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Mithraeum in Saarbrücken

Mithraeum in Saarbrücken


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Mithraeum

A Mithraeum is a place of worship for the followers of the mystery religion of Mithraism.

The Mithraeum was either an adapted natural cave or cavern or an artificial building imitating a cavern. Mithraea were dark and windowless, even if they were not actually in a subterranean space or in a natural cave. When possible, the mithraeum was constructed within or below an existing building. The site of a mithraeum may also be identified by its separate entrance or vestibule, its "cave", called the spelaeum or spelunca, with raised benches along the side walls for the ritual meal, and its sanctuary at the far end, often in a recess, before which the pedestal-like altar stood. Many mithraea that follow this basic plan are scattered over much of the Empire's former area, particularly where the legions were stationed along the frontiers (such as Britain). Others may be recognized by their characteristic layout, even though converted as crypts beneath Christian churches.

From the structure of the mithraea it is possible to surmise that worshippers would have gathered for a common meal along the reclining couches lining the walls. Most temples could hold only thirty or forty individuals.

The mithraeum itself was arranged as an "image of the universe". It is noticed by some researchers that this movement, especially in the context of mithraic iconography (see below), seems to stem from the neoplatonic concept that the "running" of the sun from solstice to solstice is a parallel for the movement of the soul through the universe, from pre-existence, into the body, and then beyond the physical body into an afterlife.


Irish history, folklore and all that

A mithraeum found in the ruins ofOstia Antica, Italy

How a modern history theme park imagines a mithraeum: Museum Orientalis in the Netherlands

Finds from a mithraeum in Stockstadt, Germany

A mithraeum found in the German city of Saarbrücken

Mithraeum in the lowest floor in theBasilica of San Clemente in Rome

A Mithraeum (or the plural Mithraea) is a place of worship for the followers of the mystery religion of Mithraism.

The Mithraeum was either an adapted natural cave or cavern, or a building imitating a cave. When possible, the Mithraeum was constructed within or below an existing building, such as the Mithraeum found beneath Basilica of San Clemente in Rome. While a majority of Mithraea are underground, some feature open holes in the ceiling to allow some light in, perhaps to relate to the connection of the universe and the passing of time. The site of a Mithraeum may also be identified by its singular entrance or vestibule, which stands opposite from an apse-shaped wall in which a pedestal altar at the back stood, often in a recess. Also its “cave”, called the Spelaeum or Spelunca, with raised benches along the side walls for the ritual meal. Many mithraea that follow this basic plan are scattered over much of the Roman Empire‘s former territory, particularly where the legions were stationed along the frontiers (such as Britain). Others may be recognized by their characteristic layout, even though converted ascrypts beneath Christian churches.

From the structure of the Mithraea it is possible to surmise that worshippers would have gathered for a common meal along the reclining couches lining the walls.

Finally, the ubiquity of the Mithraeums’ distinctive banqueting benches implies the ubiquity of the cult meal as the liturgie ordinaire. [1]

The Mithraeum primarily functioned as an area for initiation, in which the soul descends and exits. The Mithraeum itself was arranged as an “image of the universe”. It is noticed by some researchers that this movement, especially in the context of mithraic iconography (see below), seems to stem from the neoplatonic concept that the “running” of the sun from solstice to solstice is a parallel for the movement of the soul through the universe, from pre-existence, into the body, and then beyond the physical body into an afterlife.

Similarly, the Persians call the place a cave where they introduce an initiate to the Mysteries, revealing to him the path by which souls descend and go back again. For Eubulus tells us that Zoroaster was the first to dedicate a natural cave in honour of Mithras, the creator and father of all… this cave bore for him the image of the cosmos which Mithras had created, and the things which the cave contained, by their proportionate arrangement, provided him with symbols of the elements and climates of the cosmos [trans. Arethusa edition] [1]


Asatru and Hinduism

Often there is spoken about the fact that Asatru and Hinduism are family religions in the ‘Indo-European branch’. The prechristian religion of Northern Europe that is now often called “Asatru” (“true to the Aesir”) has a broken link with the past and limited information about the religion, worldview, practises, mythology, etc. is available. The fact that Hinduism is the oldest still living Indo-European religion and also the best documented has lead people to conclude that the study of Hinduism can shed light on -for example- the prechristian religion of Northern Europe. I share this opinion. More even, I wouldn’t limit myself to the Indo-European family, since I agree on many points with so-called “Traditionalists” who think that there is one source. I find it strange that (as far as I know) there is no “Traditionalist” writing about Asatru, no work that compares the prechristian Northern European myths and religion with&hellip Read More » Asatru and Hinduism


Heidenkapelle

Near the small village Dalem a sandstone cliff overlooks the valley. Into this cliff a natural cavern was enlarged and is called Heidenkapelle, a result of the fact that this part of the Lorraine is German speaking. The French translation is Chapelle des Païens (chapel of the pagans). It is said to be the oldest church of the village, almost 2,000 years old. The original cave was a result of a spring, which emerges here from the sandstone and eroded the rock around. The spring still exists but it emerges now from the artificially enlarged cave. Actually there are three parallel chambers.

The leftmost is a Christian oratory from the Roman era. The room is 5m deep and 3.4m wide and ends with a polygonal apse and a small altar, 1.2m wide and chiseled from the natural sandstone. The choir is arched and has a fishbone cross. The front of the chamber is missing.

All three chamber are connected by doors at the end. The middle and right chamber are not open to the front, except for a window in the wall of the middle chamber. The two chambers were obviously used as a hermitage, the small cupboard formed the pantry, the holes for the wooden floor are still visible in the wall. There are no obvious remains of an mithraeum, but there are several reasons which make the Medieval chapel of the pagans denomonation more likely.

Nearby, in the town Merten, was a Roman settlement, this would explain the origin. Also there is an engraving in the wall of the right chamber which shows two heads which seem to kiss each other. The one on the right is wearing a headgear similar to the ones used by Mithras priests, called a Phrygian cap. And finally the name Heidenkapelle was typically given to places, where the Christian church was built on top of a previous pagan temple. Also there are many parallels to the other Heidenkapelle which is located at Saarbrücken on the German side. Unfortunately the long use for other purposes destroyed all other remains of the mithraeum.


Conteníu

El topónimu Saarbrücken podría traducise lliteralmente al español como «pontes del Sarre» (Brücken ye'l plural de Brücke, ponte n'alemán). Saar (Sarre n'alemán) deriva de la pallabra céltica Sara (corriente d'agua) y del nome del ríu mientres l'Imperiu romanu, Saravus. Sicasí, tien de tenese en cuenta que la primer ponte construyida na zona, Alte Brücke, data del sieglu XVI, asina qu'esisten delles teoríes sobre'l términu. [1] [3]

La más estendida fai mención al nome históricu Sarabrucca, deriváu de la pallabra briga (roca en célticu), que foi afecha como Brocken n'altu alemán y qu'apaeció nel primer documentu llocal nel añu 999. [3] Según el conceyu, la pallabra brucca deriva de la xermánica bruco que significa «pandorial» o «gorbizal», en referencia a les güelgues cercanes. [1]

Edá Antigua y Edá Media Editar

El primer asentamientu del que se tien constancia foi un pobláu de los mediomátricos nel periodu antes de Cristu. Cuando Xuliu César conquistó la Galia nel sieglu I, tola zona foi incorporada al Imperiu romanu y alzaron el vicus de Saravus, [4] nes veres del ríu Sarre, que sirvía como puntu d'intersección de les rutes comerciales Metz-Worms y Tréveris-Estrasburgu. [5] Esta situación caltener hasta finales del sieglu IV, cuando los alamán destruyeron el castrum y el vicus y espulsaron a los romanos. [5] Más tarde, la área quedó so control de los francos (sieglu V) y de los merivingios (sieglu VI), quien crearon la villa de Merkingen sobre les ruines. [5] En 925 la área foi incorporada al Sacru Imperiu Romanu Xermánicu. [6]

La primer referencia a «Saarbrücken» ye una escritura de donación del añu 999, pola que l'emperador Otón III apurrió'l castellum Sarabrucca («castiellu de la ponte del Sarre») a los obispos de Metz, quien de la mesma lo convirtieron nun feudu. [1] [7] En 1080 creóse'l Condáu de Saarbrücken, cola ciudá homónima como capital, y formóse un asentamientu alredor de la fortificación. En 1168 el castiellu foi parcialmente destruyíu pol Conde Simón I so les órdenes del emperador Federico I Barbarroja. [8]

Ente 1321 y 1322, el Conde Xuan I dio privilexos de ciudá a Saarbrücken y a la villa pesquera de Sankt Johann, asitiada nel bancu opuestu del ríu Sarre. [7] Dambes villes recibieron alministración conxunta y esanicióse la servidume. Dende 1381 hasta 1797 los terrenes quedaron so dominiu del Estáu Imperial de Nassau-Saarbrücken, controláu pola Casa de Nassau. [9]

Edá Moderna Editar

En 1546, mientres l'imperiu de Carlos V, instalóse la primer ponte que conectaba Saarbrücken con Sankt Johann, l'actual Alte Brücke (n'español, «ponte vieya»). [7] Años dempués, el conde Lluis II de Nassau-Weilburg ordenó la construcción d'un nuevu castiellu d'estilu renacentista sobre les ruines del anterior, nel que terminaría estableciendo'l so delegación, y foi el fundador de la primer escuela secundaria local, el Ludwigsgymnasium.

Dende'l sieglu XVII, la hestoria de Saarbrücken tuvo amestada a les disputes territoriales. Nel intre de la Guerra de los Trenta Años, el territoriu de l'actual Sarre foi ocupáu poles tropes del Cardenal Richelieu (al serviciu del rei Lluis XIII de Francia), lo que significó la fuxida de casi tola población. Y en 1677, en plena Guerra francu-neerlandesa, el rei Lluis XIV de Francia ordenó la destrucción casi total de Saarbrücken. [7] La rexón del Sarre terminaría siendo retornada a un afaráu Imperiu Xermánicu, anque dellos enclaves como Saarlouis quedaron so alministración francesa. [10]

Un sieglu dempués, Saarbrücken foi reconstruyida mientres el reináu del Conde Guillermo Enrique de Nassau. Nel ámbitu económicu, les mines de carbón fueron nacionalizaes y desenvolviéronse polítiques pa establecer un modelu proto-industrial que sentaría les bases de la puxante industria llocal. Amás, encargó al arquiteutu barrocu Frédéric-Joachim Stengel la construcción d'edificios como la Friedenskirche (1745), el Conceyu (1750), la Basílica de San Juan (1758) y la protestante Ludwigskirche (1778). [7] [11]

En 1793, la ciudá foi tomada poles tropes revolucionaries franceses. En virtú de los trataos de Campu Formio y Lunéville, l'Imperiu Xermánicu tuvo que dexar el condáu de Saarbrücken a Francia. [7]

Edá Contemporánea Editar

Dempués de dos décades so alministración francesa, Saarbrücken quedó so control del reinu de Prusia gracies al Congresu de Viena de 1815. [12] Coincidiendo cola revolución industrial, el conceyu beneficiar de la so condición fronteriza y especializóse na producción de carbón y fierro, [13] según nel tresporte de materies primes de Renania. En 1852 inauguróse la estación de tren que xunía les redes ferroviaries de Prusia y Francia, y en 1860 el ríu Sarre foi conectáu coles canales franceses. [7]

Col españíu de la Guerra francu-prusiana en 1870, Saarbrücken foi'l primer oxetivu de les tropes franceses qu'ocuparon el Sarre el 2 d'agostu. [14] Según la tradición oral, el príncipe Napoleón Eugenio Luis Bonaparte disparó'l so primer cañón nesi combate. Sicasí, los prusianos recuperaron el control de la plaza'l 4 d'agostu, dos díes depués, y de ende pudieron avanzar hasta Metz na batalla de Spicheren. Poro, esta ciudá foi parte del Imperiu alemán. [14]

El 1 de xineru de 1909 les villes de Saarbrücken, Sankt Johann y Malstatt-Burbach fueron fundíes na actual ciudá de Saarbrücken. [1]

Nel intre de la Primer Guerra Mundial la llocalidá foi bombardeada dos veces, causando graves daños a la industria y nucleu urbanu. Al términu del conflictu, y en virtú del Tratáu de Versalles de 1919, Saarbrücken dexó de ser alemana y convirtióse na capital del Territoriu de la Cuenca del Sarre, un país provisional so alministración de la Sociedá de Naciones dende 1920 hasta 1935, cuando taba prevista una consulta pa decidir la so estatus. Amás, los franceses quedar col control de les mines de carbón en compensación polos daños de la guerra. El 13 de xineru de 1935 tuvo llugar el referendu y más del 90% de la población votó a favor de tornar con Alemaña, frente a un 8% que sofitaba'l statu quo y un 0,8% que reclamaba xunise a Francia. [15] [16] Saarbrücken pasó a ser la capital del Gau Westmark y, en señal d'agradecimientu, el Tercer Reich construyó'l Teatru Nacional del Sarre (1938). [17]

Saarbrücken volvió ser oxetu d'ataques mientres tola Segunda Guerra Mundial por cuenta de la so posición xeográfica, en metá de la Llinia Sigfrido, y sufrió continuos bombardeos tantu de la Real Fuercia Aérea Británica como de la Fuercia Aérea de los Estaos Xuníos. Pa cuando exércitu estauxunidense llogró faese col so control el 20 de marzu de 1945, más del 75% de los edificios de la ciudá taben en ruines. Tres la rindición, tol Sarre quedó so la zona d'ocupación francesa. [18]

En 1947, Saarbrücken integrar nel Protectoráu del Sarre, un territoriu independiente so control de Francia y que cuntaba cola so propia constitución. [18] Un añu más tarde inauguróse la Universidá del Sarre. [7]

Francia y Alemaña Occidental alcordaron en 1954 la creación d'un estatutu que definía a Sarre como «territoriu européu» y que, en casu de ser aprobáu, convertiría a Saarbrücken na capital de facto de toles instituciones de la futura Xunión Europea. [18] [19] Sicasí, los sarrenses votaron mayoritariamente «Non» nel referendu de 1955 y esa victoria foi interpretada como una reafirmación del so xermanismu. [19] Por esta razón, los primeros ministros francés y alemán, Guy Mollet y Konrad Adenauer, axustaron la integración de Sarre n'Alemaña. [20]

Situación actual Editar

Dende'l 1 de xineru de 1957, Saarbrücken convertir na capital y ciudá más poblada del estáu federáu del Sarre, dientro de la República Federal d'Alemaña (RFA, actual Alemaña), y beneficióse de la conexón al sistema de tresportes xermanu. La pertenencia a Alemaña caltúvose nel tiempu ensin que surdieren nueves disputes territoriales. En 1965 roblóse'l primer alcuerdu d'hermandá cola ciudá de Nantes (Francia). [21]

Arriendes de la reforma alministrativa de 1974, Saarbrücken absorbió 11 pueblos cercanos y vio ampliada la so población a 200.000 habitantes. Los alcuerdos d'hermandá ampliar en 1975 a Tblisi (Xunión Soviética, actual Xeorxa) y Cottbus, lo que convertía a la capital del Sarre na segunda ciudá de la RFA hermanada con otra d'Alemaña Oriental. [22] En 1999 celebráronse mil años dende la primer mención nun documentu oficial. [7]

Allugamientu Editar

Saarbrücken ta allugada al sur del estáu federáu del Sarre, tien una área total de 167,07 km² y atópase a 230 metros sobre'l nivel del mar. Trátase d'una ciudá fronteriza que llinda al sur cola rexón de Lorena (Francia), y que la so carauterística ye la proximidá con otros enclaves europeos. Los conceyos más cercanos por importancia son Metz (69 km), Luxemburgu (99 km), Estrasburgu (119 km), Nancy (121 km) y Mannheim (134 km).

La ciudá aprovechó la so posición xeográfica, reforzada col alcuerdu de movilidá de Schengen, pa convertise nun nuedu de tresporte européu. Esiste una vía de Tresporte Exprés Rexonal (TER) que coneuta a los alemanes con Metz, ya inclusive la tranvía de Saarbrücken tien final de trayeutu na francesa Sarreguemines, dixebraes a solu 15 km de distancia. [23]

El principal ríu de Saarbrücken ye'l ríu Sarre, qu'enfusa nel cascu urbanu pela zona suroeste. Pasáu esti espaciu, el cursu sigue hasta Francia y desagua nel ríu Mosela.

Noroeste: Püttlingen Norte: Riegelsberg Nordés: Sankt Ingbert
Oeste: Völklingen Esti: Mandelbachtal
Suroeste: Forbach (Francia) Sur: Alsting (Francia) Sureste: Sarreguemines (Francia)

Clima Editar

Saarbrücken presenta un clima templáu oceánicu (Köppen: Cfb) que ta marcáu pola so alloñanza de la mariña. El nivel añal de precipitaciones ye abondosa y relativamente estable a lo llargo del añu, con una media añal de 863 mm. Per otru llau, el mugor relativo mediana ye del 79 per cientu. Hai una media añal de 1.607 hores de sol, bien amenorgaes mientres los meses d'iviernu.

La capital del Sarre carauterizar por un clima nidiu: los iviernos son fríos con agües, nevaes ocasionales y temperatures que n'ocasiones pueden quedar baxo cero (-2 °C), ente que los branos son menos templaos que n'otres rexones d'Alemaña, con temperatures máximes de 22 °C en xunetu y posibilidá alta de precipitaciones.

Parámetros climáticos promediu de Saarbrücken
Mes Xin Feb Mar Abr May Xun Xnt Ago Set Och Pay Avi añal
Temperatura máxima media (°C) 2.6 4.6 8.5 12.7 19.2 20.2 25.0 25.7 19.8 13.5 7.1 3.6 12.8
Temperatura mínima media (°C) -2 -1.3 1.1 3.9 7.8 10.8 12.5 12.4 9.8 6.2 1.6 -1 5.2
Precipitación total (mm) 69 59 66 60 81 83 72 73 62 71 84 83 863
Díes de precipitaciones (≥ 1 mm) 13 10 12 11 12 11 9 10 9 10 12 12 130
Díes de lluvia (≥ ) 12.2 9.8 11.3 10.0 11.0 11.3 9.3 8.5 9.4 11.2 11.7 12.7 128.4
Hores de sol 44 77 119 171 201 214 234 212 153 100 48 34 1607
Humedá relativa (%) 88 83 77 71 71 72 70 73 78 84 87 88 79
Fonte nº1: Wetterkontor [24]
Fonte nº2: Deutscher Wetterdienst [25]

La ciudá, que tien una superficie de 167,09 km², cuenta según el padrón municipal con una población de 176.867 habitantes y una densidá de 1,1 hab./km². De la suma total, el 49,25% son homes y el 50,75% son muyeres. [2]


Christmas in the U.S.

Historian Stephen Nissenbaum contends that the modern celebration in the United States was developed in New York State from defunct and imagined Dutch and English traditions in order to refocus the holiday from one where groups of young men went from house to house demanding alcohol and food into one centered on the happiness of children. He notes that there was a deliberate effort to prevent children from becoming greedy in response.
Christmas was not proclaimed a holiday by the United States Congress until 1870.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christmas_controversies

There is a lot more I could write but this post is long enough…
Christmas is an invention of men, not a Biblical fact.
I suppose that is justification for the rampant commercialism of Christmas today. In saying this I also have to say there are many people who celebrate the 25 th December as the birth of Christ.
I do not, but respect your right to keep this date as a celebration. Allow me the same right… to NOT celebrate what I see as a pagan holiday.

Whatever you do, be safe. Statistics for this time of year are depressing… suicides, accidents, and family fights, to name but a few.


Who is the gorilla and who is the grasshopper? Well, in my post the gorilla is Amazon and the grasshopper is me. I figure I am less in the sight of Amazon than a grasshopper but the connotation of mites is not pleasant.

Why do I make this comparison?

Because my exchanges with Amazon customer service have been frustrating, when I managed to find them, and without resolution or reply to my question. I also understand that to them I am not important.


O mitreu era ou uma caverna natural adaptada ou um edifício imitando uma. Os mitreus era escuros e sem janelas, mesmo se não estivessem de fato em um lugar subterrâneo. Quando possível, o mitreu era construído dentro ou no subsolo de edifícios já existentes. O local de um mitreu pode também ser identificado por conta de sua entrada separada, ou vestíbulos, sua "caverna", chamada espeleu (spelaeum) ou espelunca (spelunca), com bancos correndo pelas paredes para apoiar a refeição cerimonial, e seu seu santuário no final, geralmente num recesso da parede, perante o qual ficava o altar na forma de um pedestal. Muitos mitreus com este mesmo plano básico estão espalhados por todo o território por onde esteve o Império Romano, particularmente onde as legiões ficavam estacionadas ao longo de fronteiras. Outros, mesmo depois de convertidos em criptas abaixo de igrejas cristãs, podem ser reconhecidos pelo desenho básico.

Da estrutura dos mitreus é possível supor que os devotos se reuniam para uma refeição cerimonial, sendo que alguns deles podiam comportar mais de 30 indivíduos.


Cult of Mithras Explained

Beck, Roger. The Religion of the Mithras Cult in the Roman Empire.

Sources debunking the “Christ/Mithras” myth can be found at The Tertullian Project: Tertullian Project: http://www.tertullian.org/rpearse/mithras/display.php?page=Mithras_and_Jesus#note12

Incredible resource of every citation about Mithras in Greco-Roman literature: http://www.tertullian.org/rpearse/mithras/literary_sources.htm

Photo attributions:
San Clemete Mithraeum: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c6/Mithraeum_San_Clemente_Rom.JPG

Ostia Mithraeum: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Mitreo_dei_Serpenti_(Ostia_Antica)#/media/File:Ostia_Antica_-_mitreo_dei_Serpenti_1050449.JPG

Mithraeum of Seven Spheres:

Baths of Caracalla: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baths_of_Caracalla#/media/File:Baths_of_Caracalla,_facing_Caldarium.jpg

Rock Born Mithras: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:MitraRisingfromtherockMNIR.JPG
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7e/MC_-_Mithras_im_Fels.jpg

Mithras Fresco: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Tauroctony_-_Frescos#/media/File:Mitreo_Barberini.JPG

7th Ostia Felicissimus Panel: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Ostia_Antica_(archaeological_site)#/media/File:7th_panel_Mitreo_di_Felicissimus_Ostia_Antica_2006-09-08.jpg

Sol and Mithras: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mithraism#/media/File:Mithras_banquet_Louvre_Ma3441.jpg

Ritual Meal: http://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/ancient-cultures/ancient-israel/a-feast-for-the-senses-and-the-soul/

Hawarte Picture: http://palmyra2010.blox.pl/html/1310721,262146,21.html?801805

Aurelian Coin: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Radiate_of_Aurelian_(YORYM_2001_9658)_obverse.jpg

Santa Prisca: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Santa_Prisca_Mithraeum.jpg

Capua Mithraeum: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mithraeum_(mitreo),_Ancient_Capua_(14416247560).jpg

Capua Fresco: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tauroctony_fresco_in_the_mithraeum_of_Capua,_2nd_century_(CIMRM_181),_Mithraeum_(mitreo),_Ancient_Capua_(14595393221).jpg

Dura-Europos House Church: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dura-Europos_church#/media/File:DuraEuropos-Church.jpg

Constantine the Great bust: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constantine_the_Great#/media/File:0_Gaius_Flavius_Valerius_Constantinus_-_Palatino.JPG

#God, #talktogod, #godchristianity, #goddefinition, #godfullform, #godandjesus, #whatdoesgodlooklike

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27 Comments

Hi, I really enjoy your channel, thanks for all the fascinating videos. I understand that there is some historical evidence that Muhammad existed, but I'm unclear on whether anything like that exists for Jesus. Please could you make a video about the historicity of Jesus?

Honestly, little more than Wiki info!

you never thought of a rock being virginal – do you know anyone who has fcked a rock?

in the Atharvaveda, Mitra is associated with sunrise, Sun Salutation is a daily yogic activity worldwide even in current times and is preceded by chanting 'OM Mitraya Namaha' as 'Mitraya' is one of the 108 Names for Lord Surya/Sun God.

One day id like to be able to speak publicly as well as you

All written documents would have been destroyed by the Church, as they did the same for all the other rival religions, or anyone that did not agree with them.

The Mithras religion was violently suppressed once Christianity became a state religion, late 4th century onward.

Very informative- thanks for your work

I don't know Bill Marr, but there's nothing more frustrating than people propagating false narratives, good job to this channel.

How is Bill Maher "one of the best" political satirists when he owns KID LOVE PRODUCTIONS and is a liberal RACIST?

Bill Maher would believe literally anything if it confirms and legitimizes his atheism.

He was dressed as a Persian, had the same Persian name, and the Roman religion did use Persian words in the worshiping….but there is no evidence that the cult of Mithras was Persian in any way…..makes sense

Mithraism seems to be slightly misrepresented here. Mithraism was a flexible and far more dominant religion compared to the strict Christians. It was destroyed and hidden by Christians after its influence wained. Any similarities are only because it moulded to the beliefs of the locals. Christianity once on top did the same trick and put itself into morphing mode to spread itself. Apart from that it's a great analysis of the evidence.

Sorry Bill ,I really like you but keep your mouth shut

Here i am, my name is mithras

Jesus was not born the 25th of December. The World is full of Satans lies. The reason why there are so many religious stories that looks like Christianity(For example Virgin born) Is that Satan know what God would do in the future, in order to save his people and now only a few knows what is going on… And by the name of your channel you are one of those who is fooled!

Amazing attempt to disregard the connection. Ok, let it be just the Roman cult if you insist. The problem is you don’t know enough that the Persians were already Zoroastrians for hundreds of years when the Romans first got Persian Mithra from the Persians. How? Persians were at a later stage of their religious endeavour. So, Mithra was demoted in Persia to a lesser deity when Zoroastrian priests won the battle for a more refined and written state religion. However, Mithraism was still practised all over Persian Empire, in particular in the western borders where they had contacts with Greeks and later with Romans. Sadly, for you, and not necessarily happily for me, Roman Mithras was Persian Mithra, promoted to a fully fledged cult leading to Christianity.

I’d love to see something on the first known religions and beliefs from start to present.

12:10 are you seriously saying that all truth comes from a mouth of a christian/jew (((scholar))). Come on and thats a pagan religion theyre talking(or not talking) about.

1. The mosques in Iran and the neighboring countries have also this narrow rectangular rooms.
2. Bull is slayed in Persepolis and other historic monuments by a lion, marking the new year.
3. By many Hellenistic philosophers, Zoroaster is considered as THE astrologist.
4. Some of the Sufism's (which has strong roots in Mithra's cult and Zarathustra's and Mani's teachings) orders have levels, and secret rituals.

Oh Ok. I think what you are trying to say is that Christianity has its own strong position in terms of authenticity and historical facts, independent of Mithra. Of course.

But could we say they influenced each other as following?
Zarathustra, based on astrological understanding and Mithra's cult, taught his Magi that around this day (25 December) with a specific zodiac sign in sky, follow the stars, and you will visit my Soushiant (Messiah in Old Persian). Three of his Magi, after 1-2 millennia realized the Zodiac sign and followed the signs and reached to Jesus. They are known as three wise men, three magi, or three kings.

Cult of Mithas is the beginnings of Freemasonry

If you want to understand Mithraism in Europe, you need to look at the Cult of Mehr (Kish e Mehr) in ancient Iran. What we know today is that they share many important aspects, such as the steps in order to become "a master" (7th step Piir). It is similar to the fact that not all christians become priests or "master of the cult". It was Not a initiation ceremony to be accepted, but rather a path to the ultimate knowledge (or similar to it). You guys are looking for a script that says: "we adopted this from Persians", and you will not find it. Arab invaders destroyed/killed almost everything connecting Iranians to their ancient monotheistic beliefs. Thanks to the Zoroastrians who fled to India in aftermath of the invasion, we now have Zoroastrians still around. Iranians still know a lot about their ancient religion, and Mitraism is well-known for Iranians, for example the second largest holy day in Iran is the day of birth of Mitra, 22nd of Dec or Eve of Yalda or Shabhe Chelle. And when findings in Europe of a cult showed all these aspects that connected it to the ancient Persian Cult of Mehr, many scholars went: "Coincidence? I think Not". But as usual, the sole idea that anything this influential to the European culture might derive from Easterners or as the Greeks called: "Barbars"(savages), is fought against and dismissed with the argument that: "Yes, they share all the important aspects but we don't have solid proof, also it can not derive from Persians, the Greeks labeled them as Barbars (savages) for christ sake". Discrediting the Persian influence in our day to day culture is not a unfamiliar phenomenon to Iranians.

it seems you try to rescue Christianity copying from Mithras cult and to counter Mythiicist telling people Jesus didn't exist like Mithra with its similarities haha.


Mithraeum in Saarbrücken - History

Chesters (Cilurnum) Roman Fort, considered to be the best preserved Roman cavalry fort along Hadrian's Wall. Taken looking east, towards the North Tyne. The fort lies just off the B6316 between Walwick and Chollerford. — at Hadrians Wall Chesters Roman Fort.


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Watch the video: UNIVERSITY OF SAARLAND Campus tour by Nikhilesh Dhure. Universität des Saarlandes (May 2022).