History Podcasts

Roman Bird Fresco

Roman Bird Fresco


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.


Villa Poppaea

The Villa Poppaea is an ancient luxurious Roman seaside villa (villa maritima) located in Torre Annunziata between Naples and Sorrento, in Southern Italy. It is also called the Villa Oplontis or Oplontis Villa A. [1] as it was situated in the ancient Roman town of Oplontis.

It was buried and preserved in the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 AD, like the nearby cities of Herculaneum and Pompeii, about 10 m (33 ft) below modern ground level.

The quality of the decorations and construction suggests that it was owned by the Emperor Nero, and a pottery shard bearing the name of a freedman of Poppaea Sabina, the second wife of the emperor Nero was found at the site, which suggests the villa may have been her residence when she was away from Rome and which gives it its popular name. [2]

It was sumptuously decorated with fine works of art. [3] Its marble columns and capitals mark it out as being especially luxurious compared with others in this region that usually had stuccoed brick columns.

Parts of the villa lying under modern structures remain unexcavated.


Detail Showing Scene from Roman Fresco of Tree with Birds

Your Easy-access (EZA) account allows those in your organization to download content for the following uses:

  • Tests
  • Samples
  • Composites
  • Layouts
  • Rough cuts
  • Preliminary edits

It overrides the standard online composite license for still images and video on the Getty Images website. The EZA account is not a license. In order to finalize your project with the material you downloaded from your EZA account, you need to secure a license. Without a license, no further use can be made, such as:

  • focus group presentations
  • external presentations
  • final materials distributed inside your organization
  • any materials distributed outside your organization
  • any materials distributed to the public (such as advertising, marketing)

Because collections are continually updated, Getty Images cannot guarantee that any particular item will be available until time of licensing. Please carefully review any restrictions accompanying the Licensed Material on the Getty Images website, and contact your Getty Images representative if you have a question about them. Your EZA account will remain in place for a year. Your Getty Images representative will discuss a renewal with you.

By clicking the Download button, you accept the responsibility for using unreleased content (including obtaining any clearances required for your use) and agree to abide by any restrictions.


Bird Fresco in Roman Ruins of Villa San Marco - stock photo

Your Easy-access (EZA) account allows those in your organization to download content for the following uses:

  • Tests
  • Samples
  • Composites
  • Layouts
  • Rough cuts
  • Preliminary edits

It overrides the standard online composite license for still images and video on the Getty Images website. The EZA account is not a license. In order to finalize your project with the material you downloaded from your EZA account, you need to secure a license. Without a license, no further use can be made, such as:

  • focus group presentations
  • external presentations
  • final materials distributed inside your organization
  • any materials distributed outside your organization
  • any materials distributed to the public (such as advertising, marketing)

Because collections are continually updated, Getty Images cannot guarantee that any particular item will be available until time of licensing. Please carefully review any restrictions accompanying the Licensed Material on the Getty Images website, and contact your Getty Images representative if you have a question about them. Your EZA account will remain in place for a year. Your Getty Images representative will discuss a renewal with you.

By clicking the Download button, you accept the responsibility for using unreleased content (including obtaining any clearances required for your use) and agree to abide by any restrictions.


Contents

The derivation of this word remains uncertain. It could be related to the Greek word γρυπός (grypos), meaning 'curved', or 'hooked'. It could also have been an Anatolian loan word: compare Akkadian karūbu (winged creature), [ citation needed ] and the phonetically similar cherub. A related Hebrew word is כרוב (kerúv). [6]

Most statuary representations of griffins depict them with bird-like talons, although in some older illustrations griffins have a lion's forelimbs they generally have a lion's hindquarters. Its eagle's head is conventionally given prominent ears these are sometimes described as the lion's ears, but are often elongated (more like a horse's), and are sometimes feathered.

Infrequently, a griffin is portrayed without wings, or a wingless eagle-headed lion is identified as a griffin. In 15th-century and later heraldry, such a beast may be called an alke or a keythong.

When depicted on coats of arms, the griffin is called the Opinicus, which may be derived from the Greek name Ophinicus, referring to the serpent astronomical constellation. In these depictions, it has the body of a lion with either two or four legs, the head of an eagle or dragon, the wings of an eagle, and a camel's tail. [7]

Representations of griffin-like hybrids with four legs and a beaked head appeared in Ancient Iranian and Ancient Egyptian art dating back to before 3000 BC. [8] In Egypt, a griffin-like animal can be seen in a cosmetic palette from Hierakonpolis, known as the "Two Dog Palette", [9] [10] which is dated to c. 3300–3100 BC. [11]

In Iranian mythology, the griffin is called Shirdal, which means "Lion-Eagle". The Shirdal has appeared in ancient art of Iran since the late 2nd millennium BC. [12] Shirdals appeared on cylinder seals from Susa as early as 3000 BC. [13] Shirdals also are common motifs in the art of Luristan, the North and North West region of Iran in the Iron Age, and Achaemenid art. [14]

Griffin-type creatures combining raptor heads and mammalian bodies were depicted in the Levant, Syria, and Anatolia in the Middle Bronze Age, [15] [16] dated at about 1950–1550 BC. [17] Early depictions of griffin-types in Minoan art are found in the 15th century BC frescoes in the Throne Room of the Bronze Age Palace of Knossos, as restored by Sir Arthur Evans. Bird-mammal composites were a decorative theme in Archaic and Classical Greek art, but became quite popular in the 6th and 5th centuries BC, when the Greeks first began to record accounts of the "gryps" creature from travelers to Asia, such as Aristeas of Proconnesus. In Central Asia, the griffin image was included in Scythian "animal style" artifacts of the 6th–4th centuries BC, but no writings explain their meaning.

Griffin images appeared in art of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. Russian jewelry historian Elena Neva maintained that the Achaemenids considered the griffin "a protector from evil, witchcraft and secret slander". [18] But no writings exist from Achaemenid Persia to support her claim. Robin Lane Fox, in Alexander the Great, 1973:31 and notes p. 506, remarks that a 'lion-griffin' attacks a stag in a pebble mosaic of the fourth century BC [19] at Pella, perhaps serving as an emblem of the kingdom of Macedon or a personal one of Alexander's successor Antipater.

The Pisa Griffin is a large bronze sculpture that has been in Pisa in Italy since the Middle Ages, though it is of Islamic origin. It is the largest bronze medieval Islamic sculpture known, at over three feet tall (42.5 inches, or 1.08 m.), and was probably created in the 11th century AD in Al-Andaluz (Islamic Spain). [20] From about 1100 it was placed on a column on the roof of Pisa Cathedral until replaced by a replica in 1832 the original is now in the Museo dell' Opera del Duomo (Cathedral Museum), Pisa.

Several ancient mythological creatures are similar to the griffin. These include the Lamassu, an Assyrian protective deity, often depicted with a bull or lion's body, eagle's wings, and human's head.

Sumerian and Akkadian mythology feature the demon Anzu, half man and half bird, associated with the chief sky god Enlil. This was a divine storm-bird linked with the southern wind and the thunder clouds.

Jewish mythology speaks of the Ziz, which resembles Anzu, as well as the ancient Greek Phoenix. The Bible mentions the Ziz in Psalms 50:11. This is also similar to a cherub. The cherub, or sphinx, was very popular in Phoenician iconography.

In ancient Crete, griffins became very popular, and were portrayed in various media. A similar creature is the Minoan Genius.

In the Hindu religion, Garuda is a large bird-like creature which serves as a mount (vahana) of the Lord Vishnu. It is also the name for the constellation Aquila.

In medieval legend, griffins not only mated for life, but if either partner died, then the other would continue the rest of its life alone, never to search for a new mate. [ citation needed ] The griffin was thus made an emblem of the Church's opposition to remarriage. [ dubious – discuss ] Being a union of an aerial bird and a terrestrial beast, it was seen in Christendom to be a symbol of Jesus, who was both human and divine. As such it can be found sculpted on some churches. [3]

According to Stephen Friar's New Dictionary of Heraldry, a griffin's claw was believed to have medicinal properties and one of its feathers could restore sight to the blind. [3] Goblets fashioned from griffin claws (actually antelope horns) and griffin eggs (actually ostrich eggs) were highly prized in medieval European courts. [21]

When Genoa emerged as a major seafaring power in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, griffins commenced to be depicted as part of the republic's coat of arms, rearing at the sides of the shield bearing the Cross of St. George.

By the 12th century, the appearance of the griffin was substantially fixed: "All its bodily members are like a lion's, but its wings and mask are like an eagle's." [22] It is not yet clear if its forelimbs are those of an eagle or of a lion. Although the description implies the latter, the accompanying illustration is ambiguous. It was left to the heralds to clarify that.

A hippogriff is a legendary creature, supposedly the offspring of a griffin and a mare.

In heraldry, the griffin's amalgamation of lion and eagle gains in courage and boldness, and it is always drawn to powerful fierce monsters. It is used to denote strength and military courage and leadership. Griffins are portrayed with the rear body of a lion, an eagle's head with erect ears, a feathered breast, and the forelegs of an eagle, including claws. These features indicate a combination of intelligence and strength. [23]

Griffins may be shown in a variety of poses, but in British heraldry are never shown with their wings closed. Heraldic griffins use the same attitude terminology as the lion, with the exception that where a lion would be described as rampant a griffin is instead described as segreant. [24]

In British heraldry, a male griffin is shown without wings, its body covered in tufts of formidable spikes, with a short tusk emerging from the forehead, as for a unicorn. [25] This distinction is not found outside of British heraldry even within it, male griffins are much rarer than winged ones, which are not give a specific name. It is possible that the male griffin originated as a derivation of the heraldic panther. [24]

The sea-griffin, also termed the gryphon-marine, is a heraldic variant of the griffin possessing the head and legs of the more common variant and the hindquarters of a fish or a mermaid. Sea-griffins are present on the arms of a number of German noble families, including the Mestich family of Silesia and the Barony of Puttkamer. [24]

The opincus is another heraldic variant, which is depicted with all four legs being those of a lion. Occasionally, its tail may be that of a camel or its wings may be absent. The opincus is rarely used in heraldry, but appears in the arms of the Worshipful Company of Barbers. [26]

Griffin in Johann Vogel: Meditationes emblematicae de restaurata pace Germaniae, 1649

A heraldic griffin passant of the Bevan family crest

Heraldic guardian griffin at Kasteel de Haar, Netherlands, 1892–1912

The Gryf coat of arms of the knighthood family Gryfici. Used by c. 481 Polish noble families.

In architectural decoration the griffin is usually represented as a four-footed beast with wings and the head of an eagle with horns, or with the head and beak of an eagle. [ citation needed ]

The statues that mark the entrance to the City of London are sometimes mistaken for griffins, but are in fact (Tudor) dragons, the supporters of the city's arms. [27] They are most easily distinguished from griffins by their membranous, rather than feathered, wings.

Flavius Philostratus mentioned them in The Life of Apollonius of Tyana:

As to the gold which the griffins dig up, there are rocks which are spotted with drops of gold as with sparks, which this creature can quarry because of the strength of its beak. “For these animals do exist in India” he said, “and are held in veneration as being sacred to the Sun and the Indian artists, when they represent the Sun, yoke four of them abreast to draw the images and in size and strength they resemble lions, but having this advantage over them that they have wings, they will attack them, and they get the better of elephants and of dragons. But they have no great power of flying, not more than have birds of short flight for they are not winged as is proper with birds, but the palms of their feet are webbed with red membranes, such that they are able to revolve them, and make a flight and fight in the air and the tiger alone is beyond their powers of attack, because in swiftness it rivals the winds. [28]

And the griffins of the Indians and the ants of the Ethiopians, though they are dissimilar in form, yet, from what we hear, play similar parts for in each country they are, according to the tales of poets, the guardians of gold, and devoted to the gold reefs of the two countries. [29]

Griffins are used widely in Persian poetry Rumi is one such poet who writes in reference to griffins. [30]

In Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy, after Dante and Virgil's journey through Hell and Purgatory has concluded, Dante meets a chariot dragged by a griffin in Earthly Paradise. Immediately afterwards, Dante is reunited with Beatrice. Dante and Beatrice then start their journey through Paradise.

Sir John Mandeville wrote about them in his 14th century book of travels:

In that country be many griffins, more plenty than in any other country. Some men say that they have the body upward as an eagle and beneath as a lion and truly they say sooth, that they be of that shape. But one griffin hath the body more great and is more strong than eight lions, of such lions as be on this half, and more great and stronger than an hundred eagles such as we have amongst us. For one griffin there will bear, flying to his nest, a great horse, if he may find him at the point, or two oxen yoked together as they go at the plough. For he hath his talons so long and so large and great upon his feet, as though they were horns of great oxen or of bugles or of kine, so that men make cups of them to drink of. And of their ribs and of the pens of their wings, men make bows, full strong, to shoot with arrows and quarrels. [31]

John Milton, in Paradise Lost II, refers to the legend of the griffin in describing Satan:

As when a Gryfon through the Wilderness

With winged course ore Hill or moarie Dale,
Pursues the ARIMASPIAN, who by stelth
Had from his wakeful custody purloind

The guarded Gold [. ]

In the Harry Potter series, the character Albus Dumbledore has a griffin-shaped knocker. Also, the character Godric Gryffindor's surname is a variation on the French griffon d'or ("golden griffon").

Pomponius Mela: "In Europe, constantly falling snow makes those places contiguous with the Riphean Mountains so impassable that, in addition, they prevent those who deliberately travel here from seeing anything. After that comes a region of very rich soil but quite uninhabitable because griffins, a savage and tenacious breed of wild beasts, love- to an amazing degree- the gold that is mined from deep within the earth there, and because they guard it with an amazing hostility to those who set foot there." (Romer, 1998.)

Isidore of Seville – "The Gryphes are so called because they are winged quadrupeds. This kind of wild beast is found in the Hyperborean Mountains. In every part of their body they are lions, and in wings and heads are like eagles, and they are fierce enemies of horses. Moreover they tear men to pieces." (Brehaut, 1912) [32]

The griffin is the symbol of the Philadelphia Museum of Art bronze castings of them perch on each corner of the museum's roof, protecting its collection. [33] [34] Similarly, prior to the mid-1990s a griffin formed part of the logo of Midland Bank (now HSBC).

The griffin is used in the logo of United Paper Mills, Vauxhall Motors, and of Scania and its former partners Saab Group and Saab Automobile. The latest fighter produced by the Saab Group bears the name "Gripen" (Griffin), as a result of public competition. During World War II, the Heinkel firm named its heavy bomber design for the Luftwaffe after the legendary animal, as the Heinkel He 177 Greif, the German form of "griffin". General Atomics has used the term "Griffin Eye" for its intelligence surveillance platform based on a Hawker Beechcraft King Air 35ER civilian aircraft [35]

The "Griff" statue by Veres Kalman 2007 in the forecourt of the Farkashegyi cemetery in Budapest, Hungary.

Griffins, like many other fictional creatures, frequently appear within works under the fantasy genre. Examples of fantasy-oriented franchises that feature griffins include Warhammer Fantasy Battle, Warcraft, Heroes of Might and Magic, the Griffon in Dungeons & Dragons, Ragnarok Online, Harry Potter, The Spiderwick Chronicles, My Little Pony: Friendship is Magic, and The Battle for Wesnoth.

The red griffin rampant was the coat of arms of the dukes of Pomerania and survives today as the armorial of West Pomeranian Voivodeship (historically, Farther Pomerania) in Poland. It is also part of the coat of arms of the German state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, representing the historical region Vorpommern (Hither Pommerania).

Similarly, the coat of arms of Greifswald, Germany, in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, also shows a red griffin rampant – perched in a tree, reflecting a legend about the town's founding in the 13th century.

Flag of the Utti Jaeger Regiment of the Finnish Army

School emblems and mascots

Three gryphons form the crest of Trinity College, Oxford (founded 1555), originating from the family crest of founder Sir Thomas Pope. The college's debating society is known as the Gryphon, and the notes of its master emeritus show it to be one of the oldest debating institutions in the country, significantly older than the more famous Oxford Union Society. [36] Griffins are also mascots for VU University Amsterdam, [37] Reed College, [38] Sarah Lawrence College, [39] the University of Guelph, and Canisius College. [ citation needed ]

The official seal of Purdue University was adopted during the University's centennial in 1969. The seal, approved by the Board of Trustees, was designed by Prof. Al Gowan, formerly at Purdue. It replaced an unofficial one that had been in use for 73 years. [40]

The College of William and Mary in Virginia changed its mascot to the griffin in April 2010. [41] [42] The griffin was chosen because it is the combination of the British lion and the American eagle.

The emblem of the Greek 15th Infantry Division features an ax-wielding griffin on its unit patch.

The English independent school of Wycliffe College features a griffin on its school crest.

The mascot of St. Mary's College, one of the 16 colleges in Durham University, is a griffin.

The mascot of Glenview Senior Public School in Toronto is the gryphon, and the name is incorporated into its sporting teams.

The mascot of the L&N STEM Academy in Knoxville, Tennessee, a public science, technology, engineering and math high school serving grades 9–12, is the gryphon. The school opened in August 2011. The gryphon is also incorporated into the school's robotics team.

The mascot of Charles G. Fraser Junior Public School in Toronto is the griffin, and an illustration of a griffin forms the school's logo.

The mascot of Glebe Collegiate Institute in Ottawa is the gryphon, and the team name is the Glebe Gryphons.

The griffin is the official mascot of Chestnut Hill College and Gwynedd Mercy University, both in Pennsylvania.

Also, the griffin is the official mascot of Maria Clara High School, known as the Blue Griffins in PobCaRan cluster of Caloocan, Philippines, which excels in cheerleading.

The mascot of Leadership High School in San Francisco, CA was chosen by the student body by popular vote to be the griffin after the Golden Gate University Griffins, where they operated out of from 1997 to 2000.

Public organizations (non-educational)

A griffin appears in the official seal of the Municipality of Heraklion, Greece.

A griffin appears in the official seal of the Waterloo Police Department (Iowa).

In professional sports

The Grand Rapids Griffins professional ice hockey team of the American Hockey League.

Suwon Samsung Bluewings's mascot "Aguileon" is a griffin. The name "Aguileon" is a compound using two Spanish words "aguila" meaning "eagle" and "leon" meaning "lion".

Amusement parks

Busch Gardens Williamsburg's highlight attraction is a dive coaster called the "Griffon", which opened in 2007.

In 2013, Cedar Point Amusement Park in Sandusky, Ohio opened the "GateKeeper" steel roller coaster, which features a griffin as its mascot.

In film and television

Film and television company Merv Griffin Entertainment uses a griffin for its production company. Merv Griffin Entertainment was founded by entrepreneur Merv Griffin and is based in Beverly Hills, California. His former company Merv Griffin Enterprises also used a griffin for its logo.

A griffin appeared in the 1974 film The Golden Voyage of Sinbad.

In the Sitcom, The Big Bang Theory, Dr. Sheldon Cooper mentions that he attempted to create a griffon but could not obtain the, “necessary eagle eggs and lion semen.”

In business

Saab Automobile previously used the griffin in their logo.

Information security firm Halock uses a griffin to represent protecting data and systems.

Some large species of Old World vultures are called griffines, including the griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus). The scientific name for the Andean condor is Vultur gryphus, Latin for "griffin-vulture". The Catholic Douay-Rheims version of the Bible uses griffon for a creature referred to as vulture or ossifrage in other English translations (Leviticus 11:13).

Adrienne Mayor, a classical folklorist and historian of science, has speculated that the way the Greeks imagined griffins from the seventh century BC onwards may have been influenced in part by the fossilized remains of beaked dinosaurs such as Protoceratops observed on the way to gold deposits by nomadic prospectors of ancient Scythia (Central Asia), [43] This speculation is based on Greek and Latin literary sources and related artworks in a specific time frame, beginning with the first written descriptions of griffins as real animals of Asia in a lost work by Aristeas (a Greek who traveled to the Altai region between Mongolia and NW China in the 7th century BC) referenced by Aeschylus and Herodotus (ca. 450 BC) and ending with Aelian (3rd century AD), the last ancient author to report any "new" details about the griffin.

Mayor argues that Protoceratops fossils, seen by ancient observers, may have been interpreted as evidence of a half-bird-half-mammal creature. [44] She argues that over-repeated retelling and drawing or recopying its bony neck frill (which is rather fragile and may have been frequently broken or entirely weathered away) may become large mammal-type external ears, and its beak may be treated as evidence of a part-bird nature and lead to bird-type wings being added. [45]

Paleontologist Mark P. Witton has contested this hypothesis, arguing that it ignores the existence of depictions of griffins throughout the Near East dating to long before the time when Mayor posits the Greeks became aware of Protoceratops fossils in Scythia. Witton further argues that the anatomies of griffins in Greek art are clearly based on those of living creatures, especially lions and eagles, and that there are no features of griffins in Greek art that can only be explained by the hypothesis that the griffins were based on fossils. He notes that Greek accounts of griffins describe them as living creatures, not ancient skeletons, and that some of the details of these accounts suggest griffins are purely imaginary, not inspired by fossils. [46]


Villa of Livia at Prima Porta

Livia’s garden wall paintings, consist of “hyper-realistic” depictions of the synchronized blooming of flora, despite these plants having different blooming times during the year. 1 In this way, many of the plants, and perhaps the birds, “must” be based on sketches. 2 This artistic strategy creates an eternal and unchanging image of Spring and Summer “beyond nature” and time. 3 All identifications from Gabriel and Jashemski:

Fig 4.1. Image of wall of the Garden Room at the Villa of Livia with bird species identification. Robert Vanderlinden. Fig 4.2. Engraving of whole Panel 5, with black-boxed portion referring to colored-image above. Gabriel, Plate 25.

The blackbird would have been a year-round resident of the gardens in southern Italy. 4 Similarly, the Jay and Black-eared wheatear would have inhabited southern Europe in the Summer, in wooded areas in the hills or flatlands. 5 Redstarts would pursue gardens and woodland in Campania during the Summer for breeding. 6

Along the bottom gate of the fresco is a pheasant or a partridge. Again, pheasants were easy to keep in captivity and though they originate from the Caucasus, their entry into Europe was noted by Aristophanes in his Birds. 7 Other sources state that the pheasant was “imported from Colchis, the land of the River Phasis…[and] had been known as rarities in Greece since the fifth century.” 8 It is possible that the bird shown in Rome in A.D. 47 or 48 as a phoenix was a golden pheasant. 9 Furthermore, if a partridge, this bird would have been a common species in Rome as a domestic bird, similar in function to the pheasant and quail. 10

Fig 5. A corresponding wall at the House of Livia’s Garden Room with species identification. Robert Vanderlinden.

In conclusion, both analyzed scenes are plausible based on the migratory patterns of these bird species, with the exception of the thrush. The only questionable factor, therefore, is whether all these birds would exist in the garden at the same time, and with what frequency. Knowing that these species prefer a wide-range of environments, I find it unlikely that all depicted birds would exist often within the garden unless artificially introduced, if kept in aviaries or bird cages at the villa.


Villa of Livia at Prima Porta

Livia’s garden wall paintings, consist of “hyper-realistic” depictions of the synchronized blooming of flora, despite these plants having different blooming times during the year. 1 In this way, many of the plants, and perhaps the birds, “must” be based on sketches. 2 This artistic strategy creates an eternal and unchanging image of Spring and Summer “beyond nature” and time. 3 All identifications from Gabriel and Jashemski:

Fig 4.1. Image of wall of the Garden Room at the Villa of Livia with bird species identification. Robert Vanderlinden. Fig 4.2. Engraving of whole Panel 5, with black-boxed portion referring to colored-image above. Gabriel, Plate 25.

The blackbird would have been a year-round resident of the gardens in southern Italy. 4 Similarly, the Jay and Black-eared wheatear would have inhabited southern Europe in the Summer, in wooded areas in the hills or flatlands. 5 Redstarts would pursue gardens and woodland in Campania during the Summer for breeding. 6

Along the bottom gate of the fresco is a pheasant or a partridge. Again, pheasants were easy to keep in captivity and though they originate from the Caucasus, their entry into Europe was noted by Aristophanes in his Birds. 7 Other sources state that the pheasant was “imported from Colchis, the land of the River Phasis…[and] had been known as rarities in Greece since the fifth century.” 8 It is possible that the bird shown in Rome in A.D. 47 or 48 as a phoenix was a golden pheasant. 9 Furthermore, if a partridge, this bird would have been a common species in Rome as a domestic bird, similar in function to the pheasant and quail. 10

Fig 5. A corresponding wall at the House of Livia’s Garden Room with species identification. Robert Vanderlinden.

In conclusion, both analyzed scenes are plausible based on the migratory patterns of these bird species, with the exception of the thrush. The only questionable factor, therefore, is whether all these birds would exist in the garden at the same time, and with what frequency. Knowing that these species prefer a wide-range of environments, I find it unlikely that all depicted birds would exist often within the garden unless artificially introduced, if kept in aviaries or bird cages at the villa.


Working women of Roman Italy

A fresco portrait of Terentius Neo and his wife © People did not always work for a wage in the ancient world. Most people worked on the land and in the home, while upper-class men and women supervised households and estates.

Although there were specialist cloth shops, all women were expected to be involved in cloth production: spinning, weaving and sewing. Slave and free women who worked for a living were concentrated in domestic and service positions - as perhaps midwives, child-nurses, barmaids, seamstresses, or saleswomen. We do, however, have a few examples of women in higher-status positions such as that of a doctor, and one woman painter is known.

Women's domestic work was seen as a symbol of feminine virtue .

How do we know about women's work? From men saying in print what women should be doing - poets (like Virgil), and philosophers (like Seneca), and husbands praising their dead wives on tombstones not only for being chaste (casta) but also for excelling at working wool (lanifica).

We can also learn about women's work from pictures on vases and walls (paintings), or from sculptural reliefs on funerary and public art. Septimia Stratonice was a successful shoemaker (sutrix) in the harbour town of Ostia. Her friend Macilius decorated her burial-place with a marble sculpture of her, on account of her 'favours' to him (CIL 14 supplement, 4698).

Graffiti such as the ones on the wall of a Pompeian workshop record the names of women workers and their wool allocations - names such as Amaryllis, Baptis, Damalis, Doris, Lalage and Maria - while other graffiti are from women workers' own monuments, usually those of nurses and midwives (see CIL 14.1507).

Women's domestic work was seen as a symbol of feminine virtue, while other jobs - those of barmaid, actress or prostitute - were disreputable. Outside work like sewing and laundering was respectable, but only had a low-status. Nurses were sometimes quite highly valued by their employers/owners, and might be commemorated on family tombs.


Stunning ‘sensual’ queen fresco discovered in Pompeii

Archaeologists in the ancient city of Pompeii have uncovered a remarkable fresco depicting a sensual scene involving the Roman god Jupiter and Leda, a legendary queen of Sparta from Greek mythology.

Archaeologists in the ancient city of Pompeii have uncovered a remarkable fresco depicting a sensual scene involving the Roman god Jupiter and Leda, a legendary queen of Sparta from Greek mythology.

The fresco was discovered in a cubiculum, or bedroom, in the remains of the Roman city.

In the fresco, Jupiter is disguised as a swan. The figure of Leda being impregnated by the god in swan form was a fairly common home decoration theme in Pompeii and Herculaneum, another town destroyed in A.D. 79 by the volcanic eruption of Mount Vesuvius near present-day Naples.

Following the eruption of Mount Vesuvius, Pompeii was quickly buried by volcanic ash, killing about 2,000 of the city’s residents, according to History.com.

Leda is an important figure in Greek mythology. “The scene – full of sensuality – depicts the union of Jupiter, transformed into a swan, and Leda, wife of King Tyndareus,” explains the Pompeii archaeological site, in a Facebook post.

“From her embraces, first with Jupiter and then Tyndareus, would be born the twins Castor and Pollux from an egg (the Dioscuri), Helen – the future wife of King Menelaus of Sparta and cause of the Trojan War – and Clytemnestra, later bride (and assassin) of King Agamemnon of Argos and brother to Menelaus.”

In Greek mythology, Leda’s children were fathered by the god Zeus, the Greek version of Jupiter.

Pompeii archaeological park director Massimo Osanna praised this fresco as exceptional, since it was painted to make it appear Leda was looking at whoever saw the fresco upon entering the bedroom.

An archeologist cleans up the fresco ''Leda e il cigno'' (Leda and the swan). (Cesare Abbate/ANSA via AP)

"Leda watches the spectator with a sensuality that's absolutely pronounced," Osanna told Italian news agency ANSA.

The fresco's details include a depiction of Leda protecting the swan with her cloak as the bird sits on her lap.

Osanna noted the fresco's context of the Greek "myth of love, with an explicit sensuality in a bedroom where, obviously beside sleep, there could be other activities."

The fresco, with its colors still remarkably vivid, was discovered Friday during ongoing work to consolidate the ancient city's structures after rains and wear-and-tear in past years caused some ruins to collapse, the tourist site's officials said.

The site of the ancient city remained untouched for over 1,500 years until its rediscovery in the 18th century. During the 19th century, archaeologists used plaster to take casts from the vacuums that surrounded skeletons found in the compacted layer of ash. Left behind by the decay of organic remains, the vacuums offer an eerie snapshot of the victims’ final moments. National Geographic notes the plaster casts’ lifelike poses show some victims, for example, crawling, or seated with head in hands.

The fresco is just the latest fascinating find at Pompeii. A scrawled piece of text on a wall in Pompeii, for example, is rewriting the history of the famous ancient eruption. The newly discovered charcoal inscription suggests that the eruption occurred in October of the year 79, two months later than previously thought.

In addition, archaeologists recently uncovered the undisturbed skeletons of a small group of people who took shelter from the devastating eruption of Mount Vesuvius. And earlier this year, images of a man’s skeleton, apparently crushed by a rock during the eruption, went viral after their discovery.

Archaeologists also recently unearthed the final resting place of an ancient racehorse among the ruins of Pompeii.

A new study recently revealed that when Mount Vesuvius erupted, the intense heat caused victims’ skulls to explode and their blood to boil.

Fox News’ Chris Ciaccia and The Associated Press contributed to this article.


Sepphoris: A window into Roman Galilee

The traditional capital of the Galilee had always been Sepphoris and prior excavations have uncovered a huge and remarkable Hellenistic city. The theater and the mosaics have offered up evidence how Greco-Romanized the first-century city had become.

Although Antipater rebuilt Galilee’s ancient capital in a Greco-Roman architectural veneer, the population was mainly Jewish. However, mosaics discovered inside luxurious villas reveals that the Jews living there were heavily influenced by Greco-Roman culture and could probably speak Greek.

In one-villa archaeologist uncovered panels that framed a dining room depicting a drinking rivalry between Bacchus and Hercules. Bacchus (Dionysus) was the god of wine and drinking.

In another villa the archaeologist uncovered depicted a woman, now called “the Mona Lisa of the Galilee”

Mosaic depicting revelers and attendants of a Bacchus party, previously found at Sepphoris ( ilan sharif / flickr )

The city of thirty thousand was in full reconstruction during Jesus adolescence, and since it was no more then an hour´s walk from Nazareth, Jesus and his father Joseph (who were tradesmen) may have worked there, just an hour’s walk from Nazareth.

The Gospels do not give us an answer. The Anchor Bible Dictionary notes, however, that “one logical route from Nazareth to Cana of Galilee ran through Sepphoris.” (John 2:1, 4:46) From Nazareth, the hill of Sepphoris can be seen, rising almost 400 feet [120 m] above the valley floor. Some believe that when Jesus gave the illustration that “a city cannot be hid when situated upon a mountain,” he possibly had this city in mind.

After the fall of Jerusalem in 70 AD, Sepphoris became the principal Jewish city in Galilee and later the site of the Sanhedrin, the Jewish high court. For a time, it flourished as a center of Jewish learning.

The construction of the Roman city of Sepphoris after the Great Revolt, in the late first century and the second century AD, is indicative of a change in the attitude of Galilean Jews toward Rome and its culture.

The new finds in Sepphoris contribute significantly to the research of Roman art in Israel. To date, excavators uncovered the walls of several public and private buildings from Roman Sepphoris (second and third centuries AD) which were decorated with colorful frescoes in geometric and floral patterns. This season’s finds are the first, only and earliest evidence of figurative images in wall paintings at the site. The finds date to the beginning of the second century AD. Parallels to these finds are virtually unknown at other Israeli sites of the same period.

Top image: Main: Aerial view of Sepphoris ( public domain ). Inset: Guilloche, in a fresco from Zippori, dating from the early Second Century AD (Photo: G. Laron).


Murals

Large wall murals were another common type of art in ancient Rome. While Roman painters used several methods for painting the walls of large homes, the fresco method, which involves painting the wall while the plaster is still wet, is among the most recognized today. Roman frescoes use vibrant colors to depict images of family members, scenery from Roman mythology or outdoor scenes that have only decorative value. Some Roman frescoes are intended to mimic windows, depicting a garden in bloom or a grove of trees with birds flying overhead. Some even include painted architectural elements like a false window sill to enhance the illusion.


Watch the video: MARVELLOUS DIVEYEVO (May 2022).