea on 12 July, attempting to join the five ships of a squadron under the command of Rodgers in President. He sighted five ships off Egg Harbor, New Jersey on 17 July and at first believed them to be Rodgers' squadron but, by the following morning, the lookouts determined that they were a British squadron out of Halifax: HMS Aeolus, Africa, Belvidera, Guerriere, and Shannon. They had sighted Constitution and were giving chase. [87] [88]

Hull found himself becalmed, but he acted on a suggestion from Charles Morris. He ordered the crew to put boats over the side to tow the ship out of range, using kedge anchors to draw the ship forward and wetting the sails to take advantage of every breath of wind. [89] The British ships soon imitated the tactic of kedging and remained in pursuit. The resulting 57-hour chase in the July heat forced the crew of Constitution to employ myriad tactics to outrun the squadron, finally pumping overboard 2,300 US gal (8.7 kl) of drinking water. [90] Cannon fire was exchanged several times, though the British attempts fell short or overshot their mark, including an attempted broadside from Belvidera. On 19 July, Constitution pulled far enough ahead of the British that they abandoned the pursuit. [91] [92]

Constitution arrived in Boston on 27 July and remained there just long enough to replenish her supplies. Hull sailed without orders on 2 August to avoid being blockaded in port, [93] heading on a northeast route towards the British shipping lanes near Halifax and the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. Constitution captured three British merchantmen, which Hull burned rather than risk taking them back to an American port. On 16 August, he learned of a British frigate 100 nmi (190 km 120 mi) to the south and sailed in pursuit. [94] [95]

Constitution vs. Guerriere Edit

A frigate was sighted on 19 August and subsequently determined to be HMS Guerriere (38) with the words "Not The Little Belt" painted on her foretopsail. [96] [Note 3] Guerriere opened fire upon entering range of Constitution, doing little damage. After a few exchanges of cannon fire between the ships, Captain Hull maneuvered Constitution into an advantageous position within 25 yards (23 m) of Guerriere. He then ordered a full double-loaded broadside of grape and round shot which took out Guerriere ' s mizzenmast. [97] [98] Guerriere ' s maneuverability decreased with her mizzenmast dragging in the water, and she collided with Constitution, entangling her bowsprit in Constitution ' s mizzen rigging. This left only Guerriere ' s bow guns capable of effective fire. Hull's cabin caught fire from the shots, but it was quickly extinguished. With the ships locked together, both captains ordered boarding parties into action, but the sea was heavy and neither party was able to board the opposing ship. [99]

At one point, the two ships rotated together counter-clockwise, with Constitution continuing to fire broadsides. When the two ships pulled apart, the force of the bowsprit's extraction sent shock waves through Guerriere ' s rigging. Her foremast collapsed, and that brought the mainmast down shortly afterward. [100] Guerriere was now a dismasted, unmanageable hulk with close to a third of her crew wounded or killed, while Constitution remained largely intact. The British surrendered. [101]

Hull had surprised the British with his heavier broadsides and his ship's sailing ability. Adding to their astonishment, many of the British shots had rebounded harmlessly off Constitution ' s hull. An American sailor reportedly exclaimed "Huzzah! her sides are made of iron!" and Constitution acquired the nickname "Old Ironsides". [102]

The battle left Guerriere so badly damaged that she was not worth towing to port, and Hull ordered her to be burned the next morning, after transferring the British prisoners onto Constitution. [103] Constitution arrived back in Boston on 30 August, where Hull and his crew found that news of their victory had spread fast, and they were hailed as heroes. [104]

Constitution vs Java Edit

William Bainbridge, senior to Hull, took command of "Old Ironsides" on 8 September and prepared her for another mission in British shipping lanes near Brazil, sailing with Hornet on 27 October. They arrived near São Salvador on 13 December, sighting HMS Bonne Citoyenne in the harbor. [105] Bonne Citoyenne was reportedly carrying $1.6 million in specie to England, and her captain refused to leave the neutral harbor lest he lose his cargo. Constitution sailed offshore in search of prizes, leaving Hornet to await the departure of Bonne Citoyenne. [106] On 29 December, she met with HMS Java under Captain Henry Lambert. At the initial hail from Bainbridge, Java answered with a broadside that severely damaged Constitution ' s rigging. She was able to recover, however, and returned a series of broadsides to Java. A shot from Java destroyed Constitution ' s helm (wheel), so Bainbridge directed the crew to steer her manually using the tiller for the remainder of the engagement. [107] Bainbridge was wounded twice during the battle. Java ' s bowsprit became entangled in Constitution ' s rigging, as in the battle with Guerriere, allowing Bainbridge to continue raking her with broadsides. Java ' s foremast collapsed, sending her fighting top crashing down through two decks below. [108]

Bainbridge drew off to make emergency repairs and re-approached Java an hour later. She lay in shambles, an unmanageable wreck with a badly wounded crew, and she surrendered. [109] Bainbridge determined that Java was far too damaged to retain as a prize and ordered her burned, but not before having her helm salvaged and installed on Constitution. [110] Constitution returned to São Salvador on 1 January 1813 to disembark the prisoners of Java, where she met with Hornet and her two British prizes. Bainbridge ordered Constitution to sail for Boston on 5 January, [111] being far away from a friendly port and needing extensive repairs, leaving Hornet behind to continue waiting for Bonne Citoyenne in the hopes that she would leave the harbor (she did not). [112] Java was the third British warship in as many months to be captured by the United States, and Constitution ' s victory prompted the British Admiralty to order its frigates not to engage the heavier American frigates one-on-one only British ships of the line or squadrons were permitted to come close enough to attack. [113] [114] Constitution arrived in Boston on 15 February to even greater celebrations than Hull had received a few months earlier. [115]

Marblehead and blockade Edit

Bainbridge determined that Constitution required new spar deck planking and beams, masts, sails, and rigging, as well as replacement of her copper bottom. However, personnel and supplies were being diverted to the Great Lakes, causing shortages that kept her in Boston intermittently with her sister ships Chesapeake, Congress, and President for the majority of the year. [116] Charles Stewart took command on 18 July and struggled to complete the construction and recruitment of a new crew, [117] finally making sail on 31 December. She set course for the West Indies to harass British shipping and had captured five merchant ships and the 14-gun HMS Pictou by late March 1814. She also pursued HMS Columbine and HMS Pique, though both ships escaped after realizing that she was an American frigate. [118]

Her mainmast split off the coast of Bermuda on 27 March, requiring immediate repair. Stewart set a course for Boston, where British ships HMS Junon and Tenedos commenced pursuit on 3 April. Stewart ordered drinking water and food to be cast overboard to lighten her load and gain speed, trusting that her mainmast would hold together long enough for her to make her way into Marblehead, Massachusetts. [119] The last item thrown overboard was the supply of spirits. Upon Constitution ' s arrival in the harbor, the citizens of Marblehead rallied in support, assembling what cannons they possessed at Fort Sewall, and the British called off the pursuit. [120] Two weeks later, Constitution made her way into Boston, where she remained blockaded in port until mid-December. [121]

HMS Cyane and HMS Levant Edit

Captain George Collier of the Royal Navy received command of the 50-gun HMS Leander and was sent to North America to deal with the American frigates that were causing such losses to British shipping. [122] Meanwhile, Charles Stewart saw his chance to escape from Boston Harbor and made it good on the afternoon of 18 December, and Constitution again set course for Bermuda. [123] Collier gathered a squadron consisting of Leander, Newcastle, and Acasta and set off in pursuit, but he was unable to overtake her. [124] On 24 December, Constitution intercepted the merchantman Lord Nelson and placed a prize crew aboard. Constitution had left Boston not fully supplied, but Lord Nelson ' s stores supplied a Christmas dinner for the crew. [123]

Constitution was cruising off Cape Finisterre on 8 February 1815 when Stewart learned that the Treaty of Ghent had been signed. He realized, however, that a state of war still existed until the treaty was ratified, and Constitution captured the British merchantman Susanna on 16 February her cargo of animal hides was valued at $75,000. [125]

On 20 February, Constitution sighted the small British ships Cyane and Levant sailing in company and gave chase. [126] Cyane and Levant began a series of broadsides against her, but Stewart outmaneuvered both of them and forced Levant to draw off for repairs. He concentrated fire on Cyane, which soon struck her colors. [126] Levant returned to engage Constitution but she turned and attempted to escape when she saw that Cyane had been defeated. [127] Constitution overtook her and, after several more broadsides, she struck her colors. [126] Stewart remained with his new prizes overnight while ordering repairs to all ships. Constitution had suffered little damage in the battle, though it was later discovered that she had twelve 32-pound British cannonballs embedded in her hull, none of which had penetrated. [128] The trio then set a course for the Cape Verde Islands and arrived at Porto Praya on 10 March. [126]

The next morning, Collier's squadron was spotted on a course for the harbor, and Stewart ordered all ships to sail immediately [126] he had been unaware until then of Collier's pursuit. [129] Cyane was able to elude the squadron and make sail for America, where she arrived on 10 April, but Levant was overtaken and recaptured. Collier's squadron was distracted with Levant while Constitution made another escape from overwhelming forces. [130]

Constitution set a course towards Guinea and then west towards Brazil, as Stewart had learned from the capture of Susanna that HMS Inconstant was transporting gold bullion back to England, and he wanted her as a prize. Constitution put into Maranhão on 2 April to offload her British prisoners and replenish her drinking water. [131] While there, Stewart learned by rumor that the Treaty of Ghent had been ratified, and set course for America, receiving verification of peace at San Juan, Puerto Rico on 28 April. He then set course for New York and arrived home on 15 May to large celebrations. [126] Constitution emerged from the war undefeated, though her sister ships Chesapeake and President were not so fortunate, having been captured in 1813 and 1815 respectively. [132] [133] Constitution was moved to Boston and placed in ordinary in January 1816, sitting out the Second Barbary War. [130]

Mediterranean Squadron Edit

Charlestown Navy Yard's commandant Isaac Hull directed a refitting of Constitution to prepare her for duty with the Mediterranean Squadron in April 1820. They removed Joshua Humphreys' diagonal riders to make room for two iron freshwater tanks, and they replaced the copper sheathing and timbers below the waterline. [134] At the direction of Secretary of the Navy Smith Thompson, she was also subjected to an unusual experiment in which manually operated paddle wheels were fitted to her hull. The paddle wheels were designed to propel her at up to 3 knots (5.6 km/h 3.5 mph) if she was ever becalmed, by the crew using the ship's capstan. [135] Initial testing was successful, but Hull and Constitution ' s commanding officer Jacob Jones were reportedly unimpressed with paddle wheels on a US Navy ship. Jones had them removed and stowed in the cargo hold before he departed on 13 May 1821 for a three-year tour of duty in the Mediterranean. [130] On 12 April 1823, she collided with the British merchant ship Bicton in the Mediterranean Sea, and Bicton sank with the loss of her captain. [136]

Constitution otherwise experienced an uneventful tour, sailing in company with Ontario and Nonsuch, until crew behavior during shore leave gave Jones a reputation as a commodore who was lax in discipline. The Navy grew weary of receiving complaints about the crews' antics while in port and ordered Jones to return. Constitution arrived in Boston on 31 May 1824, and Jones was relieved of command. [137] Thomas Macdonough took command and sailed on 29 October for the Mediterranean under the direction of John Rodgers in North Carolina. With discipline restored, Constitution resumed uneventful duty. Macdonough resigned his command for health reasons on 9 October 1825. [138] Constitution put in for repairs during December and into January 1826, until Daniel Todd Patterson assumed command on 21 February. By August, she had been put into Port Mahon, suffering decay of her spar deck, and she remained there until temporary repairs were completed in March 1827. Constitution returned to Boston on 4 July 1828 and was placed in reserve. [139] [140]

Constitution was built in an era when a ship's expected service life was 10 to 15 years. [141] Secretary of the Navy John Branch made a routine order for surveys of ships in the reserve fleet, and commandant of the Charlestown Navy Yard Charles Morris estimated a repair cost of over $157,000 for Constitution. [142] On 14 September 1830, an article appeared in the Boston Advertiser which erroneously claimed that the Navy intended to scrap Constitution. [143] [Note 4] Two days later, Oliver Wendell Holmes' poem "Old Ironsides" was published in the same paper and later all over the country, igniting public indignation and inciting efforts to save "Old Ironsides" from the scrap yard. Secretary Branch approved the costs, and Constitution began a leisurely repair period while awaiting completion of the dry dock then under construction at the yard. [144] In contrast to the efforts to save Constitution, another round of surveys in 1834 found her sister ship Congress unfit for repair she was unceremoniously broken up in 1835. [145] [146]

On 24 June 1833, Constitution entered dry dock. Captain Jesse Elliott, the new commander of the Navy yard, oversaw her reconstruction. Constitution had 30 in (760 mm) of hog in her keel and remained in dry dock until 21 June 1834. This was the first of many times that souvenirs were made from her old planking Isaac Hull ordered walking canes, picture frames, and even a phaeton that was presented to President Andrew Jackson. [147]

Meanwhile, Elliot directed the installation of a new figurehead of President Jackson under the bowsprit, which became a subject of much controversy due to Jackson's political unpopularity in Boston at the time. [148] Elliot was a Jacksonian Democrat, [149] and he received death threats. Rumors circulated about the citizens of Boston storming the navy yard to remove the figurehead themselves. [145] [150]

A merchant captain named Samuel Dewey accepted a small wager as to whether he could complete the task of removal. [151] Elliot had posted guards on Constitution to ensure the safety of the figurehead, but Dewey crossed the Charles River in a small boat, using the noise of thunderstorms to mask his movements, and managed to saw off most of Jackson's head. [151] The severed head made the rounds between taverns and meeting houses in Boston until Dewey personally returned it to Secretary of the Navy Mahlon Dickerson it remained on Dickerson's library shelf for many years. [152] [153] The addition of busts to her stern escaped controversy of any kind, depicting Isaac Hull, William Bainbridge, and Charles Stewart the busts remained in place for the next 40 years. [154]

Mediterranean and Pacific Squadrons Edit

Elliot was appointed captain of Constitution and got underway in March 1835 to New York, where he ordered repairs to the Jackson figurehead, avoiding a second round of controversy. [155] Departing on 16 March Constitution set a course for France to deliver Edward Livingston to his post as Minister. She arrived on 10 April and began the return voyage on 16 May. She arrived back in Boston on 23 June, then sailed on 19 August to take her station as flagship in the Mediterranean, arriving at Port Mahon on 19 September. Her duty over the next two years was uneventful as she and United States made routine patrols and diplomatic visits. [156] [157] From April 1837 into February 1838, Elliot collected various ancient artifacts to carry back to America, adding various livestock during the return voyage. Constitution arrived in Norfolk on 31 July. Elliot was later suspended from duty for transporting livestock on a Navy ship. [156] [157]

As the flagship of the Pacific Squadron under the command of Captain Daniel Turner, she began her next voyage on 1 March 1839 with the duty of patrolling the western coast of South America. Often spending months in one port or another, she visited Valparaíso, Callao, Paita, and Puna while her crew amused themselves with the beaches and taverns in each locality. [158] The return voyage found her at Rio de Janeiro, where Emperor Pedro II of Brazil visited her about 29 August 1841. Departing Rio, she returned to Norfolk on 31 October. On 22 June 1842, she was recommissioned under the command of Foxhall Alexander Parker for duty with the Home Squadron. After spending months in port she put to sea for three weeks during December, then was again put in ordinary. [156]

Around the world Edit

In late 1843, she was moored at Norfolk, serving as a receiving ship. Naval Constructor Foster Rhodes calculated that it would require $70,000 to make her seaworthy. Acting Secretary David Henshaw faced a dilemma. His budget could not support such a cost, yet he could not allow the country's favorite ship to deteriorate. He turned to Captain John Percival, known in the service as "Mad Jack". The captain traveled to Virginia and conducted his own survey of the ship's needs. He reported that the necessary repairs and upgrades could be done at a cost of $10,000. On 6 November, Henshaw told Percival to proceed without delay, but stay within his projected figure. After several months of labor, Percival reported Constitution ready for "a two or even a three-year cruise." [159]

She got underway on 29 May 1844 carrying Ambassador to Brazil Henry A. Wise and his family, arriving at Rio de Janeiro on 2 August after making two port visits along the way. She sailed again on 8 September, making port calls at Madagascar, Mozambique, and Zanzibar, and arriving at Sumatra on 1 January 1845. Many of her crew began to suffer from dysentery and fevers, causing several deaths, which led Percival to set course for Singapore, arriving there 8 February. While in Singapore, Commodore Henry Ducie Chads of HMS Cambrian paid a visit to Constitution, offering what medical assistance his squadron could provide. Chads had been the Lieutenant of Java when she surrendered to William Bainbridge 33 years earlier. [160]

Leaving Singapore, Constitution arrived at Turon, Cochinchina (present-day Da Nang, Vietnam) on 10 May. Not long after, Percival was informed that French missionary Dominique Lefèbvre was being held captive under sentence of death. He went ashore with a squad of Marines to speak with the local Mandarin. Percival demanded the return of Lefèbvre and took three local leaders hostage to ensure that his demands were met. When no communication was forthcoming, he ordered the capture of three junks, which were brought to Constitution. He released the hostages after two days, attempting to show good faith towards the Mandarin, who had demanded their return. During a storm, the three junks escaped upriver a detachment of Marines pursued and recaptured them. The supply of food and water from shore was stopped, and Percival gave in to another demand for the release of the junks in order to keep his ship supplied, expecting Lefèbvre to be released. He soon realized that no return would be made, however, and Percival ordered Constitution to depart on 26 May. [161]

She arrived at Canton, China on 20 June and spent the next six weeks there, while Percival made shore and diplomatic visits. Again the crew suffered from dysentery due to poor drinking water, resulting in three more deaths by the time that she reached Manila on 18 September, spending a week there preparing to enter the Pacific Ocean. She then sailed on 28 September for the Hawaiian Islands, arriving at Honolulu on 16 November. She found Commodore John D. Sloat and his flagship Savannah there Sloat informed Percival that Constitution was needed in Mexico, as the United States was preparing for war after the Texas annexation. She provisioned for six months and sailed for Mazatlán, arriving there on 13 January 1846. She sat at anchor for more than three months until she was finally allowed to sail for home on 22 April, rounding Cape Horn on 4 July. Arriving in Rio de Janeiro, the ship's party learned that the Mexican War had begun on 13 May, soon after their departure from Mazatlán. She arrived home in Boston on 27 September and was mothballed on 5 October. [162]

Mediterranean and African Squadrons Edit

Constitution began a refitting in 1847 for duty with the Mediterranean Squadron. The figurehead of Andrew Jackson that caused so much controversy 15 years earlier was replaced with another likeness of Jackson, this time without a top hat and with a more Napoleonic pose. Captain John Gwinn commanded her on this voyage, departing on 9 December 1848 and arriving at Tripoli on 19 January 1849. She received King Ferdinand II and Pope Pius IX on board at Gaeta on 1 August, giving them a 21-gun salute. This was the first time that a Pope set foot on American territory or its equivalent. [163]

At Palermo on 1 September, Captain Gwinn died of chronic gastritis and was buried near Lazaretto on the 9th. Captain Thomas Conover assumed command on the 18th and resumed routine patrolling for the rest of the tour, heading home on 1 December 1850. She was involved in a severe collision with the English brig Confidence, cutting her in half, which sank with the loss of her captain. The surviving crew members were carried back to America, where Constitution was put in ordinary once again, this time at the Brooklyn Navy Yard in January 1851. [164]

Constitution was recommissioned on 22 December 1852 under the command of John Rudd. She carried Commodore Isaac Mayo for duty with the African Squadron, departing the yard on 2 March 1853 on a leisurely sail towards Africa and arriving there on 18 June. Mayo made a diplomatic visit in Liberia, arranging a treaty between the Gbarbo and the Grebo tribes. Mayo resorted to firing cannons into the village of the Gbarbo in order to get them to agree to the treaty. About 22 June 1854, he arranged another peace treaty between the leaders of Grahway and Half Cavally. [165]

Constitution took the American ship H.N. Gambrill as a prize near Angola on 3 November. Gambrill was involved in the slave trade and proved to be Constitution's final capture. [166] The rest of her tour passed uneventfully and she sailed for home on 31 March 1855. She was diverted to Havana, Cuba, arriving there on 16 May and departing on the 24th. She arrived at Portsmouth Navy Yard and was decommissioned on 14 June, ending her last duty on the front lines. [167]

Civil War Edit

Since the formation of the US Naval Academy in 1845, there had been a growing need for quarters in which to house the students (midshipmen). In 1857, Constitution was moved to dry dock at the Portsmouth Navy Yard for conversion into a training ship. Some of the earliest known photographs of her were taken during this refitting, which added classrooms on her spar and gun decks and reduced her armament to only 16 guns. Her rating was changed to a "2nd rate ship". She was recommissioned on 1 August 1860 and moved from Portsmouth to the Naval Academy. [168] [169]

At the outbreak of the Civil War in April 1861, Constitution was ordered to relocate farther north after threats had been made against her by Confederate sympathizers. [170] Several companies of Massachusetts volunteer soldiers were stationed aboard for her protection. [171] R. R. Cuyler towed her to New York City, where she arrived on 29 April. She was subsequently relocated, along with the Naval Academy, to Fort Adams in Newport, Rhode Island for the duration of the war. Her sister ship United States was abandoned by the Union and then captured by Confederate forces at the Gosport Shipyard, leaving Constitution the only remaining frigate of the original six. [143] [172]

The Navy launched an ironclad on 10 May 1862 as part of the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron, and they bestowed on her the name New Ironsides to honor Constitution ' s tradition of service. However, New Ironsides ' s naval career was short, as she was destroyed by fire on 16 December 1865. [173] In August 1865, Constitution moved back to Annapolis, along with the rest of the Naval Academy. During the voyage, she was allowed to drop her tow lines from the tug and continue alone under wind power. Despite her age, she was recorded running at 9 knots (17 km/h 10 mph) and arrived at Hampton Roads ten hours ahead of the tug. [143] Andersonville Prisoners- "Thorp and his fellow soldiers were transported to Jacksonville, Fla., then on USS Constitution to “Camp Parole” in Annapolis, Md. There, they were issued rations, clothing and back pay before being sent to their respective regimental headquarters for discharge." [174]

Settling in again at the Academy, a series of upgrades was installed that included steam pipes and radiators to supply heat from shore, along with gas lighting. From June to August each year, she would depart with midshipmen for their summer training cruise and then return to operate for the rest of the year as a classroom. In June 1867, her last known plank owner William Bryant died in Maine. George Dewey assumed command in November and he served as her commanding officer until 1870. In 1871, her condition had deteriorated to the point where she was retired as a training ship, and then towed to the Philadelphia Navy Yard where she was placed in ordinary on 26 September. [175]

Paris Exposition Edit

Constitution was overhauled beginning in 1873 in order to participate in the centennial celebrations of the United States. Work began slowly and was intermittently delayed by the transition of the Philadelphia Navy Yard to League Island. By late 1875, the Navy opened bids for an outside contractor to complete the work, and Constitution was moved to Wood, Dialogue, and Company in May 1876, where a coal bin and a small boiler for heat were installed. The Andrew Jackson figurehead was removed at this time and given to the Naval Academy Museum where it remains today. [176] Her construction dragged on during the rest of 1876 until the centennial celebrations had long passed, and the Navy decided that she would be used as a training and school ship for apprentices. [177]

Oscar C. Badger took command on 9 January 1878 to prepare her for a voyage to the Paris Exposition of 1878, transporting artwork and industrial displays to France. [178] Three railroad cars were lashed to her spar deck and all but two cannons were removed when she departed on 4 March. While docking at Le Havre, she collided with Ville de Paris, which resulted in Constitution entering dry dock for repairs and remaining in France for the rest of 1878. She got underway for the United States on 16 January 1879, but poor navigation ran her aground the next day near Bollard Head. She was towed into the Portsmouth Naval Dockyard, Hampshire, England, where only minor damage was found and repaired. [179]

Her problem-plagued voyage continued on 13 February when her rudder was damaged during heavy storms, resulting in a total loss of steering control with the rudder smashing into the hull at random. Three crewmen went over the stern on ropes and boatswain's chairs and secured it. The next morning, they rigged a temporary steering system. Badger set a course for the nearest port, and she arrived in Lisbon on 18 February. Slow dock services delayed her departure until 11 April and her voyage home did not end until 24 May. [180] Carpenter's Mate Henry Williams, Captain of the Top Joseph Matthews, and Captain of the Top James Horton received the Medal of Honor for their actions in repairing the damaged rudder at sea. [181] Constitution returned to her previous duties of training apprentice boys, [182] and Ship's Corporal James Thayer received a Medal of Honor for saving a fellow crew member from drowning on 16 November. [181]

Over the next two years, she continued her training cruises, but it soon became apparent that her overhaul in 1876 had been of poor quality and she was determined to be unfit for service in 1881. Funds were lacking for another overhaul, so she was decommissioned, ending her days as an active-duty naval ship. She was moved to the Portsmouth Navy Yard and used as a receiving ship. There, she had a housing structure built over her spar deck, and her condition continued to deteriorate, with only a minimal amount of maintenance performed to keep her afloat. [168] [183] In 1896, Massachusetts Congressman John F. Fitzgerald became aware of her condition and proposed to Congress that funds be appropriated to restore her enough to return to Boston. [184] She arrived at the Charlestown Navy Yard under tow on 21 September 1897 [185] and, after her centennial celebrations in October, she lay there with an uncertain future. [168] [186]

In 1900, Congress authorized the restoration of Constitution but did not appropriate any funds for the project funding was to be raised privately. The Massachusetts Society of the United Daughters of the War of 1812 spearheaded an effort to raise funds, but they ultimately failed. [187] In 1903, the Massachusetts Historical Society's president Charles Francis Adams requested of Congress that Constitution be rehabilitated and placed back into active service. [188]

In 1905, Secretary of the Navy Charles Joseph Bonaparte suggested that Constitution be towed out to sea and used as target practice, after which she would be allowed to sink. Moses H. Gulesian read about this in a Boston newspaper he was a businessman from Worcester, Massachusetts, and he offered to purchase her for $10,000. [187] [189] The State Department refused, but Gulesian initiated a public campaign which began from Boston and ultimately "spilled all over the country." [189] The storms of protest from the public prompted Congress to authorize $100,000 in 1906 for the ship's restoration. First to be removed was the barracks structure on her spar deck, but the limited amount of funds allowed just a partial restoration. [190] By 1907, Constitution began to serve as a museum ship, with tours offered to the public. On 1 December 1917, she was renamed Old Constitution to free her name for a planned, new Lexington-class battlecruiser. The name Constitution was originally destined for the lead ship of the class, but was shuffled between hulls until CC-5 was given the name construction of CC-5 was canceled in 1923 due to the Washington Naval Treaty. The incomplete hull was sold for scrap and Old Constitution was granted the return of her name on 24 July 1925. [1]

1925 restoration and tour Edit

Admiral Edward Walter Eberle, Chief of Naval Operations, ordered the Board of Inspection and Survey to compile a report on her condition, and the inspection of 19 February 1924 found her in grave condition. Water had to be pumped out of her hold on a daily basis just to keep her afloat, and her stern was in danger of falling off. Almost all deck areas and structural components were filled with rot, and she was considered to be on the verge of ruin. Yet the Board recommended that she be thoroughly repaired in order to preserve her as long as possible. The estimated cost of repairs was $400,000. Secretary of the Navy Curtis D. Wilbur proposed to Congress that the required funds be raised privately, and he was authorized to assemble the committee charged with her restoration. [191]

The first effort was sponsored by the national Elks Lodge. Programs presented to schoolchildren about "Old Ironsides" encouraged them to donate pennies towards her restoration, eventually raising $148,000. In the meantime, the estimates for repair began to climb, eventually reaching over $745,000 after costs of materials were realized. [192] In September 1926, Wilbur began to sell copies of a painting of Constitution at 50 cents per copy. The silent film Old Ironsides portrayed Constitution during the First Barbary War. It premiered in December and helped spur more contributions to her restoration fund. The final campaign allowed memorabilia to be made of her discarded planking and metal. The committee eventually raised more than $600,000 after expenses, still short of the required amount, and Congress approved up to $300,000 to complete the restoration. The final cost of the restoration was $946,000. [193]

Lieutenant John A. Lord was selected to oversee the reconstruction project, and work began while fund-raising efforts were still underway. Materials were difficult to find, especially the live oak needed Lord uncovered a long-forgotten stash of live oak (some 1,500 short tons [1,400 t]) at Naval Air Station Pensacola, Florida that had been cut sometime in the 1850s for a ship-building program that never began. Constitution entered dry dock with a crowd of 10,000 observers on 16 June 1927. Meanwhile, Charles Francis Adams had been appointed as Secretary of the Navy, and he proposed that Constitution make a tour of the United States upon her completion as a gift to the nation for its efforts to help restore her. She emerged from dry dock on 15 March 1930 approximately 85 percent of the ship had been "renewed" (i.e. replaced) to make her seaworthy. [194] Many amenities were installed to prepare her for the three-year tour of the country, including water piping throughout, modern toilet and shower facilities, electric lighting to make the interior visible for visitors, and several peloruses for ease of navigation. [195] 40 miles (64,000 m) of rigging was made for Constitution at Charlestown Navy Yard ropewalk. [196]

Constitution recommissioned on 1 July 1931 under the command of Louis J. Gulliver with a crew of 60 officers and sailors, 15 Marines, and a pet monkey named Rosie that was their mascot. The tour began at Portsmouth, New Hampshire with much celebration and a 21-gun salute, scheduled to visit 90 port cities along the Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific coasts. Due to the schedule of visits on her itinerary, she was towed by the minesweeper Grebe. She went as far north as Bar Harbor, Maine, south and into the Gulf of Mexico then through the Panama Canal Zone, and north again to Bellingham, Washington on the Pacific Coast. Constitution returned to her home port of Boston in May 1934 after more than 4.6 million people visited her during the three-year tour. [197]

1934 return to Boston Edit

Constitution returned to serving as a museum ship, receiving 100,000 visitors per year in Boston. She was maintained by a small crew who were berthed on the ship, and this required more reliable heating. The heating was upgraded to a forced-air system in the 1950s, and a sprinkler system was added that protects her from fire. Constitution broke loose from her dock on 21 September 1938 during the New England Hurricane and was blown into Boston Harbor where she collided with the destroyer Ralph Talbot she suffered only minor damage. [198]

With limited funds available, she experienced more deterioration over the years, and items began to disappear from the ship as souvenir hunters picked away at the more portable objects. [199] Constitution and USS Constellation were recommissioned in 1940 at the request of President Franklin Roosevelt. [200] [201] In early 1941, Constitution was assigned the hull classification symbol IX-21 [1] and began to serve as a brig for officers awaiting court-martial. [202]

The United States Postal Service issued a stamp commemorating Constitution in 1947, and an Act of Congress in 1954 made the Secretary of the Navy responsible for her upkeep. [203]

Restoration Edit

In 1970, another survey was performed on her condition, finding that repairs were required but not as extensively as those which she had needed in the 1920s. The US Navy determined that a Commander was required as commanding officer—typically someone with about 20 years of seniority this would ensure the experience to organize the maintenance that she required. [204] Funds were approved in 1972 for her restoration, and she entered dry dock in April 1973, remaining until April 1974. During this period, large quantities of red oak were removed and replaced. The red oak had been added in the 1950s as an experiment to see if it would last better than the live oak, but it had mostly rotted away by 1970. [205]

Bicentennial celebrations Edit

Commander Tyrone G. Martin became her captain in August 1974, as preparations began for the upcoming United States Bicentennial celebrations. He set the precedent that all construction work on Constitution was to be aimed towards maintaining her to the 1812 configuration for which she is most noted. [205] In September 1975, her hull classification of IX-21 was officially canceled. [1]

The privately run USS Constitution Museum opened on 8 April 1976, and Commander Martin dedicated a tract of land as "Constitution Grove" one month later, located at the Naval Surface Warfare Center in Indiana. The 25,000 acres (100 km 2 ) now supply the majority of the white oak required for repair work. [206] On 10 July, Constitution led the parade of tall ships up Boston Harbor for Operation Sail, firing her guns at one-minute intervals for the first time in approximately 100 years. [207] On 11 July, she rendered a 21-gun salute to Her Majesty's Yacht Britannia, as Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip arrived for a state visit. [208] The royal couple were piped aboard and privately toured the ship for approximately 30 minutes with Commander Martin and Secretary of the Navy J. William Middendorf. Upon their departure, the crew of Constitution rendered three cheers for the Queen. Over 900,000 visitors toured "Old Ironsides" that year. [209]

1995 reconstruction Edit

Constitution entered dry dock in 1992 for an inspection and minor repair period that turned out to be her most comprehensive structural restoration and repair since she was launched in 1797. Multiple refittings over the 200 years of her career had removed most of her original construction components and design, as her mission changed from a fighting warship to a training ship and eventually to a receiving ship. In 1993, the Naval History & Heritage Command Detachment Boston reviewed Humphreys' original plans and identified five main structural components that were required to prevent hogging of the hull, [210] as Constitution had 13 in (330 mm) of hog at that point. Using a 1:16 scale model of the ship, they were able to determine that restoring the original components would result in a 10% increase in hull stiffness. [211]

Three hundred scans were completed on her timbers using radiography to find any hidden problems otherwise undetectable from the outside—technology that was unavailable during previous reconstructions. The repair crew used sound wave testing, aided by the United States Forest Service's Forest Products Laboratory, to determine the condition of the remaining timbers that may have been rotting from the inside. [210] The 13 in (330 mm) of hog was removed from her keel by allowing the ship to settle naturally while in dry dock. The most difficult task was the procurement of timber in the quantity and sizes needed, as was the case during her 1920s restoration, as well. The city of Charleston, South Carolina donated live oak trees that had been felled by Hurricane Hugo in 1989, and the International Paper Company donated live oak from its own property. [206] The project continued to reconstruct her to 1812 specifications, even as she remained open to visitors who were allowed to observe the process and converse with workers. [210] The $12 million project was completed in 1995. [212]

Old Ironsides

The USS Constitution is one of the most famous ships in the world, and is, as mentioned, the oldest ship still afloat. She is beaten in age by the British warship HMS Victory, which was launched 30 years earlier than the Constitution and was used as Lord Nelson’s flagship at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805. The Victory is now a museum ship residing in Portsmouth’s Historic Dockyard.

USS Constitution is tugged through the Boston harbor. (Photo Credit: U.S. Navy Photo / Petty Officer 3rd Class Alec Kramer)

Constitution was launched in October 1797 as a capital ship, so she was larger and more heavily armed and armored than many contemporary ships at the time. Her name was submitted to George Washington, the U.S.’s first president.

After her construction at Edmund Hartt’s shipyard in Boston, Massachusetts, she defended U.S. shipping during the First Barbary War. Her most famous action was during the War of 1812, which established her as a heroic vessel to the American public. The War of 1812 saw the U.S. battle with the United Kingdom. During this war, Constitution sank five British warships, and men observed British cannonballs bouncing off her hull, earning her the nickname “Old Ironsides.”

She remained on duty until 1881, when she was retired from active service. By this time, steam-powered ironclad battleships had rendered the aging ship obsolete. Plans for scrapping the ship have been thwarted multiple times by the American public, whose adoration has kept her afloat for centuries.

In the early 1900s, ideas were discussed on what to do with the ship, with one suggesting to tow her out to sea and use it for target practice. The American public was outraged once this information reached them, which forced Congress to fund the ship’s restoration and conversion into a museum.

Over her lifetime, this highly regarded ship has been restored many times, with the most extensive restoration taking place in 1995, costing $12 million.

Since then, the ship has continued to educate the public and promote the Navy. Despite her year out from activities due to COVID-19, this historical ship is back and ready to teach future generations.


  • All Hands On Deck – An all-ages interactive exhibit that explores the realities of life at sea during the War of 1812
  • Old Ironsides in War and Peace – A in-depth look at the ship's storied history, including how and why she was built, how she earned her fame during the War of 1812, and why she is preserved at the United States Navy's oldest commissioned warship
  • "Old Ironsides" War of 1812 Discovery Center – An interactive exhibit that explains the causes and consequences of the War of 1812 through games, multi-media, books, and other hands-on activities
  • Constitution vs HMS Java – The story of the battle between Constitution and HMS Java, told through artwork, archival records, and artifacts associated with the battle

The Board of Directors of the Museum makes three major awards annually:

The Samuel Eliot Morison Award Edit

The Samuel Eliot Morison Award is the highest recognition by the Board of a Trustees of the USS Constitution Museum Foundation of a person whose public service has enhanced the image of Constitution and who reflects the best of Rear Admiral Samuel Eliot Morison: artful scholarship, patriotic pride, and eclectic interest in the sea and things maritime, and a desire to preserve the best of our past for future generations.

  • 1977 Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr.
  • 1978 John W. McCormack
  • 1979 Leverett Saltonstall
  • 1980 Arleigh Burke
  • 1981 Joseph C. Wylie
  • 1982 Richard A. Rumble
  • 1983 John D. H. Kane
  • 1984 Grace Hopper
  • 1985 Thomas P. O'Neill, Jr.
  • 1986 Dodge Morgan
  • 1987 Edward L. Beach, Jr.
  • 1988 Joseph Z. Brown
  • 1989 Tyrone G. Martin
  • 1990 William M. Fowler, Jr.
  • 1991 W. Davis Taylor
  • 1992 William S. Dudley
  • 1993 Christopher McKee
  • 1994 Benjamin W. Labaree
  • 1995 Leon F. Kaufman
  • 1996 Dean C. Allard
  • 1997 John A. Roach
  • 1998 Anne Grimes Rand
  • 1999 Michael C. Beck
  • 2001 Harold D. Langley
  • 2002 Patrick O'Brian (posthumously)
  • 2004 Walter Cronkite
  • 2005 Nathaniel Philbrick
  • 2006 Ira Dye (posthumously)
  • 2007 David McCullough
  • 2008 Charles E. Brodine, Jr. Michael J. Crawford and Christine F. Hughes.
  • 2009 John B. Hattendorf
  • 2010 William H. White
  • 2011 Bernard Bailyn
  • 2012 David Curtis Skaggs, Jr.
  • 2013 Donald R. Hickey
  • 2014 George C. Daughan
  • 2015 William Martin
  • 2016 W. Jeffrey Bolster
  • 2017 Lisa Norling
  • 2018 James D. Hornfischer
  • 2019 Ian W. Toll

The Charles Francis Adams Award Edit

To honor museum founder Charles Francis Adams IV and his lifelong support of the community through his commitment and loyalty to those institutions and ideas which affect the quality of life of all citizens, and to recognize others who have followed his extraordinary example, the award is made annually to a person or a team of people who have given of themselves for the betterment of the community, and through whose good works profound positive change for the citizens of the community has occurred.

  • 1991 Jason A. Aisner (posthumously)
  • 1992 Caleb Loring, Jr.
  • 1993 John Joseph Moakley
  • 1994 Mrs. George L (Hessie) Sargent
  • 1995 J. Welles Henderson
  • 1997 Harvey Chet Krentzman
  • 1998 John J. Schiff (posthumously)
  • 1999 Claire V. Bloom[1]
  • 2001 Edward M. Kennedy
  • 2002 Vivien Li
  • 2004 Gordon Abbott, Jr.
  • 2005 Gordon R. England
  • 2006 Thomas J. Hudner, Jr.
  • 2007 James (Lou) Gorman
  • 2008 Kevin C. Phelan
  • 2009 Thomas M. Menino
  • 2010 John P. Hamill
  • 2011 Robert M. Mahoney
  • 2012 Robert L. Reynolds
  • 2013 Peter H. Smyth
  • 2014 Thomas A. Kershaw
  • 2015 James T. Brett
  • 2016 David H. Long
  • 2017 Thomas A. Kennedy
  • 2018 Niki Tsongas
  • 2019 Charlie Baker

The Don Turner Award Edit

To honor Don Turner, former head of the USS Constitution Maintenance and Repair Facility, for his singular contribution toward the preservation of "Old Ironsides" and the skills that built her, as well as his knowledge of and dedication to the ancient art of shipbuilding, and to recognize others who are similarly dedicated to maritime preservation and advances in ship construction and design, the Don Turner Award is made annually to a person or team of people, professional or amateur, who have contributed significantly to efforts to preserve important vessels or who have made significant contributions to our knowledge and understanding of ship design and construction.

Form 990 FYE Date Published Overall Score Overall Rating
CN 2.1
2019-03 02/01/2021 92.83 four stars

USS Constitution Museum
Charlestown Navy Yard
Building 22
Charlestown, MA 02129
tel: (617) 426-1812
fax: (617) 242-0496
EIN: 04-2505888

Mail donations to:
PO Box 291812
Boston, MA 02129

The Museum of Native American History invites visitors to step back in time and meet the state's first inhabitants. Among the collection of artifacts are pieces dating back some 14,000 years highlights include the famous Sweetwater Biface and a wooly mammoth skeleton from the Ice Age. The museum reopened in April with reimagined exhibits, new displays and an overhauled gift shop.
Photo courtesy of Museum of Native American History

The Henry Ford, located in the Detroit metro area, showcases the development of technology in the U.S. and documents the width and breadth of American inventions and innovation. The facility occupies nine acres and includes exhibits on agriculture, the automobile, freedom, timepieces, home appliances, jewelry and presidential limousines. Thematic itineraries, including one title OnWheels, provide a more directed focus for visitors.
Photo courtesy of The Henry Ford

The top 10 winners in the category Best History Museum are as follows:

  1. National Infantry Museum & Soldier Center - Columbus, Georgia
  2. National Underground Railroad Freedom Center - Cincinnati, Ohio
  3. National Museum of the Marine Corps - Triangle, Virginia
  4. The Mob Museum - Las Vegas
  5. USS Constitution Museum - Boston
  6. Museum of History & Industry - Seattle
  7. Independence Seaport Museum - Philadelphia
  8. National WWII Museum - New Orleans
  9. Museum of Native American History - Bentonville, Arkansas
  10. The Henry Ford - Dearborn, Michigan

A panel of experts partnered with 10Best editors to pick the initial nominees, and the top 10 winners were determined by popular vote.

Congratulations to all these winning history museums!

Rare Navy documents are unveiled as Old Ironsides marks 223rd birthday

Cmdr. John A. Benda, 76th commanding officer of the USS Constitution removed his hat as reboarded the ship. David L. Ryan/Globe Staff

The USS Constitution celebrated its 223rd birthday with a very special gift: a trove of rare Navy documents related to the ship’s earliest years.

The collection, which was purchased at auction, was unveiled during the ship’s virtual birthday celebration that was broadcast on Facebook Live on Wednesday.

Anne Grimes Rand, the president and chief executive officer of the USS Constitution Museum, said the papers shed light on previously unknown aspects of the construction and first movements of Old Ironsides, which was first launched on Oct. 21, 1797.

Chart of the private signals used between U.S. ships and friendly British ships to identify each other during the quasi-War with France. Image courtesy USS Constitution Museum

“These are documents from the earliest days of Constitution’s history,” she said. “They haven’t been in the public for over 220 years.”

She pulled out two of the documents and read from them during the broadcast. One was a piece of correspondence from Jan. 3, 1801 that was written by Silas Talbot, the commander of the USS Constitution, to his friend, Captain James Sever, the commander of the USS Congress, which was sent to the Caribbean to protect American merchant ships from French privateers.

Letter from Silas Talbot, Commander of Constitution, to Capt. James Sever, Commander of Congress. Image courtesy USS Constitution Museum

“He is ordering his friend in command of Congress to sail through the waters in the Caribbean,” she said. “So he’s saying to another US warship, let’s be out there and protect our commerce — the same as what we’re doing today.”

The collection of more than 150 documents originally belonged to Sever, who was the first commander of the USS Congress, a frigate that was built around the same time as Old Ironsides in the 1790s.

The collection also includes handwritten correspondence and papers from Henry Knox, who was appointed Secretary of War by George Washington and oversaw the appropriations for the construction of the USS Constitution Benjamin Stoddert, Secretary of the Navy who led during the Quasi-War, which was an undeclared naval war with France from 1798 to 1800 and Toussaint Louverture, the formerly enslaved leader of the early Haitian Revolution who corresponded with Navy commanders about US support of his government.

Museum officials plan to digitize the documents and share them via e-mail newsletters, social media posts, and on the museum’s website, usscm.org.

“In the coming weeks and months,” said the museum’s Grimes Rand, “we will be taking these documents, one by one, highlighting them, and telling the story [and] sharing the stories of Constitution as we learn from this tremendous collection.”

The virtual birthday celebration on Wednesday included a guided tour showcasing the history of the USS Constitution, which earned the nickname “Old Ironsides” during the War of 1812 when British cannonballs were seen bouncing off the ship’s wooden hull. According to the Navy, the USS Constitution is the oldest commissioned warship afloat in the world.

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