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Boulder Victory AK-227 - History

Boulder Victory AK-227 - History


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Boulder Victory

Boulder is a city in Colorado. .

AK-227: dp. 4480; 1. 455'; b. 62'; dr. 24'; s. 15.5 k; cpl.
99; a. 1511, 13"; cl. Boulder Victory)

Boulder Victory (AK-227) was launched 31 August 1944 by Permanente Metals Corp., Yard No. 1, Richmond, Calif., under a Maritime Commission contract; sponsored by Miss Elsa Maxwell; transferred to the Navy 12 October 1944; and commissioned the same day, Lieutenant S. E. Church in command.

Boulder Victory stood out for the Southwestern Pacific 2 November and arrived at Ullthl, Caroline Islands, on the 30th. She then steamed onward to the Palaus where she arrived 8 December. When getting underway 20 December to return to Ullthi, Boulder Victory hit a mine which opened an 18-foot by 32 foot hole in her port side but did not cause any casualties to the crew. She remained In the Palaus undergoing temporary repairs until 8 February 1945 and then steamed to Ulithi for further
repairs. She departed 13 June and arrived at San Francisco 30 June where she remained until I September while permanent repairs were completed.

After training off San Diego during September she steamed to Okinawa, arriving 30 October 1945. From there she returned troops to the west coast, arriving 25 November 1945. Decommissioned at San Francisco 4 January 1946, she was returned to the Maritime Commission 11 January 1946.


Boulder Victory AK-227 - History

This USS Boulder Victory AK-227 License Plate Frame is proudly made in the USA at our facilities in Scottsboro, Alabama. Each of our MilitaryBest U.S. Navy Frames feature top and bottom Poly Coated Aluminum strips that are printed using sublimation which gives these quality automobile military frames a beautiful high gloss finish.

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Growing to Contribute

Immediately, national and local defense councils encouraged people to contribute to the war effort by saving or growing food. Charles Lathrop Pack organized the National War Garden Commission to encourage Americans to contribute by planting, harvesting, and storing their own fruits and vegetables to allow more food to be sent to our allies.

Coloradans did not face rationing as extensively as they would in WW II, but they faced rising food and fuel prices and limited supplies of food and other essentials. As a result, Colorado citizens joined the nation by tightening their belts and planting war gardens.

When the armistice in 1918 ended the war, Americans were encouraged to continue their gardening by the National War Garden Commission. Calling the effort “liberty gardens,” the federal government touted these gardens in a national campaign as a way that citizens could contribute to America’s return to prosperity. Nationally, three million gardens were planted in 1917. By the end of 1918, more than five million gardens were being cultivated.


Opinion: The NRA Celebrated “Victory” After Judge Blocked Boulder Ban On Assault Weapons

America appears to be on the path towards a semblance of normalcy schools are beginning to open, people are able to go out in public, and a second gun massacre occurs with in a week. Yep, America is back to normalcy .

Many Americans wonder what could have been done to prevent yet another mass shooting with a firearm designed for the battlefield. After eight innocent Americans were struck down in Atlanta, it did not take long for a nother regularly scheduled mass shooting to shake Boulder Colorado to its core.

Although Republicans will never support any sane gun safety laws because they are terrified of the National Rifle Association, the Boulder Colorado city council decided after the Parkland Florida massacre that it could at least protect its city residents with a sane gun safety law passed in 20 18. The NRA did not like any sensible gun safety law so they went to court to stop the one in Boulder.

On March 12 a judge blocked the Boulder ban on “assault-style” weapons. F our days later the “alleged ” shooter purchased an “assault style” weapon he “allegedly” used to slaughter 10 innocent Americans on March 2 2.

As i s typically the case in gun-crazy America , after the meaningless offers of “thoughts and prayers” for the victims’ families, the Colorado NRA affiliated group offered the typical gun fanatic response after outrage and calls for some sanity to stop this normal American occurrence .

Now is not the time to debate gun laws. ”

The gun fanatics, The Colorado State Shooting Association, filed a lawsuit to block the 2018 assault weapon ban because they are gun fanatics. After the massacre, the group released a statement :

Today is not a day to cloud our remembrance with the sort of emotional sensationalism that inevitably ends up being contradicted by the practical facts of keeping our communities safe.

There will be a time for the debate on gun laws. There will be a time for the discussion on motives. There will be a time for a conversation on how this could have been prevented . But today is not the time. Today is the time for grieving and healing “ (author bold)

Not surprising at all , and as normal as regularly – scheduled mass shootings, the day the Judge struck down the Boulder gun ordinance, and just 4 days before the alleged shooter purchased the assault weapon, the National Rifle Association celebrated the ruling blocking Boulder’s gun ordinance. And the gun club made it a special point to note its supporting role in convincing the court to strik e down the assault rifle ban. The y called it a n NRA Victory in Colorado saying:

“ A Colorado judge gave law-abiding gun owners something to celebrate.”.

It is certain that the families of the slaughtered victims are not celebrating, but they know the answer to the CSSA’s obscene remark about “how this could have been prevented.”

It could have been prevented if the shooter was not able to purchase an assault weapon just four days after the court blocked the gun safety ordinance and six days before using said assault weapon to end the lives of 10 innocent Americans. Furthermore, the court would not have struck down the Boulder assault weapon ban if the gun-crazy NRA and its state affiliate Colorado State Shooting Association had not filed suit to block what any sane human being considered a necessary gun safety regulation.

One of the Boulder City Council members, Rachel Friend, said that the mass shooting left her frustrated and overwhelmed with sadness. She said:

“I am still too numb or in shock to say how this happened so quickly on the heels of it being struck down – except to say this is why we wanted to pass the ban in the first place. It hurts.”

It was a normal sentiment from a humane person, but it was just too much for the group that brought the lawsuit over the assault weapons ban. The Colorado State Shooting Association rejected Ms. Friend’s sentiment out of hand calling it “emotional sensationalism” claiming that it only served to “cloud remembrance of the victims.

It is true that America is on path to return to something resembling normalcy. But the one “normal” that never left is the NRA celebration at striking down a sensible gun law and implication that having a humane reaction to a preventable atrocity is nothing more than “emotional sensationalism.” Add to that abomination the NRA-affiliated Colorado State Shooting Association having the temerity to state that “now is not the time to ask how this could have been prevented.”

Like celebrating the end of a sensible ban on battlefield weapons, the NRA and CSSA provided the kind of normal response one expects from vile inhumane savages.

Audio engineer and instructor for SAE. Writes op/ed commentary supporting Secular Humanist causes, and exposing suppression of women, the poor, and minorities. An advocate for freedom of religion and particularly, freedom of NO religion.

Born in the South, raised in the Mid-West and California for a well-rounded view of America it doesn’t look good.


On 17 October, the newly commissioned cargo ship sailed to San Francisco, California, to begin duty as an ammunition supply vessel. Her holds were filled by 2 November, and Boulder Victory got underway for the western Pacific. [3]

In order to support the Allied advances to the west and north, forward ammunition replenishment stations were established at Ulithi Atoll in the Western Caroline Islands and Kossol Passage in the Palau Islands. Boulder Victory received orders to transfer ammunition between these bases as needed. She made port at Eniwetok on 17 November to refuel, entered the lagoon at Ulithi on 30 November, and reached Kossol Passage on 8 December. [3]

Kossol Passage ultimately proved to be unsuitable for ammunition handling owing to chronic heavy swells, the lack of storage facilities ashore, and the shortage of personnel to unload the supplies, as well as its proximity to Japanese-held Babelthuap Island. Floating mines from that island were a constant danger. [3]

Striking a mine

On 20 December, as Boulder Victory set out for Manus, she struck one of those mines on her port side. The explosion tore a hole in her No. 3 hold that measured 18 by 32ਏt (5.5 by 9.8 m). The hold contained 5-inch (127 mm) projectiles, but the fires started by the explosion were extinguished by the rapid rush of seawater into the space. As a consequence, only two shells exploded, leaving two 16-inch (406 mm) holes in the skin of the ship. Boulder Victory remained afloat, although low in the water and, after emergency repairs to the engines, managed to get into Palau again on her own power. Her crew suffered no casualties, but the damage to the ship was so severe that her wartime operations ended. [3]

The cargo ship remained anchored at Kossol Passage unloading ammunition and cleaning debris from the hold until 8 February 1945. She then slowly steamed to Manus to unload the remainder of her cargo and to enter a floating dry dock for further repairs. Finally, on 13 June, Boulder Victory &apos s temporary repairs made her seaworthy again, and she set course via Pearl Harbor for San Francisco. On 30 June, the ship began a major overhaul by United Engineering Company at Alameda, California, to complete the repairs. [3]

End-of-war operations

Boulder Victory was still in overhaul when the Japanese capitulated in August but, on 1 September, the cargo ship began shakedown and training exercises off San Diego, California. She got underway on 10 October, to carry supplies to the occupation troops in Japan. After a refueling stop at Eniwetok, Boulder Victory continued on to Okinawa where she arrived on 30 October. [3]

She unloaded her cargo and embarked returning veterans. On 10 November, she set sail for the United States. [3]


Contents

The countries that joined the war were on one of two sides: the Axis and the Allies.

The Axis Powers at the start of the war were Germany, Italy, and Japan. There were many meetings to create an alliance between these countries. [7] [8] [9] [10] Finland, Slovakia, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary, and Thailand joined the Axis later. As the war continued, some Axis countries changed to join the Allies instead, such as Italy.

The Allied Powers were the United Kingdom and some Commonwealth members, France, Poland, Yugoslavia, Greece, Belgium, and China at the start of the war. China had been fighting a civil war. In June 1941, Germany attacked the Soviet Union in Operation Barbarossa. In December 1941 came Japan's Attack on Pearl Harbor against the United States. These two large, powerful countries then joined the Allies.

World War I had greatly changed the way of diplomacy and politics in Asia, Europe, and Africa with the defeat of the Central Powers. Empires that sided with the Central Powers were destroyed. The Russian Empire, which did not side with the Central Powers, died as well. The war also changed the borders in Eastern Europe, with many new countries born. The war led to strong irredentism and revanchism. These senses were especially strong in Germany, which had no choice but to sign the Treaty of Versailles. [11] The Germans also had 13% of their homeland area and all colonies taken away, and they had to pay back a very large sum of money to the Allies. [12] The size of their army and navy was also limited, [13] while its air force was banned.

In Italy, nationalists were unhappy with the outcome of the war, thinking that their country should have gained far more territory from the past agreement with the Allies. The fascist movement in the 1920s brought Mussolini to the leadership of the country. He promised to make Italy a great power by creating its colonial empire. [14]

After the Kuomintang (KMT), the governing party of China, unified the country in the 1920s, the civil war between it and its past ally Communist Party of China began. [15] In 1931, Japan used the Mukden Incident as a reason to take Manchuria and set up its puppet state, Manchukuo, [16] while the League of Nations could not do anything to stop it. The Tanggu Truce, a ceasefire, was signed in 1933. In 1936, the KMT and the communists agreed to stop fighting against each other to fight Japan instead. [17] In 1937, Japan started a Second Sino-Japanese War to take the rest of China. [18]

After the German Empire was disestablished, the democratic Weimar Republic was set up. There were disagreements between the Germans which involved many political ideologies, ranging from nationalism to communism. The fascist movement in Germany rose because of the Great Depression. Adolf Hitler, leader of the Nazi Party, became the Chancellor in 1933. After the Reichstag fire, Hitler created a totalitarian state, where there is only one party by law. [19] Hitler wanted to change the world order and quickly rebuilt the army, navy and air force, [20] especially after Saarland was reunited in 1935. In March 1936, Hitler sent the army to Rhineland. The Spanish Civil War began in July 1936. The war ended with the nationalist victory, supported by Italy and Germany.

In March 1938, Germany sent its army into Austria, known as the Anschluss, which had only a little reaction from European countries. [21] Shortly after that, the Allies agreed to give Sudetenland, part of Czechoslovakia, to Germany, so that Hitler would promise to stop taking more land. [22] But the rest of the country was either forced to surrender [23] or invaded by March 1939. [24] The Allies now tried to stop him, by promising to help Poland if it was attacked. [25] Just before the war, Germany and the Soviet Union signed a peace agreement, agreeing that they would not attack each other for ten years. [26] In the secret part of it, they agreed to divide Eastern Europe between them. [27]

War breaks out Edit

World War II began on September 1, 1939, as Germany invaded Poland. On September 3, Britain, France, and the members of the Commonwealth declared war on Germany. They could not help Poland much and only sent a small French attack on Germany from the West. [28] The Soviet Union invaded eastern Poland soon after Germany, on September 17. [29] Finally, Poland was divided.

Germany then signed an agreement to work together with the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union forced the Baltic countries to allow it to keep Soviet soldiers in their countries. [30] Finland did not accept the Soviet call for its land, so it was attacked in November 1939. [31] With peace, the world war broke out. [32] France and Britain thought that the Soviet Union might enter the war on the side of Germany and drove the Soviet Union out of the League of Nations. [33]

After Poland was defeated, the "Phoney War" began in Western Europe. While British soldiers were sent to the Continent, there were no big battles fought between the two sides. [34] Then, in April 1940, Germany decided to attack Norway and Denmark so that it would be safer to transport iron ore from Sweden. The British and French sent an army to disrupt the German occupation, but had to leave when Germany invaded France. [35] Chamberlain was replaced by Churchill as Prime Minister of United Kingdom in May 1940 because the British were unhappy with his work. [36]

Axis early victories Edit

On 10 May, Germany invaded France, Belgium, Holland, and Luxembourg and quickly defeated them by using blitzkrieg tactics. [37] The British were forced to leave mainland Europe at Dunkirk. On June 10, Italy invaded France, declaring war on France and the United Kingdom. Soon after that, France was divided into occupation zones. One was directly controlled by Germany and Italy, [38] and the other was unoccupied Vichy France.

By June 1940, the Soviet Union moved its soldiers into the Baltic states and took them, [39] followed by Bessarabia in Romania. Although there had been some collaboration between the Soviet Union and Germany earlier, this event made it serious. [40] [41] Later, when the two could not agree to work more closely together, relationships between them became worse to the point of war. [42]

Then Germany began an air battle over Britain to prepare for a landing on the island, [43] but the plan was finally canceled in September. The German Navy destroyed many British ships transporting goods in the Atlantic. [44] Italy, by this time, had begun its operation in the Mediterranean. The United States remained neutral but started to help the Allies. By helping to protect British ships in the Atlantic, the United States found itself fighting German ships by October 1941 but this was not officially war. [45]

In September 1940, Italy began to invade British-held Egypt. In October, Italy invaded Greece, but it only resulted in an Italian retreat to Albania. [46] Again, in early 1941, an Italian army was pushed from Egypt to Libya in Africa. Germany soon helped Italy. Under Rommel's command, by the end of April 1941, the Commonwealth army was pushed back to Egypt again. [47] Other than North Africa, Germany also successfully invaded Greece, Yugoslavia and Crete by May. [48] Despite these victories, Hitler decided to cancel the bombing of Britain after 11 May. [49]

At the same time, Japan's progress in China was still not much, although the nationalist and communist Chinese began fighting each other again. [50] Japan was planning to take over European colonies in Asia while they were weak, and the Soviet Union could feel a danger from Germany, so a non-aggression pact (which was an agreement that both countries would not attack each other) between the two was signed in April 1941. [51] However, Germany kept preparing an attack on the Soviet Union, moving its soldiers close to the Soviet border. [52]

The war becomes global Edit

On June 22, 1941, the European Axis countries attacked the Soviet Union. During the summer, the Axis quickly captured Ukraine and the Baltic regions, which caused huge damage to the Soviets. Britain and the Soviet Union formed a military alliance between them in July. [53] Although there was great progress in the last two months when winter arrived, the tired German army was forced to delay its attack just outside Moscow. [54] It showed that the Axis had failed its main targets, while the Soviet army was still not weakened. This marked the end of the blitzkrieg stage of the war. [55]

By December, the Red Army facing the Axis army had received more soldiers from the east. It began a counter-attack that pushed the German army to the west. [56] The Axis lost a lot of soldiers but it still saved most of the land it received before. [57]

By November 1941, the Commonwealth counter-attacked the Axis in North Africa and got all the land it lost before. [58] However, the Axis pushed the Allies back again until stopped at El Alamein. [59]

In Asia, German successes encouraged Japan to call for oil supplies from the Dutch East Indies. [60] Many Western countries reacted to the occupation of French Indochina by banning oil trading with Japan. [61] Japan planned to take over European colonies in Asia to create a great defensive area in the Pacific so that it could get more resources. [62] But before any future invasion, it first had to destroy the American Pacific Fleet in the Pacific Ocean. [63] On December 7, 1941, it attacked Pearl Harbor as well as many harbors in several South East Asian countries. [64] This event led the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Western Allies and China to declare war on Japan, while the Soviet Union remained neutral. [65] Most of the Axis nations reacted by declaring war on the United States.

By April 1942, many southeast Asian countries: Burma, Malaya, the Dutch East Indies, and Singapore, had almost fallen to the Japanese. [66] In May 1942, the Philippines fell. The Japanese navy had many quick victories. But in June 1942, Japan was defeated at Midway. Japan could not take more land after this because a large part of its navy was destroyed during the battle.

Allies are advancing Edit

Japan then began its plan to take over Papua New Guinea again, [67] while the United States planned to attack the Solomon Islands. The fight on Guadalcanal began in September 1942 and involved a lot of troops and ships from both sides. It ended with the Japanese defeat in early 1943. [68]

On the Eastern Front, the Axis defeated Soviet attacks during summer and began its own main offensive to southern Russia along Don and Volga Rivers in June 1942, trying to take over oil fields in Caucasus, critical to the Axis for fueling their war effort, and a great steppe. Stalingrad was in the path of the Axis army, and the Soviets decided to defend the city. By November the Germans had nearly taken Stalingrad, however, the Soviets were able to surround the Germans during winter [69] After heavy losses, the German army was forced to surrender the city in February 1943. [70] Even though the front was pushed back further than it was before the summer attacks, the German army still had become dangerous to an area around Kursk. [71] Hitler devoted almost two-thirds of his armies to The Battle of Stalingrad. The Battle of Stalingrad was the largest and deadliest battle in this world's time.

In August 1942, because of the Allied defense at El Alamein, the Axis army failed to take the town. A new Allied offensive, drove the Axis west across Libya a few months later, [72] just after the Anglo-American invasion of French North Africa forced it to join the Allies. [73] This led to Axis defeat in the North African Campaign May 1943. [74]

In the Soviet Union, on July 4, 1943, Germany started an attack around Kursk. Many German soldiers were lost because of the Soviets' well-created defenses. [75] [76] Hitler canceled the attack before any clear outcome. [77] The Soviets then started their own counter-attack, which was one of the turning points of the war. After this, the Soviets became the attacking force on the Eastern Front, instead of the Germans. [78] [79]

On July 9, 1943, affected by the earlier Soviet victories, the Western Allies landed on Sicily. This resulted in the arrest of Mussolini in the same month. [80] In September 1943, the Allies invaded mainland Italy, following the Italian armistice with the Allies. [81] Germany then took control of Italy and disarmed its army, [82] and built up many defensive lines to slow the Allied invasion down. [83] German special forces then rescued Mussolini, who then soon created the German-occupied client state, Italian Social Republic. [84]

Late in 1943 Japan conquered some islands in India and began an invasion of the Indian mainland. The Army of India and other forces expelled them in early 1944.

In early 1944, the Soviet army drove off the German army from Leningrad, [85] ending the longest and deadliest siege in history. After that, the Soviets began a big counter-attack. By May, the Soviets had retaken Crimea. With the attacks in Italy from September 1943, the Allies succeeded in capturing Rome on June 4, 1944, and made the German forces fall back. [86]

The end in Europe Edit

On D-Day, June 6, 1944, the Allies began the invasion of Normandy, France. The code name for the invasion was Operation Overlord. The invasion was successful and led to the defeat of the German forces in France. Paris was freed in August 1944 and the Allies continued eastward while the German front collapsed. Operation Market-Garden was the combined aerial invasion of the Netherlands launched on September 17, 1944. The purpose of the invasion was to seize a series of bridges that included a bridge in Arnhem, which spanned the Rhine river. The airborne invasion was called Market. The ground invasion, named Garden, reached the Rhine river, but could not take the Arnhem bridge.

On June 22, the Soviet offensive on the Eastern Front, codenamed Operation Bagration, almost destroyed the German Army Group Centre. [87] Soon after, the Germans were forced to retreat and defend Ukraine and Poland. Arriving Soviet troops caused uprisings against the German government in Eastern European countries, but these failed to succeed unless helped by the Soviets. [88] Another Soviet offensive forced Romania and Bulgaria to join the Allies. [89] Communist Serbs partisans under Josip Broz Tito retook Belgrade with some help from Bulgaria and the Soviet Union. By early 1945, the Soviets attacked many German-occupied countries: Greece, Albania, Yugoslavia, and Hungary. Finland switched to the side of the Soviets and Allies.

On December 16, 1944, the Germans tried one last time to take the Western Front by attacking the Allies in Ardennes, Belgium, in a battle is known as the Battle of the Bulge. This was the last major German attack of the war, and the Germans were not successful in their attack. [90]

By March 1945, the Soviet army moved quickly from Vistula River in Poland to East Prussia and Vienna, while the Western Allies crossed the Rhine. In Italy, the Allies pushed forward, while the Soviets attacked Berlin. The allied western forces would eventually meet up with the Soviets at the Elbe river on April 25, 1945.

Hitler committed suicide on April 30, 1945, two days after Mussolini's death. [91] In his will, he appointed his navy commander, Grand Admiral Karl Donitz, to be the President of Germany. [92] Donitz surrendered to the allies and opposed Hitler's will to have Germany continue fighting.

German forces in Italy surrendered on April 29, 1945. Germany surrendered to the Western Allies on May 7, 1945, known as V-E Day, and was forced to surrender to the Soviets on May 8, 1945. The final battle in Europe was ended in Italy on May 11, 1945. [93]

The end in the Pacific Edit

In the Pacific, American forces arrived in the Philippines on June 1944. And by April 1945, American and Philippine forces had cleared much of the Japanese forces, but the fighting continued in some parts of the Philippines until the end of the war. [94] British and Chinese forces advanced in Northern Burma and captured Rangoon by May 3, 1945. [95] American forces then took Iwo Jima by March and Okinawa by June 1945. [96] Many Japanese cities were destroyed by Allied bombings, and Japanese imports were cut off by American submarines.

The Allies wanted Japan to surrender with no terms, but Japan refused. This resulted in the United States dropping two atomic bombs over Hiroshima (August 6, 1945) and Nagasaki (August 9, 1945). On August 8, 1945, the Soviets invaded Manchuria, quickly defeating the primary Imperial Japanese Army there. [97] On August 15, 1945, Japan surrendered to the Allies. The surrender documents were formally signed on board the USS Missouri on September 2, 1945, ending the war. [98]

The Allies managed to occupy Austria and Germany. Germany was divided in half. The Soviet Union controlled the Eastern part, and the Western Allies controlled the Western part. The Allies began denazification, removing Nazi ideas from public life in Germany, [99] and most high-ranking Nazis were captured and brought to a special court. Germany lost a quarter of the land it had in 1937, with the land given to Poland and the Soviet Union. The Soviets also took some parts of Poland [100] [101] [102] and Finland, [103] as well as three Baltic countries. [104] [105]

The United Nations was formed on October 24, 1945, [106] to keep peace between countries in the world. [107] However, the relationship between the Western Allies and the Soviet Union had worsened during the war [108] and, soon after the war, each power quickly built up their power over the controlled area. In Western Europe and West Germany, it was the United States, while in East Germany and Eastern Europe, it was the Soviet Union, in which many countries were turned into Communist states. The Cold War started after the formation of the American-led NATO and the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact. [109]

In Asia, Japan was put under American occupation. In 1948, Korea was divided into North and South Korea, each claiming to be the legal representative of the Koreans, which led to the Korean War in 1950. [110] Civil war in China continued from 1946 and resulted in the KMT retreating to Taiwan in 1949. [111] The communists won the mainland. In the Middle East, the Arab disagreement on the United Nations plan to create Israel marked the beginning of conflicts between the Arabs and Israel.

After the war, decolonization took place in many European colonies. [112] Bad economies and people wanting to rule themselves were the main reasons for that. In most cases, it happened peacefully, except in some countries, such as Indochina and Algeria. [113] In many regions, European withdrawal caused divisions among the people who had different ethnic groups or religions. [114]

Economic recovery was different in many parts of the world. In general, it was quite positive. The United States became richer than any other country and, by 1950, it had taken over the world's economy. [115] [116] It also ordered the Marshall Plan (1948–1951) to help European countries. German, [117] Italian, [118] [119] and French economies recovered. [120] However, the British economy was badly harmed [121] and continued to worsen for more than ten years. [122] The Soviet economy grew very fast after the war was over. [123] This also happened with the Japanese economy, which became one of the largest economies in the 1980s. [124] China returned to the same production level as before the war by 1952. [125]

Death and war crimes Edit

There is no exact total number of deaths because many were unrecorded. Many studies said that more than 60 million people died in the war, mostly civilians. The Soviet Union lost around 27 million people, [126] almost half of the recorded number. [127] This means that 25% of the Soviets were killed or wounded in the war. [128] About 85% of the total deaths were on the Allies side, and the other 15% were on the Axis. Mostly, people died because they were sick, hungry to death, bombed, or killed because of their ethnicity.

The Nazis killed many groups of people they selected, known as The Holocaust. They exterminated Jews, and killed the Roma, Poles, Russians, homosexuals and other groups. [129] Around 11 [130] to 17 million [131] civilians died. Around 7.5 million people were killed in China by the Japanese. [132] The most well-known Japanese crime is the Nanking Massacre, in which hundreds of thousands of Chinese civilians were raped and murdered. There were reports that the Germans and Japanese tested biological weapons against civilians [133] and prisoners of war. [134]

Although many of the Axis's crimes were brought to the first international court, [135] crimes caused by the Allies were not.

Concentration camps and slave work Edit

Other than the Holocaust, about 12 million people, mostly Eastern Europeans, were forced to work for the German economy. [136] German concentration camps and Soviet gulags caused a lot of death. Both treated prisoners of war badly. This was even the case for Soviet soldiers who survived and returned home.

Japanese prisoner-of-war camps, many of which were used as labour camps, also caused a lot of deaths. The death rate of Western prisoners was 27.1%, [137] seven times that of prisoners under Germans and Italians. [138] More than 10 million Chinese civilians were made slaves and had to work in mines and war factories. [139] Between 4 and 10 million people were forced to work in Java. [140]

Between 1942 and 1945, Roosevelt signed an order which made Japanese Americans go to internment camps. Some Germans and Italians were included too.

The Allies agreed that the Soviet Union could use prisoners of war and civilians for forced labor. [141] Hungarians were forced to work for the Soviet Union until 1955. [142]

Home fronts and production Edit

Before the war, in Europe, the Allies had a larger population and economy than the Axis. If colonies are included, the GDP of the Allies then would be two times that of the Axis. [143] While in Asia, China had only 38% higher GDP than the Japanese if their colonies are counted. [143]

The Allies' economy and population compared with the Axis' lessened with the early Axis victories. However, this was no longer the case after the United States and Soviet Union joined the Allies in 1941. The Allies were able to have a higher production level compared with the Axis because the Allies had more natural resources. Also, Germany and Japan did not plan for a long war and had no ability to do so. [144] [145] Both tried to improve their economies by using slave laborers. [146]

Women Edit

As men went off to fight, women took over many of the jobs they left behind. At factories, women were employed to make bombs, guns, aircraft, and other equipment. In Britain, thousands of women were sent to work on farms as part of the Land Army. Others formed the Women's Royal Naval Service to help with building and repairing ships. Even Princess Elizabeth, who later became Queen Elizabeth II, worked as a mechanic to aid the war effort. By 1945 some weapons were made almost entirely by women.

In the beginning, women were rarely used in the labor forces in Germany and Japan. [147] [148] However, Allied bombings [149] [150] and Germany's change to a war economy made women take a greater part. [151]

In Britain, women also worked in gathering intelligence, at Bletchley Park and other places. The mass evacuation of children also had a major impact on the lives of mothers during the war years.

Occupation Edit

Germany had two different ideas of how it would occupy countries. In Western, Northern, and Central Europe, Germany set economic policies which would make it rich. During the war, these policies brought as much as 40% of total German income. [152] In the East, the war with the Soviet Union meant Germany could not use the land to gain resources. The Nazis used their racial policy and murdered a lot of people they thought non-human. The Resistance, the group of people who fought Germany secretly, could not harm the Nazis much until 1943. [153] [154]

In Asia, Japan claimed to free colonized Asian countries from European colonial powers. [155] Although they were welcomed at first in many territories, their cruel actions turned the opinions against them within a short time. [156] During the occupation, Japan used 4 million barrels of oil left behind by the Allies at the war's end. By 1943, it was able to produce up to 50 million barrels of oil in the Dutch East Indies. This was 76% of its 1940 rate. [156]

Developments in technology Edit

The war brought new methods for future wars. The air forces improved greatly in fields such as air transport, [157] strategic bombing (to use bombs to destroy industry and morale), [158] as well as radar, and weapons for destroying aircraft. Jet aircraft were developed and would be used in worldwide air forces. [159]

At sea, the war focused on using aircraft carriers and submarines. Aircraft carriers soon replaced battleships. [160] [161] [162] The important reason was they were cheaper. [163] Submarines, a deadly weapon since World War I, [164] also played an important part in the war. The British improved weapons for destroying submarines, such as sonar, while the Germans improved submarine tactics. [165]

The style of war on the land changed from World War I to be more moveable. Tanks, which were used to support infantry, changed to a primary weapon. [166] The tank was improved in speed, armour and firepower during the war. At the start of the war, most commanders thought that using better tanks was the best way to fight enemy tanks. [167] However, early tanks could harm armour just a little. The German idea to avoid letting tanks fight one another meant tanks facing tanks rarely happened. This was a successful tactic used in Poland and France. [166] Ways to destroy tanks also improved. Even though vehicles became more used in the war, infantry remained the main part of the army, [168] and most equipped like in World War I. [169]

Submachine guns became widely used. They were especially used in cities and jungles. [169] The assault rifle, a German development combining features of the rifle and submachine gun, became the main weapon for most armies after the war. [170]

Other developments included better encryption for secret messages, such as the German Enigma. Another feature of military intelligence was the use of deception, especially by the Allies. Others include the first programmable computers, modern missiles and rockets, and the atomic bombs.

The actual numbers killed in World War II have been the subject heretofore. Most authorities now agree that of the 30 million Soviets who bore arms, there were 13.6 million military deaths.

Country Killed
USSR 13,600,000*
Germany 3,300,000
China 1,324,516
Japan 1,140,429
British Empire** 357,116
Romania 350,000
Poland 320,000
Yugoslavia 305,000
United States 292,131
Italy 279,800

*total, of which 7,800,000 battlefield deaths
**Inc. Australia, Canada, India, New Zealand, etc.

Deaths among civilians during this war - many resulting from famine and internal purges, such as those in China and the USSR - were colossal, but they were less well documented than those among fighting forces. Although the figures are the best available from authoritative sources and present a broad picture of the scale of civilian losses, the precise numbers will never be known.

Country Killed
China 8,000,000
USSR 6,500,000
Poland 5,300,000
Germany 2,350,000
Yugoslavia 1,500,000
France 470,000
Greece 415,000
Japan 393,400
Romania 340,000
Hungary 300,000

Germany, Italy, Japan, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria

U.S., Britain, France, USSR, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark, Greece, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, South Africa, Yugoslavia

  1. ↑ While various other dates have been proposed as the date on which World War II began or ended, this is the time span that is most frequently cited.
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  156. Christofferson, Thomas R Christofferson, Michael S (2006). France During World War II: From Defeat to Liberation. Fordham University Press. p. 156. ISBN978-0-8232-2563-7 .
  157. ↑ Cite error: The named reference Economic Development in Twentieth-Century East Asia: The International Context was used but no text was provided for refs named (see the help page).
  158. ↑ 156.0156.1
  159. Boog, Horst Rahn, Werner Stumpf, Reinhard Wegner, Bernd (2001). Militargeschichtliches Forschungsamt Germany and the Second World War—Volume VI: The Global War. Oxford: Clarendon Press. p. 266. ISBN978-0-19-822888-2 .
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  169. ↑ 166.0166.1
  170. Tucker, Spencer C. Roberts, Priscilla Mary (2004). Encyclopedia of World War II: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. p. 125. ISBN978-1-57607-999-7 .
  171. Tucker, Spencer C. Roberts, Priscilla Mary (2004). Encyclopedia of World War II: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. p. 108. ISBN978-1-57607-999-7 .
  172. Tucker, Spencer C. Roberts, Priscilla Mary (2004). Encyclopedia of World War II: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. p. 734. ISBN978-1-57607-999-7 .
  173. ↑ 169.0169.1
  174. Cowley, Robert Parker, Geoffrey (2001). The Reader's Companion to Military History. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 221. ISBN978-0-618-12742-9 .
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The Red Flag lawsuit, submitted in May 2019 by attorney Barry Arrington, certainly bears out this assertion. The document quotes from this section of the Colorado Constitution's fifth article: "Every bill shall be read by title when introduced, and at length on two different days in each house provided, however, any reading at length may be dispensed with upon unanimous consent of the members present. All substantial amendments made thereto shall be printed for the use of the members before the final vote is taken on the bill, and no bill shall become a law except by a vote of the majority of all members elected to each house taken on two separate days in each house, nor unless upon its final passage the vote be taken by ayes and noes and the names of those voting be entered on the journal."

The text adds that these requirements "are mandatory. If either house fails to abide by these requirements in enacting a law, the law so enacted is invalid."

"Now, I don&rsquot want to claim a full-blown victory yet, because we all know how things can shake out in court," Dudley said in the wake of the Colorado Supreme Court's March 15 order. "But this ruling is a big step in the right direction. Patriot, I am more confident than ever we will WIN our Red Flag lawsuit in the Colorado Court of Appeals."

There's no evidence that Alissa's family tried to use the Red Flag law to try to take away his guns thus far, no evidence confirms that he'd been diagnosed with a mental illness.

Moreover, RMGO executive director Taylor Rhodes described the Boulder King Soopers attack as an "act of terror" in a March 23 statement. As noted by the Washington Post , theories that the shooter was "a jihadist or anti-Trump terrorist" &mdash the sort of designation that might distract from calls for gun-law reforms &mdash have been on the rise in the day since authorities identified Alissa, who was born in Syria but came to the United States at age three, as the suspected shooter.

Still, one key Colorado law intended to prevent mass shootings was already junked earlier this month: A Boulder District Court judge tossed out the city's assault-weapons ban on March 12, ten days before the shooting at King Soopers. According to Alissa's arrest affidavit, he purchased a Ruger AR-556 pistol like the one reportedly used at the King Soopers shooting four days later, on March 16. The City of Boulder is expected to appeal the ruling.

Keep Westword Free. Since we started Westword, it has been defined as the free, independent voice of Denver, and we would like to keep it that way. Offering our readers free access to incisive coverage of local news, food and culture. Producing stories on everything from political scandals to the hottest new bands, with gutsy reporting, stylish writing, and staffers who've won everything from the Society of Professional Journalists' Sigma Delta Chi feature-writing award to the Casey Medal for Meritorious Journalism. But with local journalism's existence under siege and advertising revenue setbacks having a larger impact, it is important now more than ever for us to rally support behind funding our local journalism. You can help by participating in our "I Support" membership program, allowing us to keep covering Denver with no paywalls.


Ford GT40 MK II Racing Coupe P/1016 1966 Ford GT40 P/1016 was dispatched by Ford Advanced Vehicles on September 11th,&hellip

The Shelby American Collection celebrates the rich heritage of the Cobra, Shelby Mustang and Ford GT 40 cars that changed the face of auto racing in the 1960s.

Thanks to the generosity of owners and collectors, we have some of the most important American cars ever made on display at our Boulder museum, along with an extensive collection of race records, period photographs, memorabilia and tributes to the pioneer drivers and visionaries of the era including Carroll Shelby, Ken Miles, Dan Gurney, Bob Bondurant, Phil Hill, Phil Remington and other Shelby American Team members.

The museum and this website are dedicated to serve as a resource for all enthusiasts, and to memorialize & preserve one of the most important eras in American automotive history for all generations.


3. Almanac Stamp of 1765 or 1766

(Courtesy of Siegel Auction Gallery) The Battle of Yorktown (Credit: Fine Art Images/Heritage Images/Getty Images)

The Stamp Act, passed by British Parliament in 1765, often cited as one of the immediate causes of the American Revolution, was, in fact, a tax. It was levied on American paper used for legal, official or everyday useful documents: ship’s papers, business licenses, calendars, declarations, inventory, etc. 𠅎ven playing cards. The “stamp” was applied to paper to denote that the tax had been paid. While the money demanded by the act was quite low and the act was repealed the following year, the damage was done.

The colonies were incensed at the notion that they could be taxed by anyone outside their elected assemblies. Mob violence and intimidation followed, forcing stamp tax collectors to resign their positions and driving away ships carrying stamp papers at seaports. Colonial orators, like Patrick Henry, as well as newspapers, seized on the issue of English tyranny taking the form of taxation without representation, building the wave to revolution some 10 years later.


Sisyphus

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Sisyphus, In Homer’s Iliad, Book VI, Sisyphus, living at Ephyre (later Corinth), was the son of Aeolus (eponymous ancestor of the Aeolians) and the father of Glaucus. In post-Homeric times he was called the father of Odysseus through his seduction of Anticleia. Both men were characterized as cunning. Sisyphus was the reputed founder of the Isthmian Games, a festival of athletic and musical competitions in honour of the sea god Poseidon.

Who is Sisyphus?

Sisyphus is a figure in Homer’s Iliad and other works of Greek mythology. He is reputed to be the founder of the Isthmian Games and is a trickster who receives eternal punishment for trying to cheat Death.

How does Sisyphus cheat Death?

Post-Homeric legend claims that when Death comes for Sisyphus, Sisyphus cheats him by capturing him. Death escapes, however, and ensnares Sisyphus, though not before Sisyphus has told his wife not to bury his body or perform traditional funeral sacrifices. Consequently, he is allowed to return from the underworld, supposedly to punish his wife for her omission. He then lives a full life before dying, a second time, in his old age.

Why is Sisyphus punished?

The attempts of Sisyphus to trick Death, including his capture of Death and his return from the underworld, result in his punishment by Zeus.

How is Sisyphus punished?

Sisyphus is punished in the underworld by the god Zeus, who forces him to roll a boulder up a hill for eternity. Every time he nears the top of the hill, the boulder rolls back down.

What does “Sisyphean” mean?

The term Sisyphean describes a task that is impossible to complete. It refers to the punishment that Sisyphus receives in the underworld, where he is forced to roll a boulder up a hill repeatedly for eternity.

Later legend related that when Death came to fetch him, Sisyphus chained Death up so that no one died. Finally, Ares came to aid Death, and Sisyphus had to submit. In the meantime, Sisyphus had told his wife, Merope, not to perform the usual sacrifices and to leave his body unburied. Thus, when he reached the underworld, he was permitted to return to punish her for the omission. Once back at home, Sisyphus continued to live to a ripe old age before dying a second time.

Sisyphus was, in fact, like Autolycus and Prometheus, a widely popular figure of folklore—the trickster, or master thief. Clearly, he is everlastingly punished in Hades as the penalty for cheating Death, but why he is set to roll a great stone incessantly is a puzzle to which no convincing answer has yet been given. It appears to belong with other Greek imaginings of the world of the dead as the scene of fruitless labours.

The figure of Sisyphus inspired an existentialist classic, Albert Camus’s Myth of Sisyphus: Essay on the Absurd (1942).


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