History Podcasts

After the Attack

After the Attack


The List of the Most Famous DDoS Attacks — By Year and Month

Want to see some others who have unwittingly competed for the title of sustaining the largest DDoS attacks on record? Check out our timeline to see the progression of the largest and most famous distributed denial of service attacks that have occurred within the past six years (both traffic-based and packet-based attacks):

February — Amazon Web Services (AWS) reported in their TLR for Q1 2020 that they observed and mitigated a 2.3 Tbps UDP reflection vector DDoS attack. Not only is this the largest DDoS attack that AWS reports ever facing, but it’s also thought to be the largest DDoS attack in history on record in terms of bit rate.

April — Imperva reports one of their clients was able to thwart a DDoS attack that peaked at 580 million packets per second. To date, this is considered the largest DDoS attack by packet volume to date.

January — Another Imperva client sustained a 500 million packets per second DDoS attack.

March — NETSCOUT reported that its Arbor ATLAS global traffic and DDoS threat detection system confirmed a 1.7 Tbps memcached reflection/amplification attack on an unnamed U.S.-based service provider.

February — The GitHub DDoS attack inundated the company with 1.35 Tbps of data (129.6 million PPS) — the largest DDoS attack on record as of that time — via memcaching. This means that the attackers spoofed GitHub’s IP address to send small inquiries to several Memcached servers to trigger a major response in the form of a 50x data response.

October — The Czech statistical office websites relating to the Czech Republic’s parliamentary elections — volby.cz and volbyhned.cz — failed temporarily due to DDoS attacks during the vote count.

August — Web host company DreamHost, which was said to host the Nazi Daily Stormer website under its new name Punished Stormer, suffered a DDoS attack of unannounced proportion. This attack followed a Department of Justice request for visitor data relating to the stormer site.

June — Throughout the second half of the year, video game software developer Square Enix’s Final Fantasy XIV online role-playing game (RPG) sustained intermittent DDoS attacks via botnets. The attacks spanned the summer and another set of attacks occurred during the fall.

October — The Dyn DDoS attack, which measured in at 1.2 Tbps and was considered the largest DDoS attack at the time, brought down much of the internet across the U.S. and Europe. Using the Mirai botnet, the attack targeted Dyn, a company that controls much of the domain name system (DNS) infrastructure of the internet.

September — French web host OVH experienced a DDoS attack measuring in at nearly 1 Tbps. The attackers used a botnet of hacked IoT devices (CCTV cameras and personal video recorders) to launch their attack.

March — GitHub sustained a DDoS attack that was thought to be politically motivated because it focused on two GitHub projects that aimed to provide Chinese citizens with a way to circumvent Chinese state web censorship.

The website for Occupy Central in Hong Kong, which was campaigning for a more democratic voting system, experienced a 500 Gbps DDoS attack that was executed via five botnets. Also targeted were the online news site Apple Daily and PopVote, a mock election site, both of which supported OC’s message.

Have questions or want to share your thoughts about DDoS attacks? Feel free to do so below.

This article was originally written by Patrick Nohe in 2018, it was updated by Casey Crane for 2019 and, most recently, 2020.


How Did Spain Avoid Terrorism Before Barcelona?

After experiencing the worst jihadist attack anywhere in Europe in 2004, the country had seemed largely immune—until Thursday.

In 2004, near-simultaneous attacks on Madrid’s commuter train system killed 192 people and injured more than 2,000. Those attacks, blamed on al-Qaeda, remain the deadliest ever to have been carried out on European soil. They prompted Spanish authorities to reassess their internal-security posture—a process that involved hiring thousands of people whose job it was to stop another attack.

Over the next 13 years, as Islamist terrorists targeted cities across Europe—London, Paris, Brussels, Nice, and Manchester to name a few—some of them multiple times, Spain arrested 700 people, convicted dozens, imprisoned 120 people for terrorism-related offenses, and foiled many plots. Spain’s strategy seemed to work—until Thursday. That’s when a Morocco-born man struck pedestrians in Barcelona with a van, killing 14 people and injuring dozens of others. Separately, police killed five suspects in Cambrils, a seaside resort near Barcelona, who struck seven people with a car. Authorities said the attacks were connected and the perpetrators had been planning larger-scale attacks, but were thwarted when their suspected bomb factory in the town of Alcanar exploded. ISIS claimed responsibility for Thursday’s attacks. But the key question is perhaps not so much why Spanish authorities couldn’t prevent them, but how Spain managed to avoid being a target for so long.

El Pais, the Spanish newspaper, reported in June that more than 1,000 people were on the radar of Spanish police, 259 people were being investigated, and 500 telephones were being tapped in dozens of anti-terrorism investigations across the country. The newspaper reported that a silent “army” of more than 3,000 officers were working to prevent another attack. They sifted through social-media accounts, investigated mosques, and worked with informers to gain information and knowledge about terrorist networks. Their conclusion: a new attack was inevitable. In fact, El Pais noted that Madrid, Barcelona, Ceuta, and Melilla were considered particularly vulnerable, and reported that intelligence agencies had warned about “busy areas in Madrid and Barcelona” being attacked. Las Ramblas, the target of Thursday’s Barcelona attack, is perhaps the busiest pedestrian thoroughfare in the city, popular with tourists and locals alike.

Before the 2004 Madrid attacks, there were few hints of a potential problem with Islamist terrorism. As I reported yesterday, Spain has had a long history with terrorism, but much of the violence was carried out by ETA, the Basque separatist group, which declared a truce in 2011. Before the 2004 al-Qaeda attack, authorities had their eye on smaller Islamist groups that were operating in North Africa, as well as Salafist groups (which are not necessarily violent) that were slowly gaining followers—and which are influential in rural and coastal Catalonia.

“There are different currents” of Salafism, Lorenzo Vidino, the director of the Program on Extremism at George Washington University, told the Guardian. “There are currents there that are very conservative but not necessarily supporting violence. Having said that, it’s undeniable that that environment has created a milieu that is fertile for further radicalization. It explains why there is more radicalization than any other part of mainland Spain.”

Many Spaniards from this part of the country ended up fighting in the jihadist battles of the age. As El Pais pointed out:

Imad Eddin Barakat, known as Abu Dahdah, and one of the founders of Al Qaeda in Spain, would see off fighters from Madrid’s Barajas airport, sending them to join the jihad in Bosnia, Chechnya or Afghanistan. And he would welcome back the wounded, and send them off to be treated in state-funded hospitals in Spain. The Syrian-Spaniard was shepherding his flock with total immunity. No one foresaw that those bearded fighters who came back from combat zones had been trained in weapons and explosives, and could be a danger to our safety.

In recent years, the attention of Western security organizations has moved from watching for militants returning from Afghanistan, Bosnia, and Chechnya to the fighters coming back from Syria and Iraq. Spain hasn’t had the same numbers of citizens going to fight in those countries on the side of ISIS—and none of the suspects arrested in Spain are said to have known ties to terrorism. It’s not clear if authorities knew of those militants who were killed. Which points to several possible conclusions: Security officials may thwart dozens of terrorist plots, but they need fail just once it’s virtually impossible to stop someone truly intent on attacking civilians, especially if (s)he is using a low-tech weapon such as a van and the best responses to terrorist attacks are only good until the next attack.


After the Attack - HISTORY

Digital History ID 3775
1. Japan had been at war for four years prior to the attack on Pearl Harbor with which country?

2. After the Japanese air attack on Pearl Harbor, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt declared that Dec. 7, 1941, was "a date which will live in":

3. The Pearl Harbor attack took place on what day?

4. About how long did the attack take?

5. Pearl Harbor is on which Hawaiian island?

6. The Japanese emperor during World War II was

7. This word was repeated three times by attacking Japanese pilots at 7:53 a.m. to announce that they had succeeded in the surprise attack:

8. The number of Americans who died in the attack on Pearl Harbor:

9. The number of Japanese fighters and bombers involved in the attack

10. Which one of the following countries was a member of the Axis Powers?

11. Which of these cities was NOT destroyed by bombing during World War II?

12. France fell to the Nazis in

13. Which of the following was a Nazi extermination camp?

14. The Abraham Lincoln Brigade fought in the

15. This key Pacific battle which gave the United States naval supremacy against Japan:

16. Which of these Allies suffered the most military dead in World War II:

17. Which of these three Nazi leaders was not born in Germany?

18. Which of these Chinese cities suffered the rape and murder of hundreds of thousands of its residents by invading Japanese troops?


The Deadly Grizzly Bear Attacks That Changed the National Park Service Forever

Glacier National Park’s busiest season came to an abrupt halt in the summer of 1967. In a matter of hours, two grizzly bears had acted as they never had before in the park’s 57-year history. Several miles apart, each bear had mauled a young woman on the same day, in the dark, early hours of August 13. Two 19-year-olds, Julie Helgeson, from Minnesota, and Michele Koons, from California, were both asleep under the big sky of northwest Montana, when grizzly bears found them and carried them off.  

Detailed in National Park Service reports and Jack Olsen’s 1969 book Night of the Grizzlies, these incidents marked Glacier’s first fatal bear maulings. The shocking attacks ushered in a new era for the National Park Service’s management of bears. In Glacier Park and in other parks nationwide, the lessons of that summer live on in warning signs, rules and policies created to avoid repeating the mistakes that led to tragedy 50 years ago.

Before then, the park service neglected to close trails where bear sightings were frequent. Littering was common and campsites overflowed with garbage that attracted animals. And in the summer of 1967, as forest fires drove bears further into populated areas, it was clear to some rangers that bears were living dangerously close to people. John Waller, a current supervisory wildlife biologist for the park, says the park service had known for a long time that feeding bears was unsafe. But it wasn’t until after the summer of 1967 that the agency recognized a need for dramatic changes in official park policy. The park quickly overhauled its practices and implemented precautions that are still in use today.

“Night of the Grizzlies,” as the events came to be known, “was really the wake up call,” he says. 

On August 12, 1967, Helgelson and Koons—both 19 at the time—embarked on respective overnight backpacking trips. Both were spending a summer working in one of the park’s lodges, Helgeson in East Glacier Lodge, Koons in West Glacier’s Lake McDonald Lodge.

Helgeson’s path was surrounded by vistas of glacial valleys and mountain peaks. Her excursion took her from Logan Pass, roughly eight miles up the popular Highline Trail to the Granite Park Chalet. She and a friend, Roy Ducat, arrived at about 7 p.m., ate their sack dinners and watched the sunset before retiring for the night.

Helgeson and Ducat tucked into their sleeping bags outside, near the chalet, packed with guests during the busy summer season.

Shortly after midnight, a grizzly bear meandered toward the campers.

Ducat would later tell investigators Helgelson had seen the bear and woke Ducat telling him to play dead. The grizzly knocked the pair out of their sleeping bags and within minutes, the bear had sunk its teeth into each of them. It focused on Helgeson, dragging her about 100 yards away.

“Someone help us!” she screamed as the bear dragged her off. Ducat, his arm badly mangled, ran to wake other campers nearby.

Help arrived for Ducat in the form of a helicopter with medical supplies, but an overly cautious ranger held up the search party, fearful of putting more visitors at risk. Nearly two hours passed before the group departed on its mission to rescue Helgeson. After Ducat was taken to a hospital, and a ranger armed with a rifle had arrived, the group followed a blood trail downhill from the campsite.

A contemporary view of the Granite Park Chalet. (Courtesy of Bert Gildart)

Soon, they heard a noise and spotted Helgeson facedown, not far below. A doctor staying at the chalet attended to her.

“It hurts,” she said several times.

The group carried her back to the chalet, where a helicopter would arrive to take her to a hospital. She reached the chalet by 3:45 a.m. but died soon thereafter, minutes before the aircraft landed.

As Helgelson departed on her fateful hike, Koons was joining four fellow park employees on a steep eight-mile journey to Trout Lake. A grizzly crashed their campsite at about 8 p.m. as they cooked hotdogs and fresh fish. The campers ran and waited as the bear gobbled up their dinner and scrambled away with one of their backpacks. The party moved their gear, bringing some cookies and Cheez-Its, to the beach. In a ring around a campfire, they settled into their sleeping bags.

At about 4:30 a.m., the grizzly reappeared at Koons’ camp. It sniffed around, biting into one of the young men’s sleeping bags and clawing his sweatshirt. One by one, the campers jumped and climbed up trees. From their perches, they yelled at Koons to join them. But before she could, the bear tore into her sleeping bag and began dragging her away.  

“He’s got my arm off,” the others heard her say. “Oh God, I’m dead,” she said.

The party stayed in the trees for about an hour-and-a-half before running down the trail to the nearest ranger station.

Seasonal rangers Leonard Landa and Bert Gildart had gone to sleep with knowledge of the Granite Park Chalet mauling. Gildart had heard the calls for help over the radio and helped dispatch emergency responders. Landa stayed awake listening to the radio traffic. When both men learned of the Trout Lake mauling later that morning, they were confused and in disbelief.

The rangers were sent to search for Koons. Landa left first with some of Koons’ fellow hikers. Gildart, filled with adrenaline, hurried up the trail to join them.

“We were all a little spooked by this time,” Gildart says, reflecting on the events of 50 years ago. “Here’s a bear that’s pulled a girl out of a sleeping bag. What kind of a creature is this?”

Minutes after they reached the campsite and fanned out, Gildart recalls Landa whispering, “Bert, here she is.” The young woman’s mutilated body was lifted out of the backcountry by helicopter.

The rangers were stunned by the night’s parallel events but not by the problem bears. Landa knew that a bear had been harassing campers at Trout Lake and another nearby camp. And Gildart and seasonal wildlife biologist David Shea had four days prior hiked to Granite Park Chalet to confirm another rumor they’d heard: Bears were feeding nightly on table scraps from boarders at the chalet.

“We got up there and we were absolutely astounded that people were standing around throwing food out to the bears,” Gildart recalls.

The routine had become a spectacle for visitors.

“It was basically an incident waiting to happen,” says Shea, who spent 36 seasons working in the park.

The garbage problem wasn’t isolated to Granite Park. Campsites all around Glacier were not well-maintained. Visitors, sloppy with their trash, frequently abandoned it. Gildart later collected 17 bags of garbage from the Trout Lake site.

The day after the deadly attacks, Gildart and Landa headed to look for the suspect bear at Trout Lake. Gildart spotted it at 4 a.m. when he stepped outside of the patrol cabin where the men were spending the night. He called for Landa to bring a gun. Within minutes, the bear charged at them and both men fired, killing it.

A forensic investigator came to collect the bear. “They had a big knife,” Gildart recalls. “They slit the stomach of this bear, and a big ball of blonde hair came out.”

Shea also was on the hunt for the suspect bear at Granite Park Chalet. In total, the park’s staff shot three bears, including the one believed to have killed Helgeson.

In his book, Jack Olsen indicted the park service for its irresponsible treatment of bears.

Olsen, a journalist and prolific author of true crime books, investigated the killings for a three-part series published in Sports Illustrated. His reporting was republished as Night of the Grizzlies. The best-seller was reprinted in 1996, and visitors will still spot people reading the book in the lobbies of Glacier Park's lodges.

“It is pure coincidence indeed that two grizzlies chose a few hours of a single night to take two victims who had much in common,” he wrote, “but it is no coincidence at all that the year in which this happened was 1967, and place Glacier Park.”

“It was a lightning bolt right to the core of the whole National Park Service nationwide,” says Waller, the current staffer at Glacier.

Today, a visit to Glacier National Park carries warnings about grizzly bears. (Emily E. Smith)

In the aftermath of the attacks, the park initiated a strict “pack in, pack out” policy. Dumps were eliminated. Rangers ticketed visitors who fed bears and kicked out campers with messy campsites. When grizzlies frequented trails, the areas were closed until the bears moved on. Warnings and tips on bear safety were posted throughout the park. The park set rules for food storage, installed bear-proof trash cans and devised off-the-ground storage for backcountry campers. A new permit system limited the number of campers in the backcountry and required them to sleep in designated campsites, a distance away from cooking areas.

The events of August 13 were a pivotal moment, Waller says, giving rise to a “leave no trace” ethic in the outdoors. The result has been increased safety for people and bears, he said.

The new practices soon spread to other national parks in which bears lived. By 1970, Yellowstone, the other park in the lower 48 where people were most likely to encounter a grizzly, had enacted many of the same policies.

“The tragedy of [that night],” Landa says, “is that two lives were lost.” But Shea adds that the “common sense” precautions that hikers follow today are the good that came of the horror.


Searching to Find Who Attacked Pearl Harbor and Why

In an audience with Hirohito on December 26, Mitsuo Fuchida, Admiral Nagumo, Captain Osami Nagano, and the leader of the second wave of attackers at Pearl Harbor, Shigekazu Shimazaki, presented the emperor with photographs of the cataclysmic destruction of the Pacific Fleet. The audience was supposed to last for thirty minutes, but Hirohito was so fascinated by the photographs that he extended it to almost two hours.

“Are there any other questions, Your Majesty?” Nagano asked.

“Not particularly . . . ” the emperor replied. Then, after a few moments, he asked: “Are you going to take these pictures with you when you go?”

“We’ll put a cover on it and present it to Your Majesty later,” Nagano said.

“Oh, you could put the cover on later,” Hirohito replied. “I’d like to show this to the empress now.” The emperor shuffled away clutching ten photographs, and the warriors bowed obediently. Hirohito knew that the attack had saved his throne and his dynasty from revolution, at least for the time being, and he may have hoped that the catastrophes of Pearl Harbor and Clark Field had convinced the Americans to be reasonable. A pilot who had strafed Officer’s Row hoping to kill a few admirals had been harshly rebuked when he reported back to his carrier. The Japanese wanted the attack to be conducted with chivalry, as in the hostilities with Russia in 1904 and with the Kaiser’s forces in 1914, so they could negotiate a peace as honorable men and not as the rapists of Nanking.

Three days after the attack on Pearl Harbor, Henry Morgenthau Jr. asked J. Edgar Hoover what he thought about rounding up the entire Japanese and Japanese-American population of the west coast. Hoover was appalled and bluntly told Morgenthau that Attorney General Francis Biddle would not approve any “dragnet or round-up procedure.” Many of these ethnic Japanese were American citizens, Hoover reminded Morgenthau, and such an action would be illegal. He also knew that such a move was unnecessary. Based on information from loyal Japanese-Americans, including Togo Tanaka, and from Korean dissidents, including Kilsoo Haan, as well as information obtained by burglarizing the Japanese consulate in Los Angeles and the Black Dragon Society’s office, Hoover had a comprehensive list of people he wanted to arrest, and he had already started.

“We think the Japanese Government is stupid and has embarked on a campaign it has absolutely no chance of winning,” Togo Tanaka had written in a newspaper editorial published on December 8. The Japanese-American community “had not been in sympathy with Japan’s expansion program,” he insisted. Tanaka was arrested the same day, with no explanation, and was in custody as Hoover spoke to Morgenthau and opposed a wholesale round-up. Tanaka was held for eleven days and then released without formal charges or an explanation. Officials from the War Department—more political than the FBI and less informed about legality—had interrogated Tanaka about his loyalties earlier when he had asked if his bilingual newspaper could keep publishing in case of war with Japan.

Tanaka estimated that about 5 percent of the Japanese-born population might be suspect. He divided the suspects about evenly into aka, “reds,” who tended to be educated but unsuccessful, and ultra-nationalists, who tended to be thick-headed and unable to learn English. Within three weeks of the attack on Pearl Harbor, the FBI, the Bureau of Naval intelligence, and the Bureau of Army Intelligence had arrested 2,192 Japanese within the continental United States and another 879 in Hawaii. Some of these people were actually dangerous—even under detention, Japanese fanatics murdered a couple Japanese-Americans for their loyalty to the United States—but many others were simply victims of circumstance.

On March 18, 1942, Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9102, establishing the War Relocation Authority, which Senator Robert Taft called the sloppiest criminal law he had ever heard of. Japanese-Americans born and raised in the United States, many of them Christians, many of them graduates of American high schools and colleges, were moved on a few days’ notice to ten concentration camps in isolated mountain and desert locations. Some collapsed of heat stroke before they arrived at the hastily constructed tar-paper and clapboard barracks, where multiple families shared a single room.

By June 7, 112,000 American men, women, and children were interned behind barbed wire, eating wretched food in harsh climates. About a dozen inmates were shot dead by guards, and many others were beaten, sometimes to avenge a fallen brother or friend, sometimes because they wandered outside the safety zone, often trying to catch fish to supplement their rations. Many elderly Japanese succumbed to culture shock and simply gave up the will to live. Eleanor Roosevelt spoke out against the internments—the relocated Japanese artist Chiura Obata sent her one of his paintings as a sign of gratitude—and Attorney General Biddle moved behind the scenes to liberalize a release program for Japanese-Americans who could prove their loyalty.

On December 11, 1941, four days after Pearl Harbor, Hitler spontaneously declared war on the United States. With the Wehrmacht at the gates of Moscow and Leningrad, Russian morale was crumbling. NKVD detachments were being placed behind Red Army positions to shoot deserters. Then hundreds of thousands of reinforcements and more than a thousand tanks arrived from Siberia and Mongolia, freed up by the Japanese war with the United States. Snow fell at the same time, and the Russians stopped the Wehrmacht in its tracks, saved Moscow and Leningrad, and drove the Germans into a limited retreat.

Vitalii Pavlov’s lunch date with Harry Dexter White at the Old Ebbitt Grill might have been the Soviets’ most important strategic maneuver.

On January 20, 1942, SS-Obergruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich convened a conference at Wannsee, a suburb of Berlin, to plot the fate of Europe’s Jews. Heydrich must have known, though he did not mention it, that with both Russia and America in the war and with the German invasion of Russia repulsed, Germany faced a long and perhaps unwinnable war. The large-scale relocation of the millions of Jews now under the control of the Third Reich was no longer practicable, and Heydrich presented a program of extermination.

Under proper guidance, in the course of the final solution the Jews are to be allocated for appropriate labor in the East. Able-bodied Jews, separated according to sex, will be taken in large work columns to these areas for work on roads, in the course of which action doubtless a large portion will be eliminated by natural causes. The possible final remnant will, since it will undoubtedly consist of the most resistant portion, have to be treated accordingly, because it is the product of natural selection and would, if released, act as the seed of a new Jewish revival. See the experience of history.

Thus with a nod to Darwin, Heydrich signed the death warrant of the Jews as a race. He exempted those over sixty-five because they were unlikely to breed and those who had been crippled or decorated in World War I for patriotic reasons. Everyone else was to be murdered. Pearl Harbor had saved Stalin. After determining who attacked Pearl Harbor and why, the entry of America into the war, with the maniacal cooperation of Hitler, had touched off the Final Solution.

This article on who attacked Pearl Harbor and why is part of our larger selection of posts about the Pearl Harbor attack. To learn more, click here for our comprehensive guide to Pearl Harbor.

This article is from the book Operation Snow: How a Soviet Mole in FDR’s White House Triggered Pearl Harbor © 2012 by John Koster. Please use this data for any reference citations. To order this book, please visit its online sales page at Amazon or Barnes & Noble.

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Omagh bombing: Key events before and after the attack

On August 15th, 1998, a dissident republican car bomb ripped through the Co Tyrone market town of Omagh. The attack claimed the lives of 29 people and injured more than 200 others. Footage: Reuters

On August 15th, 1998, a dissident republican car bomb ripped through the Co Tyrone market town of Omagh.

The attack, which came four months after the signing of the Belfast Agreement, was the single deadliest atrocity in the history of the Troubles.

This is a timeline of the main events leading up to and beyond the Real IRA bomb explosion, which claimed the lives of 29 people, including a woman pregnant with twins.

Thursday, August 13th, 1998

A red Vauxhall Cavalier — reg 91 DL 2554 — is stolen in Carrickmacross, Co Monaghan, in the Irish Republic.

Saturday, August 15th

14.00: The same car, now carrying the fake Northern Ireland reg MDZ 5211, is driven into Market Street, Omagh, and parked outside SD Kells clothes shop. Two male occupants are seen walking away in the direction of Campsie Road.

14.30: A man phones Ulster Television (UTV) newsroom with a bomb warning: “There’s a bomb, courthouse, Omagh, main street, 500lb, explosion 30 minutes.” The caller gives the Real IRA codeword: Martha Pope.

14.32: Samaritans office in Coleraine is called with another warning. “Am I through to Omagh? This is a bomb warning. It’s going to go off in 30 minutes.” The caller said the bomb was 200 yards from courthouse. He also gave codeword Martha Pope.

14.35: UTV receives another phone warning: “Bomb, Omagh town, 15 minutes.” Two of these warnings were phoned from a call box in Forkhill, south Armagh. The third was made from a phone box in Newtownhamilton, also in south Armagh.

14.31-1510: UTV and Samaritans both place emergency calls to the Royal Ulster Constabulary control centre. Message immediately passed to officers in Omagh and evacuation operation commences.

There was no street named Main Street in Omagh. The only target specified was the courthouse, which was at the top of High Street at the west end of the town. The car had actually been parked at the east end of the town, on Market Street, more than 500 yards from the court.

Police cordon off High Street and move shoppers and shop owners down to Market Street before commencing a search round the courthouse.

As a result all the people who had been in Omagh town centre when the warning came through had now assembled in Market Street, yards from the red Cavalier.

Among those gathered was a group of Spanish students who were spending the summer in Buncrana. They had gone to Omagh for the day along with a number of local children from the Co Donegal town.

15.10: A 500lb bomb packed in the Cavalier is detonated with a remote trigger. The explosion tears through Market Street. Shop fronts on both sides are blown back on top of customers still inside.

Glass, masonry and metal tears through the crowd on the street as a fireball sweeps out from the epicentre. Twenty-one people are killed instantly — some of their bodies were never found, such was the force of the blast. A water main under the road ruptures. Gallons of water gushes out. Some of the dead and badly injured are washed down the hill.

15.10: Emergency operation begins. The two ambulance crews on call at the nearby Tyrone County Hospital arrive at the scene within minutes. Survivors are already tending to the injured and covering the dead.

Civilians who had been on nearby streets also rush to the scene to help. People grab medical supplies from a chemist’s shop while linen from a drapers is used to cover the victims.

Buses are commandeered from the nearby Ulster bus station to help take the injured to hospital. Shelves and doors are used as makeshift stretchers.

As news of the attack filters through, off-duty medical personnel head for the hospital. As well as those who died, more than 300 people were injured in the blast.

Army helicopters are scrambled to help the ambulance service ferry patients from the swamped Tyrone hospital to other medical centres.

Omagh’s leisure centre is transformed into an incident centre, with hundreds of relatives gathering there waiting for news on loved ones.

Inundated with calls, the Tyrone County Hospital phone system crashes. Staff ask members of the public for mobile phones to contact other hospitals. A temporary morgue is set up in a British Army base in the town.

Sunday, August 16th

Relatives of those people still unaccounted for wait at the leisure centre overnight.

12.00: The identity of the 28th victim who died on the day is revealed. (61-year-old year Sean McGrath would die a month later from injuries sustained in the bomb.)

12.45: RUC chief constable Ronnie Flanagan addresses the world’s press at the scene. “This is an attack, not carried out against the police or the army, but against the people of Omagh. We have had men, women and children slaughtered, slaughtered by murderers who want to murder, slaughtered by murderers who have nothing else to offer but murder, people who gave us a totally inaccurate warning, people who phoned to say there was a bomb close to the courthouse and as our officers searched and moved people from the area of the courthouse, a bomb detonated some 400 yards away.”

Queen Elizabeth II, prime minister Tony Blair, President Mary McAleese, Taoiseach Bertie Ahern, US president Bill Clinton and local politicians all voice their condemnation. Significantly Sinn Féin figures such as Gerry Adams and Martin McGuinness also condemn the attack — the first time they had unequivocally denounced a republican terrorist bombing.

Tuesday, August 18th

The Real IRA admits responsibility for the attack. The group claims its target was commercial and not civilian and blames loss of life on failure of RUC to respond to “clear” warnings. Northern Ireland Secretary Mo Mowlam describes the statement as “a pathetic excuse for mass murder”.

Saturday, August 22nd

One week after the attack a day of reflection is held. An estimated 60,000 people gather in Omagh with thousands more attending vigils in other towns and cities across Ireland.

In Omagh, a service is conducted by church leaders on the steps of the courthouse. The event is best remembered for a moving performance by local singer Juliet Turner, whose ballad Broken Things was beamed across the world.

September 22nd, 1998

The RUC and Garda Síochána arrest 12 men in connection with the bombing. They subsequently released all of them without charge.

February 22nd, 1999

Seven men are arrested in a joint RUC-Garda operation.

February 25th, 1999

Colm Murphy is charged with conspiracy to cause an explosion likely to endanger life or cause injury. The 48-year-old from Ravensdale, Co Louth, was also charged with membership of an unlawful organisation — the so-called Real IRA.

September 2000

At the inquest into the deaths of 29 people in the Omagh bomb, Coroner John Leckey says he will press the courts to prosecute the bombers with the destruction of unborn twins. Avril Monaghan had been pregnant with twins when she was killed. Mr Leckey said he was in no doubt that 31 people were killed in the bomb and that he would write to the Director of Public Prosecutions to ask him to consider charging anyone apprehended for the bombing with child destruction.

August 15th, 2001

A report by the Police Ombudsman finds that the RUC Special Branch failed to act on prior warnings and slammed the RUC’s investigation of the bombing.

January 23rd, 2002

Colm Murphy is found guilty by the Dublin special criminal court of conspiracy to cause the Omagh bombing. He is the only person yet convicted in connection with the explosion. He is jailed for 14 years.

May 26th, 2005

Sean Hoey, of Molly Road, Jonesborough, Co Armagh, was formally charged in court with the murder of the 29 people killed in the Omagh bomb. He was the first person to face a murder charge in relation to the attack.

December 20th, 2007

Hoey is found not guilty of 58 charges, including the murders of 29 people in the Omagh bombing. Clearing Mr Hoey, the judge criticises police witnesses for “deliberate and calculated deception” during the 10-month trial.

April 7th, 2008

The families of some of the victims of the bomb begin a landmark civil case, suing five men they claim were involved.

August 2008

A memorial garden is opened in Omagh to remember the victims of the blast, as well as a monument on the site where the bomb exploded.

June 8th, 2009

The judge in the civil trial rules that Michael McKevitt, Liam Campbell, Colm Murphy and Seamus Daly were all liable for the Omagh bomb. He orders them to pay a total of £1.6m damages to 12 relatives who took the case. A fifth man, Seamus McKenna, is cleared of liability for the bombing.

July 7th, 2011

Michael McKevitt and Liam Campbell lose their appeal against the civil trial verdict. Colm Murphy and Seamus Daly both win their appeals.

March 20th, 2013

Mr Murphy and Mr Daly are both found liable for the Omagh bombing after a civil retrial.

April 10th, 2014

Mr Daly is charged with the murders of 29 people in the Omagh bombing.

March 1st, 2016

The prosecution case against Mr Daly collapses. The Public Prosecution Service decides there is no reasonable prospect of conviction after a key witness contradicted his own previous testimony. Mr Daly has always denied any involvement in the bombing.

September 29th, 2016

A bid by Liam Campbell and Michael McKevitt to overturn a landmark civil ruling that found them liable for the Omagh bomb was rejected by the European Court of Human Rights.

August 2017

Relatives of Omagh bomb victims sue PSNI Chief Constable George Hamilton for investigative failings they believe let the killers escape justice. The bereaved families issued a writ against the chief constable seeking damages and a declaration their human rights have been breached

July 3rd, 2018

A legal challenge to the government’s refusal to hold a public inquiry into the Omagh bombing is pushed back to 2019. Michael Gallagher, whose son Aiden died in the attack, is taking legal action against former Northern Ireland secretary of state Theresa Villiers. The case was due to be heard at the High Court in Belfast. Proceedings were adjourned to February 2019 after issues of national security were raised in a closed session. – PA


During the Attack on Pearl Harbor, Canada Declared War One Day Earlier Than America

The attack on Pearl Harbor marked the beginning of American involvement in the Second World War. The Japanese provocation, which occurred before any official declaration of war, followed a pattern developed in Europe by none other than Adolf Hitler, who conquered the so-called neutral countries of Benelux without declaring war.

The United States was, of course, caught off guard and the attack was a serious blow, militarily and to public morale. But even though it was perceived as a provocation intended to draw the U.S. into the war, the Japanese surprise raid on Hawaii had a much more important strategic role.

On the day of 7th December 1941, when the attack commenced, the Japanese High Command was already preparing to launch an offensive on territories in Asia held by the USA, the Netherlands, and the UK. Since Canada, as part of the Commonwealth army, declared war on Nazi Germany just one week after the British did, their troops were already integrated into British garrisons in Asia.

So, when Pearl Harbor was attacked, it was to prevent the U.S. Pacific Fleet from reinforcing Allied troops in Asia and conducting a counter-offensive.

Photograph of Battleship Row taken from a Japanese plane at the beginning of the attack. The explosion in the center is a torpedo strike on USS West Virginia. Two attacking Japanese planes can be seen: one over USS Neosho and one over the Naval Yard.

Within seven hours of the attack on Pearl Harbor, Allied positions in the Philippines, Guam, Wake Island Malaya, Singapore, and Hong Kong were stormed by force and taken with relative ease. Nevertheless, some audacious last stands took place during the offensive as Allied soldiers stood their ground against the powerful and well-coordinated attack.

In Hong Kong, members of two infantry battalions – the Royal Rifles of Canada from Québec and the Winnipeg Grenadiers – formed part of the British garrison which was to hold out for the help that never came.

There were 1,975 Canadians among the defenders, who had arrived only weeks before the offensive commenced. The lack of experience was quickly remedied in the heat of battle, but 290 members of the Royal Canadian Army gave their lives in defense of the city.

One hero, Company Sergeant-Major John Osborn, was awarded the Victoria Cross posthumously, after he jumped on a grenade, using his body to protect several others from the blast. The siege was cruel and bloody, but the defeat was inevitable and imminent.

Company Sergeant-Major J.R. Osborn of “A” Company, The Winnipeg Grenadiers, Jamaica, ca. 1940–1941

The defenders of Hong Kong that survived faced the hell of Japanese concentration camps as POWs, where 264 of them lost their lives during the four years that followed.

Aa well as Canada’s commitment of troops on the ground, the Royal Canadian Air Force also played a vital role during the first days of the war with Japan.

Fighting as part of the RAF, hundreds of Canadian pilots defended the skies above Malaya, Singapore, Java (now Indonesia), Burma (now Myanmar) and India.

Perhaps the most notable achievement of the early days of the war in the Pacific attributed to Canadian pilots happened in April 1942, when an early warning by the 413 General Surveillance Squadron literally prevented the invasion of the island of Ceylon (today’s Sri Lanka), just off the southeast coast of India. Squadron Leader Leonard Birchall was on patrol in his Consolidated Catalina flying boat on the 4th of April, when he detected the Japanese fleet moving in full force towards the island.

King (back left) with (counterclockwise from King) Franklin D. Roosevelt, Governor General the Earl of Athlone and Winston Churchill during the Quebec Conference in 1943

Even though the Japanese shot him down as soon as he was spotted, Birchall managed to transfer a message, warning the Ceylon garrison that a naval assault was inbound. The flying boat crash-landed in the ocean, where the Japanese were waiting for them. Three crewmembers were shot on sight, while Birchall and the others were taken, prisoner.

Leonard Birchall remained imprisoned until the end of the war not really knowing of his key contribution to the defense of Ceylon. Once his message was received, preparations commenced ― and just in time ― for the defenders managed to repel the invasion. A few weeks after, the Japanese faced a strategic defeat in the Battle of the Coral Sea, after which India remained out of reach for the rest of the war.

The men who were part of the patrol on the 4th of April were dubbed the “Saviours of Ceylon” and their contribution was officially recognized after the war. Birchall was not only awarded for his distinguished flying but also for showing leadership in times of need while being a prisoner of war in extremely harsh conditions.

Canadian involvement during the early days of the Pacific campaign is often overlooked, but the fact is the bravery and valor of the Canadian expedition which fought as part of the British army were indeed worthy of respect. They continued to contribute to the war effort and ultimately proceeded to liberate Europe as part of the Allied invasion of Normandy in 1944.


Pearl Harbor aftermath: the fallout from the attack

Stefanos Vasilakes was the embodiment of all that was great about the United States of America. After arriving from Greece in 1910, he had set up a hot peanuts and fresh popped corn cart on the corner of Pennsylvania Avenue and East Executive Avenue in Washington DC. The spot was actually White House property, but none of the occupiers minded when he sold the best peanuts in town. Presidents Taft, Wilson, Harding and Roosevelt had all been customers, as had Coolidge, who described Vasilakes as his “contact man” with the American public. To reporters, Vasilakes represented the “little man” of the nation.

And on the afternoon of Sunday 7 December the “little man” was livid. When the reporter from Washington’s Evening Star newspaper arrived outside the White House en route to a press conference, hastily called after news broke of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, he found an agitated Vasilakes. “Steve was too excited to talk clearly,” wrote the reporter. “And about all he could say was: ‘Just three months, we finish them.’”

The fury of Vasilakes and the rest of the US public at Japan’s ‘sneak attack’ united the country in an instant. On the Sunday afternoon, President Roosevelt met first with his cabinet and then with a delegation from the House of Repres­entatives and the Senate. The next day, Congress voted on whether to sanction FDR’s wish to go to war with Japan, and only the pacifist Jeannette Rankin dissented. For that stance she was scorned by the American people, as were the few isolationists who continued to argue against involvement in armed conflict. One of the most vociferous of these prior to Pearl Harbor had been the celebrated aviator Charles Lindbergh, an ardent admirer of Nazi Germany and a man who used his fame to demand that Roosevelt keep the country out of a European war.

In May 1940, Lindbergh, a prominent figure in the isolationist America First Committee, had addressed the nation in a radio broadcast, ridiculing FDR’s warnings that the US was in danger. The country was under threat from no one, said Lindbergh (pictured right in April 1941), unless “American peoples bring it on”. He added: “There will be no invasion by foreign aircraft, and no foreign navy will dare to approach within bombing range of our coasts.”

But Japan had dared, and with devastating consequences. As one newspaper, the Wilmington Morning Star, put it in an editorial: “Japan’s Sunday attack on American outposts ended American isolationism. Leaders of that movement, with the exception of Charles Lindbergh, who has gone into seclusion, lost no time in making it clear that they underwent a change of heart forthwith.”

Aiding the allies

This transformation was welcomed by Roosevelt, who from early in the war had recognised the danger posed by the ruthless ambition of Nazi Germany. In September 1940, Adolf Hitler had signed a Tripartite Pact with Italy and Japan, and on 29 December that year – following his recent historic re-election to a third term of office – Roosevelt addressed the nation in one of his ‘fireside chats’ on the radio. “If Great Britain goes down, the Axis powers will control the continents of Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia and the high seas,” he warned. “It is no exaggeration to say that all of us, in all the Americas, would be living at the point of a gun.”

Such rhetoric not only angered isolationists, it infuriated the Nazis. In September 1940, FDR had signed the Destroyers for Bases Agreement with Great Britain, transferring 50 destroyers to the Royal Navy in exchange for land rights on British possessions. In March 1941, he got his Lend-Lease bill through Congress in the face of fierce opposition from isolationists. Finally he was able to provide aid and military equipment to America’s allies, principally Britain.

By the time the US declared war on Germany and Italy on 11 December 1941, responding to declarations from those nations, the Nazis were putting their own spin on events, with Reich radio accusing Roosevelt of “continually war-mongering” since 1939. As a consequence, it said, the president “has at last got the war he has always been looking for”.

The anger that surged across the United States on 7 December was visceral but controlled. The Evening Star reported that Major Edward Kelly, superintendent of the metropolitan police, was summ­oned to the White House because there was “fear of a popular demonstration” against some of the Axis embassies. Guards were posted, but no baying mob appeared in search of bloody vengeance.

The reporter from the Star was surprised. So he toured downtown Washington to gauge the mood, and in doing so encountered “something of the strange psychological phenomenon” that was so palpable in London during the Blitz of 1940. “Folks wanted to be together,” he wrote. “Strangers spoke to strangers. A sense of comradeship of all the people was apparent.”

This feeling strengthened in the days that followed the Pearl Harbor attack, as stories emerged of unimaginable grief and suffering. In Wisconsin, Mr and Mrs Barber learned of the deaths of three of their sons, all firemen aboard the USS Oklahoma. “I’m glad they died like men and could give their lives for their country,” said their father, who just days before had received a photo of his sons aboard their ship. “When their [younger] brothers are old enough, I’m sure they will avenge their deaths.”

If the people responded to the attack with a dignified restraint, the same could not be said of many media outlets. Sens­at­ionalism abounded in those first frenetic hours after the attack, with fake news spreading like wildfire. “Japanese para­chute troops are reported in Honolulu,” reported CBS.
“At least five persons have been reported killed in the city of Honolulu. The Japanese dive bombers have been making continuous attacks, apparently from a Japanese aircraft carrier.”

Some news­papers spewed hatred, like the fiery editorial in the Los Angeles Times on 8 December. “Japan has asked for it,” stormed the paper. “Now she is going to get it. It was the act of a mad dog, a gangster’s parody of every principle of inter­national honour.”

Other papers expressed dismay that the States had been suckered by the Japanese. “It now turns out that Japan was one of our customers who wasn’t right,” said the Arkansas Gazette, a reference to the raw materials that had been shipped to Japan and then returned in the form of bombs.

But a common thread in the analysis was relief that the divisive question of whether the US should join the war had been settled. “The air is clearer,” declared the New York Herald Tribune. “Americans can get down to their task with old controversies forgotten.”

If Roosevelt was reassured with this unanimity, across the Atlantic in London, Winston Churchill was discreetly elated. He phoned FDR on Sunday evening to offer his sympathy and support. “We’ve got at least 2,000 men lost we’ve lost three destroyers, four battleships,” explained a dazed Roosevelt. “That’s fine, Mr President that’s fine,” replied Churchill, trying his best to soothe and reassure his friend and ally. The British prime minister had suffered similar agonies in his 18 months in the job, and while he was sincere in his grief for the president and his people, he knew what it meant for his beleaguered country now that the most powerful nation in the world had joined the fight. That evening, Churchill would later write, “being saturated and satiated with emotion and sensation, I went to bed and slept the sleep of the saved and thankful”.

Churchill’s immediate concern, however, was the news that, following Japan’s invasion of northern Malaya the day after Pearl Harbor was attacked, Britain was now engaged in war with two formidable adversaries. In a statement to the House of Commons shortly after the attack, Churchill said: “When we think of the insane ambition and insatiable appetite which have caused this vast and melancholy extension of the war, we can only feel that Hitler’s madness has infected the Japanese mind and the root of the evil and its branch must be extirpated together.”

Describing the attack on Pearl Harbor as an act of “calculated and characteristic Japanese treachery”, the prime minister was at his bellicose best in issuing a solemn warning. “No one can doubt that every effort to bring about a peace­ful solution had been made by the government of the United States and that immense patience and composure had been shown in the face of the growing Japanese menace. Now that the issue is joined in the most direct manner, it only remains for the two great democracies to face their task with whatever strength God may give them.”

But what military strength did the United States have? Thanks to Roosevelt’s foresight, more than its enemies imag­ined. In September 1940, Washington had passed the Selective Training and Service Act – the first peacetime conscription in US history, whereby all men between the ages of 21 and 36 were compelled to register with local draft boards if drafted, they served on active duty for 12 months. This was expanded to 30 months in August 1941, and following the attack on Pearl Harbor, an amendment to the act made all men between the ages of 20 and 44 liable for military service. There had been much grumbling among draftees before Pearl Harbor, but not afterwards, as outraged young men flocked to the colours. By May 1945, America boasted nearly 8.3 million active-duty soldiers, whereas six years earlier its army of 187,893 soldiers had been smaller than Portugal’s.

Firing on all cylinders

The US had the men to fight both the Japanese and the Germans, but did it have the machines and munitions? As Roosevelt told Congress a few weeks after the declaration of war, “Powerful enemies must be out-fought and out-produced.” It was a repeat of what he had told Americans in his fireside chat of 29 December 1940: that Britain was asking “for the implements of war, the planes, the tanks, the guns, the freighters which will enable them to fight for their liberty and for our security…. We must be the great arsenal of democracy.”

In May 1940, after Germany’s invasion of the Low Countries, the president had stated his wish “to see this nation geared up to the ability to turn out at least 50,000 planes a year”. Once war broke out, a revol­ution in the workplace was needed to achieve this. With young white men enlisting in their hundreds of thousands, their places on the production lines were taken by women and African-Americans – two demographics hitherto largely excluded from such employment. Both groups, especially the latter, encountered prej­udice, so FDR passed Executive Order 8802, which banned racial discrimination in federal defence industries and established the Fair Employment Practices Committee.

By 1943, some 310,000 women were working in the US aircraft industry – around 65 per cent of the industry’s total workforce, compared with just 1 per cent in the 1930s. For the majority, the work brought fulfilment and freedom. “My mother warned me when I took the job that I would never be the same,” said Inez Sauer, a tool clerk at Boeing. “At that time, I didn’t think it would change a thing. But she was right, it definitely did. At Boeing I found a freedom and an independence I had never known… The war changed my life completely. I guess you could say, at 31, I finally grew up.”

As the workers gained in confidence, the American war machine expanded, thanks to their industry in meeting Roosevelt’s demands. He wanted 60,000 aircraft in 1942 and 125,000 the year after, and he nearly got them, with the production of 171,257 aircraft by early 1944. That year alone, the US produced more planes than the Japanese did in the entire war. As for ships, the industry underwent an astonishing transformation at the hands of Henry J Kaiser, who hired most of his workforce from the “destitute labourers of the Dust Bowl states”. In 1941, it took 200 days to assemble one of Kaiser’s Liberty ships, weighing between 9,000 and 10,5000 tons by November 1942 it took just five days, and by 1943 these supply vessels were entering service at the rate of 140 a month.

Roosevelt’s “arsenal of democracy” cost money, of course, and to raise it, his government came up with several strategies, including the rationing of several important commodities, and the sale of war bonds to individuals and financial institutions. Selling the bonds relied on appealing to the nation’s patriotism, as they yielded a 2.9 per cent annual return with a 10-year maturity. Advertising campaigns helped with this – posters were emblazoned with the words: “The greatest investment on earth: For your country, your family, yourself.”

But while Roosevelt braced himself for a long and bitter struggle, he also yearned for a quick retaliatory strike. Four days before Christmas, he summ­oned his military chiefs to the White House and demanded they come up with a way of hitting the Japanese in their own backyard. The result was the ‘Doolittle raid’ of April 1942, when 16 modified B-25 bombers, led by Lieutenant Colonel James H Doolittle, took off from the aircraft carrier USS Hornet and flew 650 miles to strike targets on the Japanese mainland.

The material damage inflicted on Japan was slight, but the psychological hurt was immense. Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, the mastermind of the attack on Pearl Harbor, said it was “a disgrace that the skies over the imperial capital should have been defiled without a single enemy plane being shot down”.

Above all, the Doolittle mission was a huge fillip to Americans back home, one seized upon by the media. Describing the attack as a “daring raid”, Washington’s Evening Star showed no sympathy for Japan, which had, it said, “experienced for the first time in her history the destruction and terror of air assault which she has visited on scores of cities”.

Vasilakes, the presidential peanut vendor, had called on his compatriots to finish off Japan in three months. It would take four years – and an apocalyptic new weapon – for that to happen, and neither he nor President Roosevelt would live to see the end of a war that, for Americans, began with a day of infamy one December Sunday.

The injustice of internment

On 19 February 1942, President Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066, which permitted his secretary of war, Henry L Stimson, “to prescribe military areas in such places and of such extent as he, or the appropriate military commander, may determine”. In short, anyone considered an enemy alien could be rounded up and incarcerated in what were euphemistically called ‘relocation centres’, but in reality were internment camps. Particularly affected was the large Japanese-American community living on the Pacific coast: not only were an estimated 110,000 people interned, but the US Department of the Treasury froze the assets of all citizens and resident aliens who were born in Japan.

One of those detained was 28-year-old Roy Matsumoto – despite the fact he had been born and schooled in California. “It was very hard when I lost my freedom,” he recalled. “I lost just about everything – almost all my personal property and financial assets. The government’s excuse: it was enemy alien property. I was so mad.”

Matsumoto was one of the ‘lucky’ internees – in that, as a fit young man, he was given the chance to join the military as a ‘Nisei’ (US-born children of Japanese immigrants) interpreter. He subsequently served with distinction in Burma with the special forces unit Merrill’s Marauders, winning a Bronze Star for his courage. But most Japanese-Americans remained interned for the war’s duration.

It wasn’t until 1976 that President Gerald Ford officially rescinded Executive Order 9066, and in 1988 Congress passed the Civil Liberties Act, acknowledging that a “grave injustice” had been inflicted on Japanese-Americans during the war.


History

Year Event
c. 240 An epidemic leads to a significant drop in the worldwide population. With the power of the Founding Titan, the King of Eldia alters the biology of the Subjects of Ymir to give them immunity, and no Subject of Ymir dies to the epidemic. ⎜]
Unknown Eldia becomes allies with Hizuru. ⎝]
Unknown - c. 743: The Great Titan War Karl Fritz, the 145th monarch of the Fritz family, inherits the Founding Titan and succeeds his predecessor as the monarch of Eldia. Ashamed of Eldia's history of genocide and civil war, Fritz conspires with the Tybur family, an Eldian house possessing the War Hammer Titan, to bring about Eldia's downfall.

The Tybur family fabricates the story of a Marleyan man named Helos to instigate the Eldian in-fighting and serve as a hero for the oppressed people of Marley. ⎞]

Karl Fritz gathers most of the Fritz royal family to Paradis Island, Eldia's last remaining undisputed territory, ⎟] and moves the capital to that island, abandoning the conflict between the eight other Titan houses. He also invites Asians from the Shogun clan of Hizuru. ⎠] Some Fritz royals disagree with the King's decision to abandon the war, and remain behind in the mainland. ⎡] In the King's absence, the other eight Houses wage civil war. ⎢] ⎘]

The surviving Marleyans took advantage of this and incited a rebellion. The Tybur family is the first to side with the Marleyan uprising. ⎣]

Over the course of the war, the Marleyans succeed in gaining the power of six more of the Nine Titans possessed by Eldia: the Colossus Titan, the Armored Titan, the Female Titan, the Beast Titan, the Cart Titan, and the Jaw Titan.

Using the seven Titans, Marley gradually gains control of the continent. ⎢] ⎤]

King Fritz uses the Founding Titan to create and order countless Colossus Titans to form the three concentric Walls—Maria, Rose, and Sheena—to protect the remnants of Eldia. ⎥]

The Great Titan War ends. The nation of Marley would retain control of a large portion of the world beyond Paradis Island throughout the next century, using the power of the Titans. ⎧] Hizuru's reputation is tarnished due to their association with Eldia. ⎨]

The Eldians who did not flee overseas would become low-class citizens of Marley, forced to live in internment zones separate from the rest of the population. ⎩]

After gaining control over the mainland, the Marley government promotes the story that Ymir Fritz had gained the Titan's power through a deal with the "Devil of All Earth," who was slain by their hero Helos during the war. ΐ] ⎪] ⎫]

King Fritz informs both the Fritz family in Marley and the Tybur family that he has made a vow renouncing war to the Founding Titan, and that there will be no retaliation if and when Marley chooses to enact a final solution against Eldia. ⎬] However, he asks that he and his people should be given a brief age of peace before their retribution. ⎭] ⎮]

The King uses the power of the Founding Titan to erase the memories of the Subjects of Ymir. The Subjects successfully forget their history, but minority groups not sharing the majority's common bloodline such as the Ackerman clan and the Asian clan are unaffected by the mind wipe. Many of the minority groups swear to secrecy at the King's request and gain noble status, ⎯] but the Ackerman and Asian groups give up said status, turn against King Fritz, and are hunted down. ⎰]

For the safe-keeping of the Founding Titan, the royal family lives in hiding as the noble Reiss family while another bloodline takes the place of the Fritz family as a false monarchy. ⎱]

The 145th Fritz King, now the First Reiss King, creates an underground cavern where the Founding Titan can be passed down to successors within the royal family. Some time afterward, a chapel is built above the entrance to the cavern. ⎲]

Plans are made for underground districts within the Walls, but these plans are eventually abandoned at the behest of the Church of the Walls. ⎵]

Kenny Ackerman, a criminal in the underground city of the Walls, is told the history of the Ackerman clan's persecution. ⏉] He attempts to assassinate the true king Uri Reiss, but fails. Uri chooses to forgive Kenny and offer his apologies for the crimes committed against the Ackerman clan. Kenny becomes Uri's right hand man and eventually joins the First Interior Squad. The persecution of the Ackerman clan ends. ⏊]

Kenny Ackerman discovers his little sister Kuchel Ackerman, a brothel worker in the underground, has become ill and died. Within the underground, he raises her son Levi Ackerman for an unspecified amount of time before leaving him. ⏋] ⏌]

After hearing of Marley's plans through information from the Owl, Grisha urges Zeke to join the Warriors as a double agent. ⏏]

After torturous interrogation at the hands of the Marleyans overseen by Officer Kruger, the Eldian Restorationists are sent to Paradis Island. Many of the Restorationists, including Dina Fritz, are turned into Pure Titans. Kruger turns against the Marleyans before Grisha was to be killed, revealing himself to be the Owl and an inheritor of one of the Nine Titans. In his Titan form, Kruger kills the soldiers of Marley. ⏓] ⏔]

Kruger informs Grisha of his past, the nature of the Titan's power and the "Curse of Ymir," and his desire to see the Founding Titan retrieved from the Walls. Grisha reluctantly accepts the duty from Kruger, turning into a Titan and eating Kruger, inheriting the power of the Attack Titan. Grisha transforms for the first time and uses the Attack Titan to safely reach the Walls. ⏕] ⏖]

Some time later, Keith Shadis of the Survey Corps discovers Grisha Yeager outside the Walls of Shiganshina District in a state of amnesia. He takes him into Shiganshina and teaches him of human life within the Walls. ⏗]

August 1 - Reiner Braun is born to Karina Braun and her Marleyan lover in Liberio. ⏘]

The 11th Commander of the Survey Corps is killed beyond the Walls. The position of Commander is given to Keith Shadis. ⏚]

Grisha Yeager marries Carla, a tavern keeper from Shiganshina. ⏛] While starting a new family, he provides medical services for the nobility in the interior and gaining information needed to locate the true royal family on Paradis. ⏜]

Keith Shadis' reputation is heavily damaged after the Survey Corps base beyond the Walls is overrun by Titans. ⏝]

Erwin Smith presents his plans for the long-distance enemy scouting formation to Commander Keith, but his idea is rejected at the time. ⏝]

January 15 - Historia Reiss is born to Rod Reiss and his mistress Alma. ⏡] ⏟]

March 30 - Eren Yeager is born to Grisha and Carla Yeager. ⏢] ⏟]

Zeke Yeager inherits the power of the Beast Titan from his mentor, Tom Ksaver. ⏥] ⏦]

April 14 - Gabi Braun is born in the Liberio internment zone. ⏧] ⏨] ⎽]

The Warriors are sent to war against an enemy nation of Marley, quickly eradicating the opposing forces. ⏪]

In her home, Mikasa Ackerman is abducted by human traffickers after her parents are killed. She is rescued by Eren Yeager, who kills two of the traffickers. Mikasa uses her newly awakened power as an Ackerman to kill the third. She is later taken in to the Yeager family. ⏭] ⏮]

The capital of an enemy nation of Marley is conquered in a single night by hundreds of Titans controlled by Zeke Yeager's Beast Titan. ⏯]

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