History Podcasts

Albert Butterworth

Albert Butterworth

Albert Butterworth was born in Ashton-under-Lyne on 20th March 1912. He played football for Droylsden before joining Manchester United in 1930. However, he was unable to gain a place in the first-team and moved to Blackpool in 1932.

Playing at inside-right, he scored 5 goals in 22 games in the 1932-33 season. The following season he moved to Preston North End. Other players brought in that year included Jimmy Maxwell (Kilmarnock), Albert Butterworth (Blackpool) and Jimmy Dougal (Falkirk).

In the 1934-35 season Preston finished 11th in the league. Jimmy Maxwell, who played at centre-forward, was the club's leading scorer with 26 league and cup goals. Butterworth scored four goals in 14 appearances.

In 1936 Butterworth joined Bristol Rovers in the Third Division (South). Up until the outbreak of the Second World War Butterworth scored 13 goals in 98 games. Butterworth joined the armed forces and did not return to playing professional football after the end of the war.

Albert Butterworth died in 1991.


Albert Butterworth - History

As far as can be remembered, it was early in 1909 when Alec Pearce and Fred Alder walked into Butterworth. They had walked from a town called Komga, a distance of some 50 kms (31 miles). They completed the walk in one day, despite the fact that the road passes through the great Kei River Valley. The natives at that time, as indeed is still the case, generally rode to town on horseback. Fred Alder, in referring to that &lsquowalk&rsquo, said that the natives appeared to think it strange seeing two white men walking such a long way.

Their first night in Butterworth was spent in a boarding house, and the following day they managed to hire a room from a Mr. and Mrs. Hughes. Eric Fennell was the Methodist Sunday School teacher, and somehow Alec Pearce met him and managed to obtain permission to speak to the children the following Sunday. After talking to the children he announced an open air meeting that night on the market square, and asked the children to kindly invite their parents. Albert and his elder brother, Harry, went home, and, as requested, invited their parents, Reuben and Bertha Webb, to the meeting.

Street lighting in those days was provided by means of paraffin lamps which an appointed lamplighter lit every evening after sunset. It was under one of these lamps (on the corner of lawyer Martin&rsquos office) that the first gospel meeting was held. The meeting was timed so as to catch the people walking home from the other church services held in town. Consequently quite a large number attended that first and subsequent meetings.

A day or so after the first meeting, Bertha Webb was busy wallpapering her lounge and Harry, her eldest son, was helping her. Flour was seemingly used to make glue in those days, and Bertha was apparently &lsquowhite from the flour&rsquo from head to toe when Harry exclaimed: &ldquoMa, here are the two preachers!&rdquo &ldquoTell them I&rsquom not in,&rdquo she told her son. When Harry opened the door he was asked whether his mother was at home. He stared at the two men but remained speechless. &ldquoSon, is your mother in?&rdquo the question was repeated. Still Harry gave no reply. Eventually he looked over his shoulder at his mother, and she, to avoid further embarrassment, stepped forward, apologising for the state she was in. The preachers said there was no need to apologise

they indeed offered to help her. She offered them a cup of tea, and then a second cup, which they most gladly accepted. They later told her that it was the first cup of tea they had had in 14 days.

The workers continued with the open air meetings and quite a number of people became interested. It is recalled that Alec Pearce had a soft singing voice (not very good for open air singing), but Fred Alder, seemingly had a lovely melodious voice.

During those first few days the workers had it very hard, with little money, and less food. On one occasion they bought some dry mielies, walked out of town and on the banks of the Butterworth river built a fire and cooked the mielies in a little tin can. Albert and Harry happened on them and when they reported it to their parents, Bertha Webb was moved with compassion and from that time sent baskets of food to the workers

the children would deliver the food on their way to school. (Fred Alder, referring to the dry &lsquomielie incident&rsquo said, they cooked behind the bushes &ldquowhere they couldn&rsquot be seen.&rdquo

The workers had railed their kitchen box from King Williams Town, but this took some time in arriving. When it did arrive they had a primus stove, but often nothing to cook. On occasions they would light the primus to pretend to Mrs. Hughes that they were cooking!

Reuben and Bertha Webb, Mr. and Mrs. Morrison, Mrs. Herbert and Louisa Matthews were the first to make a profession. These were followed by Archie and Albert Shelver.

Archie and Albert went down to Manubie where their parents and elder brother, Willie lived, to tell them about the preachers and how they got saved. It is reported that Willie, on hearing the news, threw away his pipe, and returned to Butterworth with them, and after attending some meetings also made a profession.

In those early days all those who made a profession were required to give their testimony at the open air meetings. On one occasion, while Albert Shelver was speaking, a certain lawyer said: &ldquoYou have done very well Albert. Where can I put this?&rdquo and he came forward and put a halfcrown down on the ground. On another occasion when Louisa Matthews, who had only just turned 17 years of age, was speaking, someone called out, &ldquoJust look how bashful she is

During this time, Alec Pearce, to earn a little money, did some carpentry work for old Mr. Gray. Meetings continued and were later held at Rueben and Bertha Webb&rsquos home, and then at Herbert&rsquos and still later at Morrison&rsquos.

The first of two baptisms was held in December 1909. Rueben Webb, Mr. and Mrs. Morrison, Willie Shelver and young Louisa Matthews were among the first to be baptized. The second baptism, of which I&rsquoll relate in greater detail, was held on the 20 th February, 1910. Some twenty people were baptized, among them were Bertha Webb, Albert Shelver, Arthur Matthews and Katharine Matthews.

Albert Webb and his brother, Harry, Fritz Kumm and Danie Roux had the honour of digging steps into the river bank where the baptism was to be held. A crowd of curious spectators from town turned up to watch the baptism, and most of them were sitting on the opposite bank of the river, where there was a ploughed land in which grew a large number of native watermelons. During the baptism certain young men started to mock and make fun by throwing watermelons into the river each time someone was baptized. Arthur Matthews, a farmer, had acquired the name &ldquoTurnips&rdquo because he grew large quantities of this vegetable. In any event, when Arthur was baptized, one of the men across the river shouted: &ldquoHere goes one for Turnips&rdquo, and in went another watermelon. Old Mr. Harrison by now filled with anger and indignation, waved his walking stick at the mockers, but Alec Pearce just said to him, &ldquoLet them alone&rdquo.

A day or two after the baptism, one of the young men went to Alec Pearce and pleaded forgiveness for what he had done. Alec Pearce told him that, that as he had done nothing to them, they could not forgive him. However, if he felt that he had done wrong, he should ask God&rsquos forgiveness. Within approximately two weeks after the baptism, two of the young men involved in the mockery died, in the following manner:- The first went down to the river to a spot where the young people used to swim. He dived in from the springboard and never surfaced. When his body was eventually recovered the doctor&rsquos post mortem recording of death was &ldquo Heart failure!&rdquo The second young man went to the barber for a hair cut, and died in the barber&rsquos chair. The doctor&rsquos verdict was &ldquoHeart failure!&rdquo A third (it was often speculated as to whether this was the young man who pleaded for forgiveness) went insane and had to be admitted to an institution.

Old Mr. Harrison died about two or three years after professing, and some others who had professed left Butterworth. Young Louisa Matthews married Albert Shelver, and together with Rueben and Bertha Webb, remained true, meeting together and serving God as Alec Pearce and Fred Alder had shown them, for other 50 years.

Many of the children and grandchildren of those who professed in the &ldquoButterworth Mission of 1909/1910&rdquo serve God today in the same way.

Albert Webb (the young lad of eleven years of age in 1909), who with his brother, Harry, were instrumental in inviting his parents to that first Gospel meeting, today has a Sunday morning meeting, Sunday night and Union meeting in his home in East London.

P.S. Bertha Webb died: 17 th July 1943 after serving God 34 years.

Louisa Shelver died: 27 th July 1960 after serving God 51 years.

Rueben Webb died: 23 rd April 1961 after serving God 52 years.

Albert Shelver died: 13 th June 1974 after serving God 65 years.

TTT Editor&rsquos NOTE: Alexander "Alec/Alex" Pearce was born November 27, 1871 in Rathdrum, County Wicklow, Ireland. He started in the work in 1904 and was among the first eight workers to arrive in South Africa in September 1905. He died Nov. 20, 1946 in Queenstown, South Africa.

Frederick William Alder was born March 18,1888 in Wantage, Berkshire, England. He started in the work in 1905 and was in the second group of workers to go to South Africa, landing there with seven others in September 1906. He returned to England 1915-1920, but otherwise appears on the South African lists up until his death Oct. 19, 1975 in East London, South Africa.

Am I therefore become your enemy, because I tell you the Truth?
Galatians 4:16

"Condemnation without Investigation is Ignorance."
Your comments, suggestions and corrections are appreciated. You are welcome to link to this website.

Preserving the Truth
The Church without a Name
and its Founder, William Irvine


William Irvine
1863-1947

Founder of the
Church with No Name
aka 2x2 Church,
Friends & Workers Fellowship,
Cooneyites and "the truth"


Albert (Bert) Michael Butterworth

Hatfield War Memorial, Great North Road, Hatfield. Hatfield In Memoriam Book. Hatfield Hyde Village Memorial. St. Mary Magdalene, Church Memorial, Hatfield Hyde. Letchworth Town Memorial. Welwyn Garden City Memorial, Howardsgate.

Pre War

Albert Michael Butterworth was born in Hadley, Barnet, Hertfordshire, On 12th February 1880, son of John Butterworth (a Tailor) (B 1839 in Hadley) and Annie Butterworth (nee Donovan) (B 1855 in March, Cambs)

The 1881 Census records Albert aged 1, living with his parents, brother John and two sisters Sarah 5 and Teresa 2, at 27 Highstone, South Mimms, Barnet, Middx. Alberts father died in 1890.

1891 Census records Albert at school, living with his widowed mother, brother john 15, and sister Frances 10, at 5 Briers Cottages, Nesbit's Alley, Monken Hadley, Barnet, Middx.

1901 Census records Alberts mother had remarried to a Harry Smith (a Carpenter), Albert was still living at home with his brother John and sister, still in Nesbit's Alley, Monken Hadley. his occupation is given as a Coachman (not Domestic).

Albert married Emily Plum on 17th June 1903, in Barnet. It is believed they had 6 children the youngest born in 1917. Probably known as Bert.

1911 Census Albert and Emily have 4 children, Albert is still employed as a Coachman and they are living at 36 Calvert Road, South Mimms, Barnet.

Wartime Service

Albert enlisted in London, initially with the Royal Army Service Corps, with the Service No. 056106, then transferred to the Royal Irish Rifles with the Service No. 42926. He served with the 8th & 15th Battalions. Albert died of illness or accident at the Military Hospital, Trent Bridge, Nottingham, on 26th October 1917. He is buried in Nottingham General Cemetery, Nottingham. His wife would go on to remarry and live at 88 Pillmore (Pixmore) Avenue, Letchworth, Herts.

Additional Information

His effects of £10-6s-10d, Pay Owing and £12-10s-00d, War Gratuity went to his widow Emily. Widow Emily Graby (formerly Butterworth) of 88 Pillmore (Pixmore)Ave, Letchworth. He is recorded in "Ireland's Memorial Records 1914-1918.

Acknowledgments

Stuart Osborne
Dan Hill, Louise Fryer, Jonty Wild, Brenda Palmer, Stuart Osborne.


Contents

Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818 he married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess with two children—Carl (1804–1856) and Feodora (1807–1872)—by her first marriage to the Prince of Leiningen. Her brother Leopold was Princess Charlotte's widower. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4:15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London. [1]

Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace. [a] She was baptised Alexandrina after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria, after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte, and Augusta—were dropped on the instructions of Kent's eldest brother George, Prince Regent. [2]

At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after the four eldest sons of George III: the Prince Regent (later George IV) Frederick, Duke of York William, Duke of Clarence (later William IV) and Victoria's father, Edward, Duke of Kent. [3] The Prince Regent had no surviving children, and the Duke of York had no children further, both were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further legitimate children. William and Edward married on the same day in 1818, but both of William's legitimate daughters died as infants. The first of these was Princess Charlotte, who was born and died on 27 March 1819, two months before Victoria was born. Victoria's father died in January 1820, when Victoria was less than a year old. A week later her grandfather died and was succeeded by his eldest son as George IV. Victoria was then third in line to the throne after Frederick and William. William's second daughter, Princess Elizabeth of Clarence, lived for twelve weeks from 10 December 1820 to 4 March 1821, and for that period Victoria was fourth in line. [4]

The Duke of York died in 1827, followed by George IV in 1830 the throne passed to their next surviving brother, William, and Victoria became heir presumptive. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for Victoria's mother to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor. [5] King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 he declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided. [6]

Victoria later described her childhood as "rather melancholy". [7] Her mother was extremely protective, and Victoria was raised largely isolated from other children under the so-called "Kensington System", an elaborate set of rules and protocols devised by the Duchess and her ambitious and domineering comptroller, Sir John Conroy, who was rumoured to be the Duchess's lover. [8] The system prevented the princess from meeting people whom her mother and Conroy deemed undesirable (including most of her father's family), and was designed to render her weak and dependent upon them. [9] The Duchess avoided the court because she was scandalised by the presence of King William's illegitimate children. [10] Victoria shared a bedroom with her mother every night, studied with private tutors to a regular timetable, and spent her play-hours with her dolls and her King Charles Spaniel, Dash. [11] Her lessons included French, German, Italian, and Latin, [12] but she spoke only English at home. [13]

In 1830, the Duchess of Kent and Conroy took Victoria across the centre of England to visit the Malvern Hills, stopping at towns and great country houses along the way. [14] Similar journeys to other parts of England and Wales were taken in 1832, 1833, 1834 and 1835. To the King's annoyance, Victoria was enthusiastically welcomed in each of the stops. [15] William compared the journeys to royal progresses and was concerned that they portrayed Victoria as his rival rather than his heir presumptive. [16] Victoria disliked the trips the constant round of public appearances made her tired and ill, and there was little time for her to rest. [17] She objected on the grounds of the King's disapproval, but her mother dismissed his complaints as motivated by jealousy and forced Victoria to continue the tours. [18] At Ramsgate in October 1835, Victoria contracted a severe fever, which Conroy initially dismissed as a childish pretence. [19] While Victoria was ill, Conroy and the Duchess unsuccessfully badgered her to make Conroy her private secretary. [20] As a teenager, Victoria resisted persistent attempts by her mother and Conroy to appoint him to her staff. [21] Once queen, she banned him from her presence, but he remained in her mother's household. [22]

By 1836, Victoria's maternal uncle Leopold, who had been King of the Belgians since 1831, hoped to marry her to Prince Albert, [23] the son of his brother Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Leopold arranged for Victoria's mother to invite her Coburg relatives to visit her in May 1836, with the purpose of introducing Victoria to Albert. [24] William IV, however, disapproved of any match with the Coburgs, and instead favoured the suit of Prince Alexander of the Netherlands, second son of the Prince of Orange. [25] Victoria was aware of the various matrimonial plans and critically appraised a parade of eligible princes. [26] According to her diary, she enjoyed Albert's company from the beginning. After the visit she wrote, "[Albert] is extremely handsome his hair is about the same colour as mine his eyes are large and blue, and he has a beautiful nose and a very sweet mouth with fine teeth but the charm of his countenance is his expression, which is most delightful." [27] Alexander, on the other hand, she described as "very plain". [28]

Victoria wrote to King Leopold, whom she considered her "best and kindest adviser", [29] to thank him "for the prospect of great happiness you have contributed to give me, in the person of dear Albert . He possesses every quality that could be desired to render me perfectly happy. He is so sensible, so kind, and so good, and so amiable too. He has besides the most pleasing and delightful exterior and appearance you can possibly see." [30] However at 17, Victoria, though interested in Albert, was not yet ready to marry. The parties did not undertake a formal engagement, but assumed that the match would take place in due time. [31]

Victoria turned 18 on 24 May 1837, and a regency was avoided. Less than a month later, on 20 June 1837, William IV died at the age of 71, and Victoria became Queen of the United Kingdom. [b] In her diary she wrote, "I was awoke at 6 o'clock by Mamma, who told me the Archbishop of Canterbury and Lord Conyngham were here and wished to see me. I got out of bed and went into my sitting-room (only in my dressing gown) and alone, and saw them. Lord Conyngham then acquainted me that my poor Uncle, the King, was no more, and had expired at 12 minutes past 2 this morning, and consequently that I am Queen." [32] Official documents prepared on the first day of her reign described her as Alexandrina Victoria, but the first name was withdrawn at her own wish and not used again. [33]

Since 1714, Britain had shared a monarch with Hanover in Germany, but under Salic law women were excluded from the Hanoverian succession. While Victoria inherited all the British Dominions, her father's unpopular younger brother, the Duke of Cumberland, became King of Hanover. He was her heir presumptive while she was childless. [34]

At the time of Victoria's accession, the government was led by the Whig prime minister Lord Melbourne. The Prime Minister at once became a powerful influence on the politically inexperienced Queen, who relied on him for advice. [35] Charles Greville supposed that the widowed and childless Melbourne was "passionately fond of her as he might be of his daughter if he had one", and Victoria probably saw him as a father figure. [36] Her coronation took place on 28 June 1838 at Westminster Abbey. Over 400,000 visitors came to London for the celebrations. [37] She became the first sovereign to take up residence at Buckingham Palace [38] and inherited the revenues of the duchies of Lancaster and Cornwall as well as being granted a civil list allowance of £385,000 per year. Financially prudent, she paid off her father's debts. [39]

At the start of her reign Victoria was popular, [40] but her reputation suffered in an 1839 court intrigue when one of her mother's ladies-in-waiting, Lady Flora Hastings, developed an abdominal growth that was widely rumoured to be an out-of-wedlock pregnancy by Sir John Conroy. [41] Victoria believed the rumours. [42] She hated Conroy, and despised "that odious Lady Flora", [43] because she had conspired with Conroy and the Duchess of Kent in the Kensington System. [44] At first, Lady Flora refused to submit to an intimate medical examination, until in mid-February she eventually agreed, and was found to be a virgin. [45] Conroy, the Hastings family, and the opposition Tories organised a press campaign implicating the Queen in the spreading of false rumours about Lady Flora. [46] When Lady Flora died in July, the post-mortem revealed a large tumour on her liver that had distended her abdomen. [47] At public appearances, Victoria was hissed and jeered as "Mrs. Melbourne". [48]

In 1839, Melbourne resigned after Radicals and Tories (both of whom Victoria detested) voted against a bill to suspend the constitution of Jamaica. The bill removed political power from plantation owners who were resisting measures associated with the abolition of slavery. [49] The Queen commissioned a Tory, Sir Robert Peel, to form a new ministry. At the time, it was customary for the prime minister to appoint members of the Royal Household, who were usually his political allies and their spouses. Many of the Queen's ladies of the bedchamber were wives of Whigs, and Peel expected to replace them with wives of Tories. In what became known as the bedchamber crisis, Victoria, advised by Melbourne, objected to their removal. Peel refused to govern under the restrictions imposed by the Queen, and consequently resigned his commission, allowing Melbourne to return to office. [50]

Though Victoria was now queen, as an unmarried young woman she was required by social convention to live with her mother, despite their differences over the Kensington System and her mother's continued reliance on Conroy. [51] Her mother was consigned to a remote apartment in Buckingham Palace, and Victoria often refused to see her. [52] When Victoria complained to Melbourne that her mother's proximity promised "torment for many years", Melbourne sympathised but said it could be avoided by marriage, which Victoria called a "schocking [sic] alternative". [53] Victoria showed interest in Albert's education for the future role he would have to play as her husband, but she resisted attempts to rush her into wedlock. [54]

Victoria continued to praise Albert following his second visit in October 1839. Albert and Victoria felt mutual affection and the Queen proposed to him on 15 October 1839, just five days after he had arrived at Windsor. [55] They were married on 10 February 1840, in the Chapel Royal of St James's Palace, London. Victoria was love-struck. She spent the evening after their wedding lying down with a headache, but wrote ecstatically in her diary:

I NEVER, NEVER spent such an evening. MY DEAREST DEAREST DEAR Albert . his excessive love & affection gave me feelings of heavenly love & happiness I never could have hoped to have felt before! He clasped me in his arms, & we kissed each other again & again! His beauty, his sweetness & gentleness – really how can I ever be thankful enough to have such a Husband! . to be called by names of tenderness, I have never yet heard used to me before – was bliss beyond belief! Oh! This was the happiest day of my life! [56]

Albert became an important political adviser as well as the Queen's companion, replacing Melbourne as the dominant influential figure in the first half of her life. [57] Victoria's mother was evicted from the palace, to Ingestre House in Belgrave Square. After the death of Victoria's aunt, Princess Augusta, in 1840, Victoria's mother was given both Clarence and Frogmore Houses. [58] Through Albert's mediation, relations between mother and daughter slowly improved. [59]

During Victoria's first pregnancy in 1840, in the first few months of the marriage, 18-year-old Edward Oxford attempted to assassinate her while she was riding in a carriage with Prince Albert on her way to visit her mother. Oxford fired twice, but either both bullets missed or, as he later claimed, the guns had no shot. [60] He was tried for high treason, found not guilty by reason of insanity, committed to an insane asylum indefinitely, and later sent to live in Australia. [61] In the immediate aftermath of the attack, Victoria's popularity soared, mitigating residual discontent over the Hastings affair and the bedchamber crisis. [62] Her daughter, also named Victoria, was born on 21 November 1840. The Queen hated being pregnant, [63] viewed breast-feeding with disgust, [64] and thought newborn babies were ugly. [65] Nevertheless, over the following seventeen years, she and Albert had a further eight children: Albert Edward (b. 1841), Alice (b. 1843), Alfred (b. 1844), Helena (b. 1846), Louise (b. 1848), Arthur (b. 1850), Leopold (b. 1853) and Beatrice (b. 1857).

Victoria's household was largely run by her childhood governess, Baroness Louise Lehzen from Hanover. Lehzen had been a formative influence on Victoria [66] and had supported her against the Kensington System. [67] Albert, however, thought that Lehzen was incompetent and that her mismanagement threatened his daughter's health. After a furious row between Victoria and Albert over the issue, Lehzen was pensioned off in 1842, and Victoria's close relationship with her ended. [68]

On 29 May 1842, Victoria was riding in a carriage along The Mall, London, when John Francis aimed a pistol at her, but the gun did not fire. The assailant escaped however the following day, Victoria drove the same route, though faster and with a greater escort, in a deliberate attempt to provoke Francis to take a second aim and catch him in the act. As expected, Francis shot at her, but he was seized by plainclothes policemen, and convicted of high treason. On 3 July, two days after Francis's death sentence was commuted to transportation for life, John William Bean also tried to fire a pistol at the Queen, but it was loaded only with paper and tobacco and had too little charge. [69] Edward Oxford felt that the attempts were encouraged by his acquittal in 1840. Bean was sentenced to 18 months in jail. [70] In a similar attack in 1849, unemployed Irishman William Hamilton fired a powder-filled pistol at Victoria's carriage as it passed along Constitution Hill, London. [71] In 1850, the Queen did sustain injury when she was assaulted by a possibly insane ex-army officer, Robert Pate. As Victoria was riding in a carriage, Pate struck her with his cane, crushing her bonnet and bruising her forehead. Both Hamilton and Pate were sentenced to seven years' transportation. [72]

Melbourne's support in the House of Commons weakened through the early years of Victoria's reign, and in the 1841 general election the Whigs were defeated. Peel became prime minister, and the ladies of the bedchamber most associated with the Whigs were replaced. [73]

In 1845, Ireland was hit by a potato blight. [75] In the next four years, over a million Irish people died and another million emigrated in what became known as the Great Famine. [76] In Ireland, Victoria was labelled "The Famine Queen". [77] [78] In January 1847 she personally donated £2,000 (equivalent to between £178,000 and £6.5 million in 2016 [79] ) to the British Relief Association, more than any other individual famine relief donor, [80] and also supported the Maynooth Grant to a Roman Catholic seminary in Ireland, despite Protestant opposition. [81] The story that she donated only £5 in aid to the Irish, and on the same day gave the same amount to Battersea Dogs Home, was a myth generated towards the end of the 19th century. [82]

By 1846, Peel's ministry faced a crisis involving the repeal of the Corn Laws. Many Tories—by then known also as Conservatives—were opposed to the repeal, but Peel, some Tories (the free-trade oriented liberal conservative "Peelites"), most Whigs and Victoria supported it. Peel resigned in 1846, after the repeal narrowly passed, and was replaced by Lord John Russell. [83]

Victoria's British prime ministers
Year Prime Minister (party)
1835 Viscount Melbourne (Whig)
1841 Sir Robert Peel (Conservative)
1846 Lord John Russell (W)
1852 (Feb) Earl of Derby (C)
1852 (Dec) Earl of Aberdeen (Peelite)
1855 Viscount Palmerston (Liberal)
1858 Earl of Derby (C)
1859 Viscount Palmerston (L)
1865 Earl Russell [Lord John Russell] (L)
1866 Earl of Derby (C)
1868 (Feb) Benjamin Disraeli (C)
1868 (Dec) William Gladstone (L)
1874 Benjamin Disraeli [Ld Beaconsfield] (C)
1880 William Gladstone (L)
1885 Marquess of Salisbury (C)
1886 (Feb) William Gladstone (L)
1886 (Jul) Marquess of Salisbury (C)
1892 William Gladstone (L)
1894 Earl of Rosebery (L)
1895 Marquess of Salisbury (C)
See List of prime ministers of Queen Victoria
for details of her British and Imperial premiers

Internationally, Victoria took a keen interest in the improvement of relations between France and Britain. [84] She made and hosted several visits between the British royal family and the House of Orleans, who were related by marriage through the Coburgs. In 1843 and 1845, she and Albert stayed with King Louis Philippe I at château d'Eu in Normandy she was the first British or English monarch to visit a French monarch since the meeting of Henry VIII of England and Francis I of France on the Field of the Cloth of Gold in 1520. [85] When Louis Philippe made a reciprocal trip in 1844, he became the first French king to visit a British sovereign. [86] Louis Philippe was deposed in the revolutions of 1848, and fled to exile in England. [87] At the height of a revolutionary scare in the United Kingdom in April 1848, Victoria and her family left London for the greater safety of Osborne House, [88] a private estate on the Isle of Wight that they had purchased in 1845 and redeveloped. [89] Demonstrations by Chartists and Irish nationalists failed to attract widespread support, and the scare died down without any major disturbances. [90] Victoria's first visit to Ireland in 1849 was a public relations success, but it had no lasting impact or effect on the growth of Irish nationalism. [91]

Russell's ministry, though Whig, was not favoured by the Queen. [92] She found particularly offensive the Foreign Secretary, Lord Palmerston, who often acted without consulting the Cabinet, the Prime Minister, or the Queen. [93] Victoria complained to Russell that Palmerston sent official dispatches to foreign leaders without her knowledge, but Palmerston was retained in office and continued to act on his own initiative, despite her repeated remonstrances. It was only in 1851 that Palmerston was removed after he announced the British government's approval of President Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte's coup in France without consulting the Prime Minister. [94] The following year, President Bonaparte was declared Emperor Napoleon III, by which time Russell's administration had been replaced by a short-lived minority government led by Lord Derby.

In 1853, Victoria gave birth to her eighth child, Leopold, with the aid of the new anaesthetic, chloroform. She was so impressed by the relief it gave from the pain of childbirth that she used it again in 1857 at the birth of her ninth and final child, Beatrice, despite opposition from members of the clergy, who considered it against biblical teaching, and members of the medical profession, who thought it dangerous. [95] Victoria may have suffered from postnatal depression after many of her pregnancies. [96] Letters from Albert to Victoria intermittently complain of her loss of self-control. For example, about a month after Leopold's birth Albert complained in a letter to Victoria about her "continuance of hysterics" over a "miserable trifle". [97]

In early 1855, the government of Lord Aberdeen, who had replaced Derby, fell amidst recriminations over the poor management of British troops in the Crimean War. Victoria approached both Derby and Russell to form a ministry, but neither had sufficient support, and Victoria was forced to appoint Palmerston as prime minister. [98]

Napoleon III, Britain's closest ally as a result of the Crimean War, [96] visited London in April 1855, and from 17 to 28 August the same year Victoria and Albert returned the visit. [99] Napoleon III met the couple at Boulogne and accompanied them to Paris. [100] They visited the Exposition Universelle (a successor to Albert's 1851 brainchild the Great Exhibition) and Napoleon I's tomb at Les Invalides (to which his remains had only been returned in 1840), and were guests of honour at a 1,200-guest ball at the Palace of Versailles. [101]

On 14 January 1858, an Italian refugee from Britain called Felice Orsini attempted to assassinate Napoleon III with a bomb made in England. [102] The ensuing diplomatic crisis destabilised the government, and Palmerston resigned. Derby was reinstated as prime minister. [103] Victoria and Albert attended the opening of a new basin at the French military port of Cherbourg on 5 August 1858, in an attempt by Napoleon III to reassure Britain that his military preparations were directed elsewhere. On her return Victoria wrote to Derby reprimanding him for the poor state of the Royal Navy in comparison to the French one. [104] Derby's ministry did not last long, and in June 1859 Victoria recalled Palmerston to office. [105]

Eleven days after Orsini's assassination attempt in France, Victoria's eldest daughter married Prince Frederick William of Prussia in London. They had been betrothed since September 1855, when Princess Victoria was 14 years old the marriage was delayed by the Queen and her husband Albert until the bride was 17. [106] The Queen and Albert hoped that their daughter and son-in-law would be a liberalising influence in the enlarging Prussian state. [107] The Queen felt "sick at heart" to see her daughter leave England for Germany "It really makes me shudder", she wrote to Princess Victoria in one of her frequent letters, "when I look round to all your sweet, happy, unconscious sisters, and think I must give them up too – one by one." [108] Almost exactly a year later, the Princess gave birth to the Queen's first grandchild, Wilhelm, who would become the last German Emperor.

In March 1861, Victoria's mother died, with Victoria at her side. Through reading her mother's papers, Victoria discovered that her mother had loved her deeply [109] she was heart-broken, and blamed Conroy and Lehzen for "wickedly" estranging her from her mother. [110] To relieve his wife during her intense and deep grief, [111] Albert took on most of her duties, despite being ill himself with chronic stomach trouble. [112] In August, Victoria and Albert visited their son, Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, who was attending army manoeuvres near Dublin, and spent a few days holidaying in Killarney. In November, Albert was made aware of gossip that his son had slept with an actress in Ireland. [113] Appalled, he travelled to Cambridge, where his son was studying, to confront him. [114] By the beginning of December, Albert was very unwell. [115] He was diagnosed with typhoid fever by William Jenner, and died on 14 December 1861. Victoria was devastated. [116] She blamed her husband's death on worry over the Prince of Wales's philandering. He had been "killed by that dreadful business", she said. [117] She entered a state of mourning and wore black for the remainder of her life. She avoided public appearances and rarely set foot in London in the following years. [118] Her seclusion earned her the nickname "widow of Windsor". [119] Her weight increased through comfort eating, which further reinforced her aversion to public appearances. [120]

Victoria's self-imposed isolation from the public diminished the popularity of the monarchy, and encouraged the growth of the republican movement. [121] She did undertake her official government duties, yet chose to remain secluded in her royal residences—Windsor Castle, Osborne House, and the private estate in Scotland that she and Albert had acquired in 1847, Balmoral Castle. In March 1864 a protester stuck a notice on the railings of Buckingham Palace that announced "these commanding premises to be let or sold in consequence of the late occupant's declining business". [122] Her uncle Leopold wrote to her advising her to appear in public. She agreed to visit the gardens of the Royal Horticultural Society at Kensington and take a drive through London in an open carriage. [123]

Through the 1860s, Victoria relied increasingly on a manservant from Scotland, John Brown. [124] Rumours of a romantic connection and even a secret marriage appeared in print, and some referred to the Queen as "Mrs. Brown". [125] The story of their relationship was the subject of the 1997 movie Mrs. Brown. A painting by Sir Edwin Henry Landseer depicting the Queen with Brown was exhibited at the Royal Academy, and Victoria published a book, Leaves from the Journal of Our Life in the Highlands, which featured Brown prominently and in which the Queen praised him highly. [126]

Palmerston died in 1865, and after a brief ministry led by Russell, Derby returned to power. In 1866, Victoria attended the State Opening of Parliament for the first time since Albert's death. [127] The following year she supported the passing of the Reform Act 1867 which doubled the electorate by extending the franchise to many urban working men, [128] though she was not in favour of votes for women. [129] Derby resigned in 1868, to be replaced by Benjamin Disraeli, who charmed Victoria. "Everyone likes flattery," he said, "and when you come to royalty you should lay it on with a trowel." [130] With the phrase "we authors, Ma'am", he complimented her. [131] Disraeli's ministry only lasted a matter of months, and at the end of the year his Liberal rival, William Ewart Gladstone, was appointed prime minister. Victoria found Gladstone's demeanour far less appealing he spoke to her, she is thought to have complained, as though she were "a public meeting rather than a woman". [132]

In 1870 republican sentiment in Britain, fed by the Queen's seclusion, was boosted after the establishment of the Third French Republic. [133] A republican rally in Trafalgar Square demanded Victoria's removal, and Radical MPs spoke against her. [134] In August and September 1871, she was seriously ill with an abscess in her arm, which Joseph Lister successfully lanced and treated with his new antiseptic carbolic acid spray. [135] In late November 1871, at the height of the republican movement, the Prince of Wales contracted typhoid fever, the disease that was believed to have killed his father, and Victoria was fearful her son would die. [136] As the tenth anniversary of her husband's death approached, her son's condition grew no better, and Victoria's distress continued. [137] To general rejoicing, he recovered. [138] Mother and son attended a public parade through London and a grand service of thanksgiving in St Paul's Cathedral on 27 February 1872, and republican feeling subsided. [139]

On the last day of February 1872, two days after the thanksgiving service, 17-year-old Arthur O'Connor, a great-nephew of Irish MP Feargus O'Connor, waved an unloaded pistol at Victoria's open carriage just after she had arrived at Buckingham Palace. Brown, who was attending the Queen, grabbed him and O'Connor was later sentenced to 12 months' imprisonment, [140] and a birching. [141] As a result of the incident, Victoria's popularity recovered further. [142]

After the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the British East India Company, which had ruled much of India, was dissolved, and Britain's possessions and protectorates on the Indian subcontinent were formally incorporated into the British Empire. The Queen had a relatively balanced view of the conflict, and condemned atrocities on both sides. [143] She wrote of "her feelings of horror and regret at the result of this bloody civil war", [144] and insisted, urged on by Albert, that an official proclamation announcing the transfer of power from the company to the state "should breathe feelings of generosity, benevolence and religious toleration". [145] At her behest, a reference threatening the "undermining of native religions and customs" was replaced by a passage guaranteeing religious freedom. [145]

In the 1874 general election, Disraeli was returned to power. He passed the Public Worship Regulation Act 1874, which removed Catholic rituals from the Anglican liturgy and which Victoria strongly supported. [147] She preferred short, simple services, and personally considered herself more aligned with the presbyterian Church of Scotland than the episcopal Church of England. [148] Disraeli also pushed the Royal Titles Act 1876 through Parliament, so that Victoria took the title "Empress of India" from 1 May 1876. [149] The new title was proclaimed at the Delhi Durbar of 1 January 1877. [150]

On 14 December 1878, the anniversary of Albert's death, Victoria's second daughter Alice, who had married Louis of Hesse, died of diphtheria in Darmstadt. Victoria noted the coincidence of the dates as "almost incredible and most mysterious". [151] In May 1879, she became a great-grandmother (on the birth of Princess Feodora of Saxe-Meiningen) and passed her "poor old 60th birthday". She felt "aged" by "the loss of my beloved child". [152]

Between April 1877 and February 1878, she threatened five times to abdicate while pressuring Disraeli to act against Russia during the Russo-Turkish War, but her threats had no impact on the events or their conclusion with the Congress of Berlin. [153] Disraeli's expansionist foreign policy, which Victoria endorsed, led to conflicts such as the Anglo-Zulu War and the Second Anglo-Afghan War. "If we are to maintain our position as a first-rate Power", she wrote, "we must . be Prepared for attacks and wars, somewhere or other, CONTINUALLY." [154] Victoria saw the expansion of the British Empire as civilising and benign, protecting native peoples from more aggressive powers or cruel rulers: "It is not in our custom to annexe countries", she said, "unless we are obliged & forced to do so." [155] To Victoria's dismay, Disraeli lost the 1880 general election, and Gladstone returned as prime minister. [156] When Disraeli died the following year, she was blinded by "fast falling tears", [157] and erected a memorial tablet "placed by his grateful Sovereign and Friend, Victoria R.I." [158]

On 2 March 1882, Roderick Maclean, a disgruntled poet apparently offended by Victoria's refusal to accept one of his poems, [159] shot at the Queen as her carriage left Windsor railway station. Two schoolboys from Eton College struck him with their umbrellas, until he was hustled away by a policeman. [160] Victoria was outraged when he was found not guilty by reason of insanity, [161] but was so pleased by the many expressions of loyalty after the attack that she said it was "worth being shot at—to see how much one is loved". [162]

On 17 March 1883, Victoria fell down some stairs at Windsor, which left her lame until July she never fully recovered and was plagued with rheumatism thereafter. [163] John Brown died 10 days after her accident, and to the consternation of her private secretary, Sir Henry Ponsonby, Victoria began work on a eulogistic biography of Brown. [164] Ponsonby and Randall Davidson, Dean of Windsor, who had both seen early drafts, advised Victoria against publication, on the grounds that it would stoke the rumours of a love affair. [165] The manuscript was destroyed. [166] In early 1884, Victoria did publish More Leaves from a Journal of a Life in the Highlands, a sequel to her earlier book, which she dedicated to her "devoted personal attendant and faithful friend John Brown". [167] On the day after the first anniversary of Brown's death, Victoria was informed by telegram that her youngest son, Leopold, had died in Cannes. He was "the dearest of my dear sons", she lamented. [168] The following month, Victoria's youngest child, Beatrice, met and fell in love with Prince Henry of Battenberg at the wedding of Victoria's granddaughter Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine to Henry's brother Prince Louis of Battenberg. Beatrice and Henry planned to marry, but Victoria opposed the match at first, wishing to keep Beatrice at home to act as her companion. After a year, she was won around to the marriage by their promise to remain living with and attending her. [169]

Victoria was pleased when Gladstone resigned in 1885 after his budget was defeated. [170] She thought his government was "the worst I have ever had", and blamed him for the death of General Gordon at Khartoum. [171] Gladstone was replaced by Lord Salisbury. Salisbury's government only lasted a few months, however, and Victoria was forced to recall Gladstone, whom she referred to as a "half crazy & really in many ways ridiculous old man". [172] Gladstone attempted to pass a bill granting Ireland home rule, but to Victoria's glee it was defeated. [173] In the ensuing election, Gladstone's party lost to Salisbury's and the government switched hands again.

Golden Jubilee

In 1887, the British Empire celebrated the Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria. She marked the fiftieth anniversary of her accession on 20 June with a banquet to which 50 kings and princes were invited. The following day, she participated in a procession and attended a thanksgiving service in Westminster Abbey. [174] By this time, Victoria was once again extremely popular. [175] Two days later on 23 June, [176] she engaged two Indian Muslims as waiters, one of whom was Abdul Karim. He was soon promoted to "Munshi": teaching her Urdu (known as Hindustani) and acting as a clerk. [177] [178] [179] Her family and retainers were appalled, and accused Abdul Karim of spying for the Muslim Patriotic League, and biasing the Queen against the Hindus. [180] Equerry Frederick Ponsonby (the son of Sir Henry) discovered that the Munshi had lied about his parentage, and reported to Lord Elgin, Viceroy of India, "the Munshi occupies very much the same position as John Brown used to do." [181] Victoria dismissed their complaints as racial prejudice. [182] Abdul Karim remained in her service until he returned to India with a pension, on her death. [183]

Victoria's eldest daughter became empress consort of Germany in 1888, but she was widowed a little over three months later, and Victoria's eldest grandchild became German Emperor as Wilhelm II. Victoria and Albert's hopes of a liberal Germany would go unfulfilled, as Wilhelm was a firm believer in autocracy. Victoria thought he had "little heart or Zartgefühl [tact] – and . his conscience & intelligence have been completely wharped [sic]". [184]

Gladstone returned to power after the 1892 general election he was 82 years old. Victoria objected when Gladstone proposed appointing the Radical MP Henry Labouchère to the Cabinet, so Gladstone agreed not to appoint him. [185] In 1894, Gladstone retired and, without consulting the outgoing prime minister, Victoria appointed Lord Rosebery as prime minister. [186] His government was weak, and the following year Lord Salisbury replaced him. Salisbury remained prime minister for the remainder of Victoria's reign. [187]

Diamond Jubilee

On 23 September 1896, Victoria surpassed her grandfather George III as the longest-reigning monarch in British history. The Queen requested that any special celebrations be delayed until 1897, to coincide with her Diamond Jubilee, [188] which was made a festival of the British Empire at the suggestion of the Colonial Secretary, Joseph Chamberlain. [189] The prime ministers of all the self-governing Dominions were invited to London for the festivities. [190] One reason for including the prime ministers of the Dominions and excluding foreign heads of state was to avoid having to invite Victoria's grandson, Wilhelm II of Germany, who, it was feared, might cause trouble at the event. [191]

The Queen's Diamond Jubilee procession on 22 June 1897 followed a route six miles long through London and included troops from all over the empire. The procession paused for an open-air service of thanksgiving held outside St Paul's Cathedral, throughout which Victoria sat in her open carriage, to avoid her having to climb the steps to enter the building. The celebration was marked by vast crowds of spectators and great outpourings of affection for the 78-year-old Queen. [192]

Victoria visited mainland Europe regularly for holidays. In 1889, during a stay in Biarritz, she became the first reigning monarch from Britain to set foot in Spain when she crossed the border for a brief visit. [193] By April 1900, the Boer War was so unpopular in mainland Europe that her annual trip to France seemed inadvisable. Instead, the Queen went to Ireland for the first time since 1861, in part to acknowledge the contribution of Irish regiments to the South African war. [194]

Death and succession

In July 1900, Victoria's second son, Alfred ("Affie"), died. "Oh, God! My poor darling Affie gone too", she wrote in her journal. "It is a horrible year, nothing but sadness & horrors of one kind & another." [195]

Following a custom she maintained throughout her widowhood, Victoria spent the Christmas of 1900 at Osborne House on the Isle of Wight. Rheumatism in her legs had rendered her lame, and her eyesight was clouded by cataracts. [196] Through early January, she felt "weak and unwell", [197] and by mid-January she was "drowsy . dazed, [and] confused". [198] She died on Tuesday 22 January 1901, at half past six in the evening, at the age of 81. [199] Her son and successor, King Edward VII, and her eldest grandson, Emperor Wilhelm II, were at her deathbed. [200] Her favourite pet Pomeranian, Turi, was laid upon her deathbed as a last request. [201]

In 1897, Victoria had written instructions for her funeral, which was to be military as befitting a soldier's daughter and the head of the army, [96] and white instead of black. [202] On 25 January, Edward, Wilhelm, and her third son, the Duke of Connaught, helped lift her body into the coffin. [203] She was dressed in a white dress and her wedding veil. [204] An array of mementos commemorating her extended family, friends and servants were laid in the coffin with her, at her request, by her doctor and dressers. One of Albert's dressing gowns was placed by her side, with a plaster cast of his hand, while a lock of John Brown's hair, along with a picture of him, was placed in her left hand concealed from the view of the family by a carefully positioned bunch of flowers. [96] [205] Items of jewellery placed on Victoria included the wedding ring of John Brown's mother, given to her by Brown in 1883. [96] Her funeral was held on Saturday 2 February, in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, and after two days of lying-in-state, she was interred beside Prince Albert in the Royal Mausoleum, Frogmore, at Windsor Great Park. [206]

With a reign of 63 years, seven months, and two days, Victoria was the longest-reigning British monarch and the longest-reigning queen regnant in world history until her great-great-granddaughter Elizabeth II surpassed her on 9 September 2015. [207] She was the last monarch of Britain from the House of Hanover. Her son and successor Edward VII belonged to her husband's House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.

According to one of her biographers, Giles St Aubyn, Victoria wrote an average of 2,500 words a day during her adult life. [210] From July 1832 until just before her death, she kept a detailed journal, which eventually encompassed 122 volumes. [211] After Victoria's death, her youngest daughter, Princess Beatrice, was appointed her literary executor. Beatrice transcribed and edited the diaries covering Victoria's accession onwards, and burned the originals in the process. [212] Despite this destruction, much of the diaries still exist. In addition to Beatrice's edited copy, Lord Esher transcribed the volumes from 1832 to 1861 before Beatrice destroyed them. [213] Part of Victoria's extensive correspondence has been published in volumes edited by A. C. Benson, Hector Bolitho, George Earle Buckle, Lord Esher, Roger Fulford, and Richard Hough among others. [214]

Victoria was physically unprepossessing—she was stout, dowdy and only about five feet tall—but she succeeded in projecting a grand image. [215] She experienced unpopularity during the first years of her widowhood, but was well liked during the 1880s and 1890s, when she embodied the empire as a benevolent matriarchal figure. [216] Only after the release of her diary and letters did the extent of her political influence become known to the wider public. [96] [217] Biographies of Victoria written before much of the primary material became available, such as Lytton Strachey's Queen Victoria of 1921, are now considered out of date. [218] The biographies written by Elizabeth Longford and Cecil Woodham-Smith, in 1964 and 1972 respectively, are still widely admired. [219] They, and others, conclude that as a person Victoria was emotional, obstinate, honest, and straight-talking. [220] Contrary to popular belief, her staff and family recorded that Victoria "was immensely amused and roared with laughter" on many occasions. [221]

Through Victoria's reign, the gradual establishment of a modern constitutional monarchy in Britain continued. Reforms of the voting system increased the power of the House of Commons at the expense of the House of Lords and the monarch. [222] In 1867, Walter Bagehot wrote that the monarch only retained "the right to be consulted, the right to encourage, and the right to warn". [223] As Victoria's monarchy became more symbolic than political, it placed a strong emphasis on morality and family values, in contrast to the sexual, financial and personal scandals that had been associated with previous members of the House of Hanover and which had discredited the monarchy. The concept of the "family monarchy", with which the burgeoning middle classes could identify, was solidified. [224]

Descendants and haemophilia

Victoria's links with Europe's royal families earned her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". [225] Of the 42 grandchildren of Victoria and Albert, 34 survived to adulthood. Their living descendants include Elizabeth II Harald V of Norway Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden Margrethe II of Denmark and Felipe VI of Spain.

Victoria's youngest son, Leopold, was affected by the blood-clotting disease haemophilia B and at least two of her five daughters, Alice and Beatrice, were carriers. Royal haemophiliacs descended from Victoria included her great-grandsons, Alexei Nikolaevich, Tsarevich of Russia Alfonso, Prince of Asturias and Infante Gonzalo of Spain. [226] The presence of the disease in Victoria's descendants, but not in her ancestors, led to modern speculation that her true father was not the Duke of Kent, but a haemophiliac. [227] There is no documentary evidence of a haemophiliac in connection with Victoria's mother, and as male carriers always suffer the disease, even if such a man had existed he would have been seriously ill. [228] It is more likely that the mutation arose spontaneously because Victoria's father was over 50 at the time of her conception and haemophilia arises more frequently in the children of older fathers. [229] Spontaneous mutations account for about a third of cases. [230]

Namesakes

Around the world, places and memorials are dedicated to her, especially in the Commonwealth nations. Places named after her include Africa's largest lake, Victoria Falls, the capitals of British Columbia (Victoria) and Saskatchewan (Regina), two Australian states (Victoria and Queensland), and the capital of the island nation of Seychelles.

The Victoria Cross was introduced in 1856 to reward acts of valour during the Crimean War, [231] and it remains the highest British, Canadian, Australian, and New Zealand award for bravery. Victoria Day is a Canadian statutory holiday and a local public holiday in parts of Scotland celebrated on the last Monday before or on 24 May (Queen Victoria's birthday).

Titles and styles

  • 24 May 1819 – 20 June 1837: Her Royal Highness Princess Alexandrina Victoria of Kent
  • 20 June 1837 – 22 January 1901: Her Majesty The Queen

At the end of her reign, the Queen's full style was: "Her Majesty Victoria, by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Queen, Defender of the Faith, Empress of India". [232]

Honours

British honours

    , 1826[233]
  • Founder and Sovereign of the Order of the Star of India, 25 June 1861[234]
  • Founder and Sovereign of the Royal Order of Victoria and Albert, 10 February 1862[235]
  • Founder and Sovereign of the Order of the Crown of India, 1 January 1878[236]
  • Founder and Sovereign of the Order of the Indian Empire, 1 January 1878[237]
  • Founder and Sovereign of the Royal Red Cross, 27 April 1883[238]
  • Founder and Sovereign of the Distinguished Service Order, 6 November 1886[239] of the Royal Society of Arts, 1887[240]
  • Founder and Sovereign of the Royal Victorian Order, 23 April 1896[241]

Foreign honours

    :
    • Dame of the Order of Queen Maria Luisa, 21 December 1833[242]
    • Grand Cross of the Order of Charles III[243]
    • Dame of the Order of Queen Saint Isabel, 23 February 1836[244][243]
      , 1st Class in Diamonds, 20 June 1873
    • Order of the August Portrait, 20 June 1873
      , 1880[251]
    • Dame of the Order of the Royal House of Chakri, 1887[252]
      , 1882 , 1883 , 1897

    As Sovereign, Victoria used the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom. Before her accession, she received no grant of arms. As she could not succeed to the throne of Hanover, her arms did not carry the Hanoverian symbols that were used by her immediate predecessors. Her arms have been borne by all of her successors on the throne.

    Outside Scotland, the blazon for the shield—also used on the Royal Standard—is: Quarterly: I and IV, Gules, three lions passant guardant in pale Or (for England) II, Or, a lion rampant within a double tressure flory-counter-flory Gules (for Scotland) III, Azure, a harp Or stringed Argent (for Ireland). In Scotland, the first and fourth quarters are occupied by the Scottish lion, and the second by the English lions. The crests, mottoes, and supporters also differ in and outside Scotland.


    Albert Butterworth - History

    Precedential Status: Non-Precedential

    NOTICE: Ninth Circuit Rule 36-3 provides that dispositions other than opinions or orders designated for publication are not precedential and should not be cited except when relevant under the doctrines of law of the case, res judicata, or collateral estoppel.
    UNITED STATES of America, Plaintiff-Appellee,
    v.
    Albert W. BUTTERWORTH, III, Defendant-Appellant.

    United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit.

    Submitted April 27, 1993.*
    Decided May 13, 1993.

    Before: BROWNING, KOZINSKI and RYMER, Circuit Judges.

    Albert Butterworth appeals from the district court's revocation of his supervised release, following his conviction by guilty plea for being an unlawful user of a controlled substance in possession of a firearm in violation of 18 U.S.C. § 922(g)(3). Butterworth contends that the district court violated the requirements of 18 U.S.C. § 3553(a) by revoking his supervised release before he could admit himself into a drug treatment program. We have jurisdiction under 28 U.S.C. § 1291 and affirm.

    The court may, after considering the factors set forth in [18 U.S.C.] section 3553(a)(1), (a)(2)(B), (a)(2)(C), (a)(2)(D), (a)(4), (a)(5), and (a)(6) . revoke a term of supervised release and require the person to serve in prison all or part of the term of supervised release . if it finds by a preponderance of evidence that the person violated a condition of supervised release.

    18 U.S.C. § 3583(e). The relevant factors include the nature and circumstances of the offense and the history and characteristics of the defendant, the need to provide the defendant with adequate deterrent to criminal conduct, the need to provide the defendant correctional treatment in the most effective manner, and the kind of sentence and sentencing range established by the Guidelines. Lockard, 910 F.2d at 544 .

    Here, Butterworth admitted violating the conditions of his supervised release, and there is no indication from the record that the district court failed to consider the relevant factors before revoking supervised release and sentencing him to incarceration. Butterworth had been placed on probation for his offense, but had violated probation by using drugs. Following revocation of his probation, Butterworth served six months' incarceration and then violated his supervised release by again testing positive for drug use. Butterworth previously had made several attempts at drug rehabilitation, but had failed to successfully complete treatment.

    The district court expressly considered these facts before concluding, "I've given you a number of opportunities, and you've elected not to respond to them. I feel that the only thing appropriate is to give you the ten months." The district court sentenced Butterworth within the applicable Guidelines range. Thus, the record shows that the district court properly applied the relevant statutes before revoking supervised release.1 See Lockard, 910 F.2d at 544 .

    We review de novo the district court's application of the supervised release statutes. United States v. Lockard, 910 F.2d 542 , 543 (9th Cir.1990).

    The panel unanimously finds this case suitable for decision without oral argument. Fed.R.App.P. 34(a) 9th Cir.R. 34-4

    This disposition is not appropriate for publication and may not be cited to or by the courts of this circuit except as provided by 9th Cir.R. 36-3

    Butterworth argues that since he was still abusing drugs despite his previous six-month sentence, the district court's imposition of further incarceration "violated the spirit of section 3553(a)" because incarceration had not proven "effective." Butterworth appears to suggest that because "imprisonment had been tried and proven unsuccessful," the district court was required to try some other method of helping him to conquer his drug addiction. He also suggests that his case is distinguishable from our holding in Lockard because, unlike Lockard, Butterworth did not grant the district court leave to imprison him by requesting additional incarceration to help him fight his addiction. These arguments are completely frivolous


    Boston Strangler Case Solved 50 Years Later

    Boston police used DNA to identify Albert DeSalvo as the Boston Strangler.

    Boston Strangler Case Solved After 50 Years

    BOSTON July 11, 2013— -- A water bottle recovered from a construction site where Tim DeSalvo – whose uncle Albert DeSalvo had confessed to being the internationally notorious Boston Strangler – gave police the DNA evidence they needed to bring closure to a case that has been a mystery for nearly 50 years, murders for which no one has ever been charged.

    "This is really a story of relentlessness,'' Boston Police Commissioner Ed Davis explained today as Massachusetts top law enforcement officials revealed that DNA preserved from the body of the Boston Strangler's last victim--raped and murdered in 1964--can now be linked with "99.9 percent certainty" to the late Albert DeSalvo.

    "This is good evidence. This is strong evidence. This is reliable evidence,'' Suffolk County District Attorney Dan Conley said of the new DNA result. "But there can be no doubt."

    The Boston Strangler case, which inspired a 1968 Hollywood movie starring Tony Curtis, marked a terrifying swath of history in the city – and one that has long been mired in doubt.

    It was the 1960s and single women across Massachusetts were the target of a serial killer and rapist. When it was over, the Boston Strangler had killed 11 women. The case baffled the five separate District Attorney's offices investigating the murders because of the spread-out locations of the victims. Then DeSalvo, a convicted rapist, made a jailhouse confession claiming that he was the Boston Strangler and provided details on the 11 murdered women.

    But DeSalvo was never charged in the case and was found dead in his cell under mysterious circumstances at Walpole state prison in 1973. This week investigators will exhume DeSalvo's body from Puritan Lawn Cemetery in Peabody, Mass., to make the final determination with DNA testing.

    The strangler's last victim would be 19-year-old Mary Sullivan, strangled with her own stocking in her Beacon Hill apartment on tony Charles Street. She was also sexually savaged.

    Her killer left behind seminal fluids that were lifted from a maroon blanket her body was covered with. That remains the only DNA evidence in the entire Boston Strangler investigation: six samples that the Boston Police Crime Lab's lead forensic scientist Robert Hayes preserved as he waited for technology to advance to the point where nuclear DNA could be positively matched to a suspect.

    First, police had to make sure the Y-chromosomes in those DNA samples were a familial match to DeSalvo in order to convince a judge to let investigators disturb his grave. So BPD Sgt. Brian Albert, a surveillance expert, followed nephew Tim DeSalvo to his worksite in Boston and retrieved a water bottle he drank from and left behind. It was a match to the samples collected in the 1964 Beacon Hill murder, excluding 99.9 percent of the male population from suspicion in Mary Sullivan's killing, Hayes said, and pointing to Albert DeSalvo with near certainty as the man responsible.

    "I knew science would one day provide us with answers in this case,'' Hayes told ABC News.

    Those answers provided comfort to the nephew Mary Sullivan never met: Boston author Casey Sherman, who had long held that his aunt had been murdered not by DeSalvo but by another man. He even wrote a book, "A Rose for Mary" about the investigation he launched to assuage his mother's nightmares. His mother Diane was just 17 when Mary Sullivan was murdered and she continued to dream of her sister, Sherman told ABC News.

    "I am grateful this brings closure to me and to my mother most of all,'' Sherman said, his voice shaking with emotion. He got choked up, took a breath, and continued talking.

    "For all these years it was just me and her chasing this case,'' Sherman said. "It took 49 years for police to say they legitimately got him."

    But Elaine Sharpe, a lawyer for the DeSalvo family, insisted that police have not legitimately identified Albert as the Boston Strangler. She added that his nephew did not know he had been followed and inadvertently provided the evidence for the search warrant that will lead to the body being exhumed 30 years after it was buried.

    "Just because they had DNA,'' Sharpe said, "Doesn't mean Albert DeSalvo killed her."

    Massachusetts Attorney General Martha Coakley dismissed that assertion, saying: "We may have solved one of the nation's most notorious serial killings."


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    Albert the Bear

    When Albert arrives in Mr. Jolly's toy shop, the other toys think he is the saddest-looking bear they have ever seen. Determined to cheer him up, the toys spring into action. But underneath his frown, Albert the bear has a surprise of his own. . . .

    Nick Butterworth's vibrant illustrations and memorable characters tell a delightfully charming story filled with giggles -- and some very big laughs indeed!

    Follow the link download below to download ebook pdf, kindle ebook, ms word and more softfile type of Albert the Bear | By Nick Butterworth. Off course this is a great books that I think are not only fun to read but also very educational.

    4 of 4 people found the following review helpful.
    Charming and a wonderful message for all of us
    By L. Craigo
    This book is so amusing and will keep a child's interest throughout the story as the other toys decide that Albert needs some cheering up. While Albert tries to stop them so sweetly, the story becomes terribly funny as the toys basically make matters worse. The moral? Don't believe what you see. Such a lovely story about an adorable little bear who showed his friends a different perspective!

    0 of 0 people found the following review helpful.
    One of the best
    By Ionia Martin
    This is undoubtedly one of the best children's books that I have ever read. The message comes through loud and clear that judging someone on outward appearance alone can be wrong. The illustrations in this book take up the entire page and are consistently wonderful from beginning to end. The story has such sweet and funny moments that the children who listen to it are immediately captivated. I wish there were more books like this one! If you are a parent or a grandparent this would make a perfect addition to your children's book library.

    0 of 0 people found the following review helpful.
    Fun reading!
    By J. Nemitz
    Albert the Bear is a fun, whimsical and endearing story. I have sooo much fun reading it to my 4 year old and she LOVES the story. It's one of those stories that we never tire of and are more than happy to have it as the FAVORITE bedtime story. If you haven't read it, you need to - and it'll soon become a favorite!


    HistoryLink.org

    Albert F. Canwell was a Republican Washington state legislator from Spokane who served one term in the House from 1946 to 1948. He was famous for being chairman of the Canwell Committee, officially titled the Legislative Joint Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American Activities in Washington State, which sought out communists and other subversives during the "Red Scare" era. Canwell, who had worked various jobs including farmworker, freelance journalist, and police photographer, campaigned for the House seat on an anti-communist platform. He helped write the resolution establishing his committee. Canwell chaired both of the committee's hearings in 1948, which targeted alleged Communist influence in the state's labor movement and at the University of Washington. Three UW professors were fired because of the committee's work. Canwell ran for office many times afterward but never won another race. He was one of the defendants in the sensational John Goldmark libel suit in 1963. He ran his own "intelligence service" in Spokane for decades and continued to gather information on people and groups he deemed subversive. He died, unrepentant and unapologetic, in Spokane in 2002.

    Childhood in Spokane

    He was born Albert Franklyn Canwell in Spokane on January 11, 1907. His father, Adelbert Lee Canwell, was an ex-soldier and a member of Spokane's Merchant Police. His mother, Christina, was a nurse. The Canwell family lived on Spokane's north side for a time, and then moved to a small farm in the hills just north of Spokane.

    His first appearance in the news came on June 2, 1911, when a playmate found his father's revolver and accidentally shot young Albert, 4, in the arm. His mother rushed him to an emergency clinic where he waited "without a whimper" to have his wound dressed ("Wee Lad"). "Officers who have seen grown men make a tremendous commotion over less painful wounds, looked on in surprise at the fortitude of the blue-eyed, flaxen-haired little chap perched in the physician’s big black chair,” said the Spokesman-Review. "[He] sat quietly and bravely throughout the ordeal" ("Wee Lad").

    A Restless Youth

    He attended a Seventh Day Adventist school in Spokane. He had aspirations to be a journalist or writer -- he particularly admired Jack London. He never finished high school or attended college. "It was, of course, my mother's hope . that I would continue my formal education, which, of course, I should have done, but I was a restless sort," said Canwell in an extensive oral history for the Washington State Oral History Program (Canwell, p. 58).

    Instead, as a teenager he went on the road to work the fields and orchards of Washington, Oregon, California, and Arizona. He followed the harvests every year until about 1928, returning to work various jobs in Spokane in between. "I did become homesick for the familiar things and your people and people who know and care about you," said Canwell. "But soon I'd take off again" (Canwell, p. 68).

    His jobs took him to places such as San Francisco, where he met many other itinerant workers and was exposed to the turbulent labor politics of the era. He remembered one incident when he was riding the rails from Kennewick to Spokane and was confronted by a couple of Wobblies (members of the radical Industrial Workers of the World or I.W.W.) who told Canwell he either "had to have a Wobblie card or get off the train" (Canwell, p. 71).

    "I decided that wasn't the way it was going to be and I displayed this firearm," said Canwell. "Anyway, these two guys just took off, jumped off the train into the sagebrush head-over-heels. That's all I saw of them. That was one of my experiences with labor-organizing" (Canwell, p. 71).

    He worked for a time in a Spokane bookstore, which, as an aspiring writer, he especially enjoyed. Then he spent some time traveling Idaho and Montana as a book salesman, peddling Seventh Day Adventists books from farmhouse to farmhouse.

    "I'll Get You. "

    Around 1932, he and some friends decided to start a small "shopper" (a newspaper devoted mostly to classified ads) in Yakima. This was not the kind of newspaper job he would have preferred -- he would have liked a job as a reporter at a Seattle daily -- but he considered it an entryway into journalism.

    Around this time, he began his lifelong quest to monitor radical, communist activity, which he said was very intense in Seattle at the time. Canwell's shopper was printed at a job shop in Ballard -- and so was the Communist Party's local paper. Canwell would observe them quietly as they would put together their paper.

    He came to believe that communism was a vital peril to America. He met another young journalist, Ashley Holden, who was doing undercover investigations of the Communist Party in Seattle and Canwell soon realized he had a knack for that work as well. He once attended a big meeting in Seattle led by Harry Bridges (1901-1990), the controversial and charismatic president of the International Longshore and Warehouse Union.

    "So I went down there to see what was going on and blithely walked into the meeting," said Canwell. "I think I was wearing some seersucker suit or something. I didn't look like all these longshoremen. They let me get all the way into the place and then a couple of them picked me up and danced me to the front door and threw me out. That gave me a great interest in Harry Bridges. At the time, I believe I thought, 'Well. I'll get you, you so-and-so, someday'" (Canwell, p. 90).

    By 1935 and 1936, Canwell was making trips to Chicago and Detroit, partly in his new job shuttling cars cross country for a broker, and partly for his investigations into labor and radical politics. He received press credentials as a "roving reporter" from Hearst's International News service and sold some stories about sit-down strikes in the automotive industry. He called himself a newspaperman and believed he had found a niche. "My talent, I felt, was in the direction of covering of radical news," said Canwell (Canwell, p. 93).

    Canwell was not anti-union -- he believed that labor organization was a good thing and that "we'd be in a heck of a mess without it, because mankind is essentially greedy and he'll exploit his fellow man." But he believed that the Communist Party was aiming at a takeover of America that went far beyond simple labor-management issues.

    He acquired a Speed Graphic camera and he interviewed and photographed prominent labor leaders, including John L. Lewis (1880-1969) of the CIO. Yet he had trouble finding a ready market for his writing and returned to Spokane in 1938.

    Keeping Files

    He became convinced it was fertile ground for his calling. The Pacific Northwest, he said, "was the basic launching operation of the world Communist movement" (Canwell, p. 105).

    He believed that Communists were especially interested in the Northwest because it was full of vital strategic targets for a Communist takeover, such as The Boeing Co. and the Grand Coulee Dam. Canwell was certainly not alone in thinking that Washington was a hotbed of Communist activity. Postmaster General James Farley (1888-1976) famously quipped in 1936 that the nation consisted of 47 states and “the soviet of Washington” ("Communism in Washington State").

    Because of his photography skills, he got a job in 1942 with the Spokane County Sheriff's Office's Identification Bureau. He took mug shots of suspects and sometimes photographed crime scenes.

    He kept his county job for most of the World War II years. He was never called up for service. By this time, he had become a married man. He married Marsinah Marshall on July 3, 1941. They would eventually have six children.

    During his time with the sheriff's office, he continued doing his investigations into what he considered radical groups. He began keeping "files of a very extensive nature" on radical publications and radical activists. He claimed to have worked with the FBI on its anti-communist activities. He also claimed to have worked with the anti-subversive Red Squad. He said he developed his own informants in the radical world (Canwell, p. 102).

    He believed that communists had made serious inroads into the railroad shops in Spokane and Hillyard. Canwell even came to believe that Spokane was also "unfortunate enough" to have Communists of "world importance" in its midst (Canwell, p. 122).

    Running for State Legislature

    By the mid-1940s he became disillusioned with his work at the sheriff's office. His old friend Ashley Holden, now the political editor of The Spokesman-Review, and a staunch anti-communist, talked him into trying politics. Holden told him that running for the state legislature would be one way to "do something" about the Communist threat (Canwell, p. 136). Canwell dismissed the idea at first, since he was "a Republican living in a strong Democratic district," the Fifth legislative district (Canwell, p. 136).

    But then Holden wrote a column about Canwell's anti-communist zeal and the Republican leadership asked him if he would run. He decided to give it a try. "I remember I made only two statements about what I would do," said Canwell. "I wouldn't vote for any new taxes and I'd do something about the Communists."

    He resigned from the sheriff's office and ran a race in fall of 1946 against another newcomer, Democrat Frank Martin, the son of the former Washington governor Clarence D. Martin (1884-1955).

    "I thought he'd be a walkaway," said Canwell. "I think everybody else thought so, but he wasn't. That year they 'threw all the bums out.' I came in on the wave."

    Canwell defeated Martin by 3,530 votes to 3,064 on November 5, 1946. The Republican landslide also changed the House from majority Democrat to majority Republican for the first time in 12 years.

    By his own account, freshman Canwell was not a key legislative player at first. "My participation in floor action was almost nil," said Canwell (Canwell, p. 146).

    The Canwell Committee

    As the legislative session proceeded, one issue of particular interest to Canwell began to bubble up: The supposed Communist indoctrination in state colleges and universities. "The University of Washington had become not only a local, but a national scandal," said Canwell (Canwell, p. 150).

    Canwell and some of his fellow legislators felt that something should be done about this and other Communist threats, so in March 1947 Canwell introduced House Concurrent Resolution No. 10, which authorized setting up what became the Legislative Joint Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American Activities in Washington State, or, more commonly, the Canwell Committee.

    Its purpose: "To investigate the activities of groups and organizations whose membership includes persons who are Communists, or any other organization known or suspected to be dominated or controlled by a foreign power" (Wick). It was patterned after a similar committee then making headlines in the U.S. House of Representatives and a state committee in California.

    It passed both houses without much fanfare. It authorized the Speaker of the House to appoint a chairman. Al Canwell was duly appointed. The committee had seven members, seven investigators, and four clerical workers. They set up headquarters in the unused Seattle Field Artillery Armory, now the Center House on the Seattle Center campus.

    For the first six months, the committee gathered information from investigators, and "listening to wire and tape recordings" (Canwell, p. 157). The committee released no statements.

    The Hearings Begin

    That all changed early on January 27, 1948, when the Canwell Committee finally convened and held public hearings at the Seattle armory. The first target: The Washington Pension Union, which advocated for old-age pensions and other social programs.

    In the first five days of hearings, the committee named more than 50 people as members or active followers of the Communist Party, including the pension union president, William J. Pennock.

    "Fifty Are Daubed With Red Brush," read a headline in the Spokesman-Review over a story by Ashley Holden, provided reams of friendly coverage to his longtime ally (Holden, "Fifty").

    The committee brought in "expert" witnesses, often recanted Communists, who would testify about who they saw, or heard that someone saw, at long-ago Communist Party meetings, often dating back to the 1930s. In one sensational revelation, a witness claimed that meetings of the Communist Party had been held right inside the State Capitol building in Olympia, attended by at least eight legislators who were Communist (Holden, "King Demo").

    Canwell later asserted that, in the previous session, there had been 24 identified Communists in the Washington State Legislature itself (Canwell, p. 153).

    The hearings also targeted Harry Bridges, the union president who once had Canwell thrown out of a meeting. The committee called his ex-wife to testify against Bridges. Canwell would later call him "the most dangerous Communist in the Western Hemisphere" (Canwell, p. 407).

    Raucous and Contentious

    The backlash began almost immediately. Pennock filed a $688,000 libel suit against the committee. Other targets of the hearings also filed libel suits against individual witnesses, none of which came to fruition. The state treasurer refused to cash payroll warrants from the committee, in an attempt to force the courts to rule on the constitutionality of the committee.

    Holden characterized these efforts as "frenzied howls of anguish" from the victims (Holden, "Canwell Group"). Meanwhile, said Holden, the committee had been "literally deluged with letters and telegrams from loyal Americans" thanking the committee for their work (Holden, "Canwell Group"). Holden claimed the hearings were already bearing fruit: The Washington Pension Union was purging the Communists from their midst.

    Yet the most controversial and raucous hearings were yet to come. After a spring hiatus, it soon became clear which institution would be the committee's summer target: The University of Washington. One committee member leaked the news (exaggerated, as it turned out) that "no less than 150 professors" were Communists or sympathizers ("Bienz").

    In June, Canwell handed UW president Raymond B. Allen (1902-1986) a list of 40 faculty members to be subpoenaed for the hearings. Allen concluded he had no choice but to cooperate with the hearings. Some faculty members had already been visited and interrogated by committee investigators others were still waiting for a knock on their doors.

    In a series of raucous and contentious hearings beginning on July 19, 1948, the committee attempted to establish that the UW campus was crawling with Communist faculty, who would send graduates back to their homes and farms "spouting lines that were completely unacceptable to the people who were paying the bill" (Canwell, p. 150).

    A UW English professor later described the scene like this: "Six or seven men sit behind a high table, the man in the center armed with a gavel. Below them, facing a witness sits the chief inquisitor. Behind him sit two or three rows of members of the faculty. Beyond them, sit 91 spectators, all that can crowd into the small chamber" (Wick).

    In total, 11 UW professors were eventually called to the hearings. Some admitted past Community Party membership, but refused to name anyone else. Two, Melvin Rader and Joseph Cohen, denied ever being members. Three, Herbert Phillips, Joseph Butterworth, and Ralph Gundlach, refused to answer questions at all.

    Emotions boiled over. Five hundred pickets holding "Canwell Must Go" signs gathered outside the Armory one day. "I suggest the state patrol make some arrests if this continues," said Canwell, and they did make at least one arrest (Holden, "Activities").

    Objections and Protests

    Two days later, hearing target Florence Bean James (1892-1988), of the Seattle Repertory Playhouse stood up and tried to make a statement. Canwell gaveled her to order. "She struck a theatrical pose and demanded to know if they proposed to carry her out," wrote Holden (Holden, "Un-American). Canwell ordered her hustled out of the room by the State Patrol.

    On the same day, attorney John Caughlan (1909-1990) objected to the way the committee was questioning one of his clients. "You will ask no more questions," said Canwell. "We will not go on with this ridiculous procedure here" (Wick). The State Patrol escorted Caughlan out of the room.

    Often, the questions from the committee followed the famous formulation: "Are you now, or have you ever been, a member of the Communist Party?" (Holden. "Attorneys"). If witnesses refused to answer, or attempted to make a statement beyond yes or no, they were gaveled for contempt. Five more people were hustled out of the room by the State Patrol in the July 22 hearing. "He (Canwell) controlled the hearing with an iron hand," said C. T. Hatten, an attorney at the hearing (Camden).

    The hearings ended after five raucous days and a blizzard of contempt citations. Nobody realized it at the time, but the Canwell Committee had already gaveled its last witness. The committee withered and died after a protracted battle in Olympia over access to the committee's records, its expenses, and its constitutionality.

    Lives Destroyed

    Yet the repercussions echoed for decades. The University of Washington convened a faculty committee to rule on the fates of those professors who had been named in the hearing. The committee recommended dismissing only one professor, Ralph Gundlach, on the grounds he had lied to Allen.

    Yet Allen, facing pressure from both the Legislature, the Board of Regents, and prevailing public opinion during this Red Scare era, overruled the committee and fired three of the professors, Gundlach, Joseph Butterworth and Herbert Phillips. Three others were put on two years of probation and forced to sign a statement that they were not members of the Communist Party.

    Another professor, Melvin Rader, filed a perjury charge against a committee witness, who claimed Rader spent a summer at a school for Communists in New York. Rader insisted he spent that summer in a lodge near Everett.

    Seattle Times reporter Ed Guthman went searching for corroboration of Rader's story. He discovered that the committee itself had already found the Everett lodge's hotel register and was keeping the register in its files. Guthman eventually got access to the register and discovered that it did, indeed, exonerate Rader. Canwell's only explanation for why the committee had not revealed exonerating evidence was that the hotel register was unreliable and "included nothing of evidentiary value" (Canwell, p. 250). Guthman won a Pulitzer Prize for the story in 1950.

    Rader kept his job, and eventually wrote a book about the ordeal, titled "False Witness."

    None of the three fired professors ever taught again. "There were some good lives of some good people that were really destroyed," said Caughlan later (Camden).

    The Hiss Case

    The hearings also had one more result, with national political repercussions. Canwell, at the request of some fellow Communist hunters in Washington, D.C. had managed to sneak some testimony into the hearings about a former State Department employee named Alger Hiss (1904-1996), suspected of being a Soviet spy.

    This was before Hiss became a household name. Allegations against Hiss were subsequently aired in the U.S. House Committee on Un-American Activities, where it spawned a major national scandal and proved a political boon to Richard M. Nixon (1913-1994).

    Although Hiss was mentioned only incidentally in the Canwell hearings, Canwell later claimed, "I nailed one of their top spies, Alger Hiss" (Canwell, p. 235).

    A Subversive Committee

    In most ways, the legacy of the Canwell Committee has weathered poorly over the decades.

    William L. Dwyer (1929-2002) who faced off against Canwell in a later libel case, and who became a federal judge, wrote this blistering critique of the Canwell Committee: "It imported professional witnesses, relied on hearsay and opinion testimony, allowed no cross-examination, refused to let counsel for the accused state objections, and had the police eject those who spoke out of turn" (Dwyer, p. 33).

    Harvard Law School professor Vern Countryman analyzed the committee's work in a 1967 book and concluded, "The activities of the Canwell committee and its allies are clearly more subversive of established legal processes than any activities disclosed by the committee's investigation" (Countryman p. 396).

    The University of Washington itself issued a public apology in 1994 to the fired professors, calling it "clearly and unequivocally wrong" (Wick). "This was a dark day in our history . " said UW president William P. Gerberding (1929-2014) in 1994. "It was an outrage. It was a disgrace. It was, in the dictionary sense, not in the perverted sense, un-American."

    Defeated But Unrepentant

    Canwell remained proud of the Canwell Committee's work all of his life. He later referred to the professors as a "a bunch of weaklings" and a "suspect bunch of commies" (Canwell, p. 198-199). "There was no time we went overboard," he said in a 1998 interview. "I didn't accuse anybody who wasn't guilty as hell" (Camden).

    Of course, Holden could always be counted on to puff Canwell's achievements. In 1955 he wrote that Canwell had "done a monumental and patriotic achievement in protecting America from the red menace" (Holden, "Canwell's Task"). "Those revelations (in the hearings) were astounding," wrote Holden. "They literally shook the state" (Holden, "Canwell's Task").

    Voters, however, were unshaken. Three committee members were voted out of office in the fall of 1948 -- including Al Canwell himself.

    Canwell, fresh off what he considered a triumph, had decided to run for a State Senate seat that fall. His campaign literature featured lurid hammer-and-sickle graphics and included lines such as, "Those who attack the Committee are either ignorant or subversive" (Countryman).

    He was easily defeated by the Democratic candidate, Donald B. Miller, who barely campaigned at all and made no particular issue of the Canwell Committee.

    Following that defeat, Canwell quickly announced that he was a candidate for the U.S. Senate in 1950, but failed to make it through the primary. Canwell ran for U.S. House in 1952 and 1954 and for governor in 1968 -- but lost every time. His entire record of public office consisted of that two-year term in the state House.

    "Canwell's power diminished quickly -- he was like a meteor going through the sky with terrible pyrotechnics, and then gone," said Len Schroeter, a former American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) president (Camden).

    Continuing to Hunt Communists

    Yet his lifelong hunt for Communists never stopped. He opened a business called the American Intelligence Service in an office in downtown Spokane. He continued to keep extensive files on characters he considered dangerous. He published a newsletter called The Vigilante.

    He became an admirer of Senator Joseph McCarthy (1908-1957), whose own red-hunting hearings did not begin until 1950, after the Canwell Committee was finished. Canwell later called McCarthy "a great American who was doing a great job in the proper American way … he gave his life doing that job" (Canwell, p. 406).

    Canwell continued to call out Communists or sympathizers wherever he thought he saw them -- and he saw them even in Spokane. He went after prominent Spokane lawyer Benjamin H. Kizer in 1950 when Kizer was named state chairman of the Crusade for Freedom Committee, a group dedicated to countering communist propaganda. Canwell was outraged, claiming that Kizer had worked extensively for Communist "front" organizations -- including the ACLU, the National Lawyers Guild, and Russia War Relief.

    "My record is clean," said Kizer. "I have carried civic chores for nearly every conservative group in Spokane, including the presidency of the Chamber of Commerce and the bar association." An unrepentant Canwell later publicly claimed that Kizer was a Communist of "world importance" (Canwell, p. 122), a claim he never remotely backed up.

    "I didn't need to worry about libel," Canwell once said, "I'd walked along the edge of it all my life as a newspaperman – that's where the stories are" (Camden).

    The Goldmark Case and Its Aftermath

    Yet in 1963, Canwell found himself hauled into court in a nationally publicized libel case in Okanogan, Washington. During a 1962 election campaign, he and his old friend Ashley Holden -- now editor of the Tonasket Tribune -- painted State Representative John Goldmark (1917-1979) and his wife Sally Goldmark (1907-1985) as Communists.

    Canwell recorded an interview, later published in newsletter of the American Intelligence Service, in which he said that Sally Goldmark had been a member of the Communist Party as recently as 1948. There was a kernel of truth in this: Sally Goldmark had been a member of the Communist Party, but became disillusioned and left it in 1943, after she met and married Goldmark, who, she said, had expressed his antipathy for communism.

    Canwell went on to warn his listeners that "hard-core, disciplined Communists" were "out to kill us" (Dwyer, p. 40). "This masterpiece of innuendo called Goldmark a communist agent without openly saying so," wrote Dwyer, Goldmark's attorney in the case (Dwyer, p. 40).

    Then, in a speech at an Okanogan American Legion Hall in 1962, Canwell delivered a blistering attack on the ACLU, calling it "the major communist front operating in the state of Washington at this time" (Dwyer, p. 44). Goldmark was sitting in the audience at the time. He also happened to be a well-known member of the ACLU.

    Goldmark filed a $225,000 libel suit against Canwell, Holden, and two other defendants. The trial, which began in Okanogan in November 1963, attracted reporters from all over the country. Canwell and the other defendants brought in witnesses to testify to the dangers of the worldwide Communist conspiracy, whereas the Goldmarks simply wanted to prove the allegations false.

    A jury awarded victories to the Goldmarks on five of the nine main claims and awarded $40,000 in damages, one of the largest libel verdicts in the state's history.

    The verdict did not hold up, however. The judge later overturned the verdicts because of a subsequent U.S. Supreme Court ruling on another case dealing with protected political speech.

    Both sides claimed victory. The Goldmarks said the court exonerated them on the facts. Canwell said Goldmark sued for libel and lost, period.

    Goldmark, who had been considered a rising legislative star, never served in public office again.

    This incident also had a horrific postscript, involving the Goldmark's son, Charles. On December 24, 1985, Charles Goldmark, then a 41-year-old attorney in Seattle, opened his door to a stranger just before a Christmas Eve gathering. The stranger, David L. Rice, tied up Goldman, his wife and their two young children, chloroformed them, and beat them to death. Rice later said he said he did it because he had heard a passing reference, during a meeting of an ultra-right-wing organization, that the Goldmark family was communist.

    Prosecutors and journalists immediately made the connection between the libel trial 23 years earlier and the murder. "David Rice . was only 4 years old when John Goldmark's name was cleared," wrote newspaper columnist Chris Peck. "Yet the dank rumors hung, like dark fog, through the years. So it may come to be remembered that, in the final act of the Goldmark saga, the pen proved not only mightier than the sword, but in a twisted way, bloodier, too" (Peck).

    Knight of the Red Scare

    Canwell denied any connection whatsoever. "There was no possibility that anything I ever did or said in my political career could have distorted the mind of this poor benighted soul," said Canwell (Rosenwald).

    Through the remainder of his life, Canwell continued to operate the American Intelligence Service and gather files on hundreds, if not thousands. His operation suffered a setback in 1984 when his offices, housed in adjoining buildings in downtown Spokane, were destroyed in an arson fire. "It would be easy to think somebody's out to get me, but I deal in evidence," Canwell said (Sparks).

    When Canwell died in Spokane on April 2, 2002, at age 95, The Seattle Times headlined his obituary, "Knight of the Red Scare" (Eskenazi). He had never softened toward his enemies or toward the casualties of his investigations. In a 1998 interview, Canwell said, "I think they got what they deserved. Me" (Eskenazi).

    Al Canwell during Canwell hearings, 1948

    Courtesy The Spokesman-Review

    Albert Canwell (1907-2002), 1949

    Courtesy UW Special Collections, Seattle Post-Intelligencer Collection (Image No. 1986.5.20931)

    Florence James leaping to her feet during the Canwell hearings, calling witness George Hewitt a liar and a perjurer, Seattle, 1948

    Florence James being ejected from the Canwell Committee Hearings, Seattle, 1948

    Courtesy MOHAI (1986.5.30003.1)

    Al Canwell and Richard Nixon outside Spokane Club, Spokane, 1954

    Courtesy The Spokesman-Review

    John and Sally Goldmark following jury verdict in their libel case, Okanogan, 1964


    BUTTERWORTH RALPH ALBERT : Date of birth - Unknown : Place of birth - Unknown : Place of enlistment - PORT MELBOURNE : Next of Kin - Unknown

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