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Maori Chief with Beached Waka

Maori Chief with Beached Waka


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Ngāti Kahungunu

Ngāti Kahungunu is a Māori iwi (tribe) located along the eastern coast of the North Island of New Zealand. The iwi is traditionally centred in the Hawke's Bay and Wairārapa regions.

Ngāti Kahungunu
Iwi (tribe) in Māoridom
Rohe (region)Hawke’s Bay, and Wairārapa regions
Waka (canoe)Tākitimu
Population61,626 (c. 2013)
Websitehttp://www.kahungunu.iwi.nz

The tribe is organised into six geographical and administrative divisions: Wairoa, Te Whanganui-ā-Orotū, Heretaunga, Tamatea, Tāmaki-nui-a Rua and Wairarapa. It is the third largest iwi in New Zealand by population, with 61,626 people (9.2% of the Māori population) identifying as Ngāti Kahungunu in the 2013 census. [1]


Gottfried Lindauer, Tamati Waka Nene

Māori are the indigenous people of New Zealand. The subject of this portrait, Tamati Waka Nene, was a Rangatira or chief of the Ngāti Hao people in Hokianga, of the Ngāpuhi iwi or tribe, and an important war leader. He was probably born in the 1780s, and died in 1871. He lived through a time of rapid change in New Zealand, when the first British missionaries and settlers were arriving and changing the Māori world forever. An astute leader and businessman, Nene exemplified the types of changes that were occurring when he converted to the Wesleyan faith and was baptised in 1839, choosing to be named Tamati Waka after Thomas Walker, who was an English merchant patron of the Church Missionary Society. He was revered throughout his life as a man with great mana or personal efficacy. What is Wesleyanism?

Paua eye in tewhatewha (detail), Gottfried Lindauer, Tamati Waka Nene, 1890, oil on canvas, 101.9 x 84.2 cm (Auckland Art Gallery)

Gottfried Lindauer and his patron

Detail, Gottfried Lindauer, Tamati Waka Nene, 1890, oil on canvas, 101.9 x 84.2 cm (Auckland Art Gallery)

“New Zealand—The Battle of Mahoetahi,” The Illustrated London News, January 19, 1861, page 67 with engraving from John Crombie photograph of Tamati Waka Nene

Painting Tamati Waka Nene

If you’ve been paying attention to dates you will have noticed that Nene died in 1871 but Lindauer didn’t arrive in New Zealand until 1873, and didn’t paint his portrait until 1890. It is likely that Lindauer based this portrait on a photograph taken by John Crombie, who had been commissioned to produce 12 photographic portraits of Māori chiefs for The London Illustrated News (image above). There are several other photographs of Nene, and in 1934 Charles F Goldie—another famous portrayer of Māori—painted yet another portrait of him from a photograph. So Nene didn’t sit for either of his famous painted portraits, but clearly sat for photographic portraits in the later years of his life. These were becoming more common by 1870, due to developments in photographic methods that made the whole process easier and cheaper. Many Māori had their portraits taken photographically and produced as a carte de visite , roughly the size of a playing card, and some had larger, postcard sized images made, called cabinet portraits. Lindauer is thought to have used a device called an epidiascope to enlarge and project small photographs such as these so he could paint them.


Reenactment of the Treaty of Waitangi (1840)

The forthcoming launch of the Empress Miniatures range of figures for the New Zealand Wars of the 1840s has brought to mind the part I took over 20 years ago in an unforgetable reenactment event.

In 1990 I was one of five New Zealand police officers selected to take part in the official reenactment of the Treaty of Waitangi on the 150th sesquicentennial anniversary of its signing. We represented the five New South Wales Mounted Police troopers who accompanied Captain William Hobson RN from Australia in 1840. Hobson was the new Governor of New Zealand, and he signed the Treaty on behalf of the Crown with the chiefs of many of the tribes of New Zealand.

The reenactment featured well-known actors and descendants of the real-life Treaty signatories. It was played on the grounds of the Waitangi meeting house in the beautiful Bay of Islands, in front of a large audience, including Queen Elizabeth II.

The five of us were all police history buffs, so we researched the NSW Mounted Police uniforms of the time, and had them sewn up for us by a theatrical company. So overall we were probably relatively realistic – from a distance, anyway. The same could not be said for the naval officers, whose uniforms were definitely not accurate from any distance. The Maori chiefs, however, really looked the part.

While the reenactment was mainly about the discussions and debates that went on before and during the actual signing of the Treaty, the highpoint for me was being rowed ashore in a cutter with the official party at the start of the event. The crew were all in period costume. On each side we were accompanied by several huge ‘waka’, or Maori canoes. It was spine tingling listening to the paddlers chanting across the water. It was one of those moments in reenacting when you feel as though you have really stepped back in time. The memory will live with me forever.

To see much bigger images of the pictures from the slideshow at the top of the page, click on the thumbnails below.


KAHUNGUNU

Ngati Kahungunu tradition records Kahungunu as having come to Turanganui A Kiwa. He visited Titirangi pa at Titirangi (Kaiti hill) near the mouth of the Turanganui river. From there he saw the smoke from the fires of Ruapani's pa, Popoia. He visited Ruapani and married one of his daughters. From this union followed what has been described as a "bewildering" series of intermarriages between the families of Ruapani and Kahungunu. Kahungunu left and as he moved south he had more liaisons and children. Many of his descendants married back into the Iwi of Turanganui A Kiwa.

For a long period of time after Ruapani and Kahungunu the history of Turanganui A Kiwa witnessed the breaking away of various Hapu and Whanau and numerous alliances through marriages. In fighting continued between the direct descendants of Ruapani and Kahungunu Groups migrated into and out of Turanganui A Kiwa as a result of fighting, exile, overcrowding and power struggles typical to the development of societies.


Waka landings, places of significance and tribes

This map shows waka (canoe) landing sites, tribal areas and places of significance for Māori in the East Coast region.

Tradition holds that Nukutaimemeha, the waka that Māui used to haul up the North Island, rests petrified on Hikurangi mountain.

Paikea travelled to Aotearoa from Hawaiki on the back of a whale and landed at Whāngārā.

The Takitimu waka landed at Whangaōkena (East Cape), Ūawa (Tolaga Bay), Tūranganui (Gisborne), Nukutaurua (on Māhia Peninsula) and other points further south along the eastcoast.

The Horouta waka was captained by Kiwa and Pāoa. It made landfall at Ōhiwa after its prow (haumi) was damaged. Pāoa travelled inland, locating timber to repair the prow on a mountain, hence the name Maungahaumi. Urinating from there, he enlarged the Waioeka, Motu, Waikohu and Waipāoa rivers. Horouta was later sailed to Tūranganui, which Pāoa reached on foot. Hinekauirangi also travelled overland to Tūranganui, via the Tapuaeroa River. Horouta was beached in the Te Wherowhero Lagoon, at Muriwai. The footprints of Rongokako, a friend of Pāoa, are found at a number of places along the coast.

Ngāti Porou and the tribes of Poverty Bay – Te Aitanga-a-Māhaki, Rongowhakaata and Ngai Tāmanuhiri – all trace descent from Kiwa and Pāoa.

Popoia was the pā of Ruapani, a prominent chief of Poverty Bay, who had many descendants.

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Looking to the future

Today, there are 2,000 registered Moriori living in New Zealand and it’s thought that there are between 3,000 to 6,000 other individuals worldwide with Moriori heritage.

Significant parts of Rekohu island have been restored to Moriori and their unique culture and language is being recovered.

Mr Solomon has worked for over 30 years to bring about change for Moriori. “Thirty years ago we weren’t recognised as a people, we had no land, we had no resources.”

He says, Moriori have struggled, and continue to struggle, but have a very bright future.

“Part of what Hokotehi (the Moriori Trust) have been doing over the last 20 or so years is trying to reconnect our lost family threads back to the main bind here on Rēkohu, Rēkohu being the Moriori name for the Chathams which means ‘look at the sun through the mist’.”

It’s more important than ever to challenge our knowledge, what we teach, and our countries’ histories. If the truth isn’t acknowledged, we can’t make change.

I stumbled across this story while teaching my children about New Zealand history, and was shocked to realize I hardly know the facts myself. I’ve made a commitment to learn the truth alongside them.

In New Zealand, a whole people group were told they were extinct. What’s hiding in your country’s history?


Hoturoa, Captain of the Tainui Waka

Hoturoa was born in Hawaiki, the son of Auauterangi and Kuotepo, and was distantly related to Tama te Kapua. According to Maori tradition Hoturoa was middle aged when he made the voyage to New Zealand. In Hawaiki he held his people aloof from the tribal skirmishes that preceded the migration, but when he learned that Turi and the others intended to leave the island, Hoturoa decided to follow suit. His canoe, Tainui, according to tribal tradition, made landfall at Whangaparaoa, near Cape Runaway. From there Tainui explored the coast northwards and sailed into Waitemata (Auckland) Harbour. He hauled the canoe across the isthmus to Manukau Harbour and then explored the west coast southwards. Some of the Tainui people settled at Whaingaroa (Raglan) Harbour, Kawhia, and at Mokau. The last party left on board – the Ngati Tara-pounamu – beached the Tainui at Te Waiiti. When he heard that the canoe had been abandoned, Hoturoa, who had settled at Kawhia, brought a party overland, refloated it, and sailed to Kawhia. There the Tainui was drawn up into a manuka grove below the shrine of Ahurei, and two stone pillars, set at either end, mark where it rested.

Hoturoa had two wives, Whakaoterangi and Marama, both of whom figure largely in the Tainui legend. The former is credited with beginning the cultivation of kumara in the new land.

Tainui tribes later spread over the area from the Mokau River to Manukau Harbour on the west coast and included the Waikato and King Country. Their boundary runs through Maungatautari (near Cambridge) to the Thames Valley and Coromandel Peninsula. Hoturoa, captain of the Tainui waka. In Māori traditions, the Tainui waka was commanded by the chief Hoturoa. On its voyage the Tainui stopped at many Pacific islands, eventually arriving in New Zealand. Its first landfall was at Whangaparaoa on the east coast of the northern North Island. Tainui continued on to Tauranga, the Coromandel Peninsula and Waitemata Harbour. From the Waitemata on the east coast, the canoe was carried by hand across the Tamaki isthmus (present-day Auckland) to Manukau Harbour on the west coast. From the Manukau, Tainui sailed north to Kaipara, then southwards to the west coast harbours of Whaingaroa (Raglan), Aotea and Kāwhia. It continued further to south of the estuaries of the Mōkau and Mohakatini rivers before returning north to its final resting place at Maketu in Kāwhia harbour.

Crew members disembarked at each landfall site along the way. Descendent groups formed several iwi, many associating under the Tainui confederation of iwi. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tainui_(canoe) http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/1966/hoturoa High priest and commander of Tainui canoe.

Hoturoa was born in Hawaiki, the son of Auauterangi and Kuotepo, and was distantly related to Tama te Kapua. According to Maori tradition Hoturoa was middle aged when he made the voyage to New Zealand. In Hawaiki he held his people aloof from the tribal skirmishes that preceded the migration, but when he learned that Turi and the others intended to leave the island, Hoturoa decided to follow suit. His canoe, Tainui, according to tribal tradition, made landfall at Whangaparaoa, near Cape Runaway. From there Tainui explored the coast northwards and sailed into Waitemata (Auckland) Harbour. He hauled the canoe across the isthmus to Manukau Harbour and then explored the west coast southwards. Some of the Tainui people settled at Whaingaroa (Raglan) Harbour, Kawhia, and at Mokau. The last party left on board – the Ngati Tara-pounamu – beached the Tainui at Te Waiiti. When he heard that the canoe had been abandoned, Hoturoa, who had settled at Kawhia, brought a party overland, refloated it, and sailed to Kawhia. There the Tainui was drawn up into a manuka grove below the shrine of Ahurei, and two stone pillars, set at either end, mark where it rested.

Hoturoa had two wives, Whakaoterangi and Marama, both of whom figure largely in the Tainui legend. The former is credited with beginning the cultivation of kumara in the new land.

Tainui tribes later spread over the area from the Mokau River to Manukau Harbour on the west coast and included the Waikato and King Country. Their boundary runs through Maungatautari (near Cambridge) to the Thames Valley and Coromandel Peninsula.


Tamati Waka Nene

Tamati Waka Nene (c. 1785 - 4 August 1871) was a Maori Chief who fought as an ally of the British in the First Maori War.

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Waka Nene was born to chiefly rank being connected to most of the notable Maori families in Tai Tokerau, the Bay of Islands and Hokianga regions of the North Island of New Zealand. He was related to Hongi Hika and could trace his ancestry by a number of lines back to Rahiri, the founder of the Ngapuhi Iwi. He rose to be one of the war leaders of the Ngapuhi taking an active part in the Musket Wars of 1818-1820. He successfully took his warriors on a rampage the whole length of the North Island, killing and plundering as he went until he reached Cook Strait. It is said that he advised Te Rauparaha to acquire muskets to enhance his influence.

In 1828 he successfully averted a war between the Maori of the Bay of Islands and the Hokiang. Then his older brother moved south to what is now the Auckland region, Hauraki, and soon after the paramount chief of the area died of wounds received in battle. Waka Nene now became the highest ranking chief among his own people and one of the three primary chiefs of the area.

Early on he had recognized the value of trade with Pakeha and used his position as chief to protect and encourage both the traders and the Methodist missionaries. He was baptised in 1839 taking the name Thomas Walker or Tamati Waka. He also worked with the British Resident, James Busby to regularize the relationships between the two races. In 1835 he signed the Declaration of the Independence of New Zealand which proclaimed the sovereignty of the United Tribes .

At the negotiations leading up to the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi his influence was significant in persuading many of the tribes to sign the Treaty. However it is probable that he took the document at its face value it is extremely unlikely that he saw himself ceding any of his authority as chief of his people.

The next few years saw a considerable loss of revenue and influence for the Northern Tribes. The Capital of the new country was soon moved down to Auckland. Customs duties were also imposed. Then the Government began to interfere with the management of land, specifically they forbade any further felling of Kauri trees, Agathis australis.

Most of the northern chiefs had serious concerns with workings of the new Treaty, Nene as much as Kawiti and Hone Heke. However Nene was still prepared to negotiate and to hope for the best. He gave Governor FitzRoy promises to keep the peace on behalf of his fellow chiefs. So when Hone Heke cut down the flag pole for the fourth time Nene was mightily offended feeling that his mana had been trampled on.

Nene was already at war with Heke when the British troops began to arrive on the scene. They fought side by side, as allies but with almost complete incomprehension about each others intentions. Nene described the British commander, Colonel Despard, as 'a very stupid man'. Despard on the other hand said "if I want help from savages I will ask for it". History tends to support Nene's opinion. Heke and Kawiti were only defeated once in the conflict, at Te Ahu Ahu on 12 June 1845, by Nene with no help from the British.

After Ruapekapeka Heke and Kawiti, still unbeaten, were ready for peace. It was Tamati Waka Nene they approached to negotiate with and with him that they concluded the terms. Nene then went to Auckland and told the Government that their war was over.

The Government lost a great deal of mana and influence in the North as a result of the war much of which flowed to Waka Nene. He and Heke were recognized as the two most influential men in the Tai Tokerau region. He was given a pension of one hundred ponds a year and had a cottage built for him in Kororareka, Russell. He continued to advise and assist the Government on matters such as the release of Te Rauparaha in 1848.

When George Grey was knighted he chose Nene as one of his esquires. Then when he returned for his second term of Governorship in 1860 he brought Nene a silver cup from Queen Victoria.

Tamati Waka Nene died 4 August 1871 and is buried at Russell. The then Govrnor, George Bowen said the Nene did more than any other Maori to promote colonization and to establish the Queen's authority.


Maori Chief with Beached Waka - History

The Takitimu waka is known as Te Waka Tapu O Takitimu, the sacred canoe Takitimu. It was captained on its journey from Hawaiki by Tamatea-Ariki-Nui, high chief and priest, and carried a number of tohunga or priests. After its arrival in Aotearoa it made many travels. At about 1350AD it called at Waimarama, a coastal settlement in Hawke's Bay, and it was there that it left two rollers and two anchors, called Mahuaka and Taupunga. The present marae (sacred meeting place) at Waimarama is called Taupunga after the anchor.

Four of the tohunga stayed at Waimarama. Their names were Taewa, Tuterangiwetewetea, Tuaitehe and Tunui, and they set up two whare wananga (houses of learning) for the teaching of the ancient and traditional knowledge. The houses were at Maungawharau and Rangiteauira.

The story of Tunui is told by Bradford Haami in his book "Dr. Golan Maaka" (1995, Tandem, Auckland).

"The great tohunga Tunui built his whare and named it Tauirakarapa, the door to the whare being made of pounamu (greenstone). Tunui's paepae (threshold) named Ramaapakura, was also made of pounamu. Ramaapakura was taken when Ngati Kahungunu [tribe] under Rakaihikuroa, Aomatarahi and Taraia invaded the district, returning the pieces to Nuhaka [in northern Hawke's Bay]. A great many fighting patu and mere (short clubs) were made from Tunui's paepae, namely Ramaapakura, Kahawai, Kaiarero, Rito-o-te-rangi, Inumangawai and the sacred mere Pahikaure, now owned by the Te Heu Heu family. Pahikaure was fashioned against the grindstone rock called Te Umurangi which stood at Te Aratipi, at Waimarama, and was said to become invisible to the wrong holders of this weapon.

"Before coming into the hands of the Te Heu Heu family it had been buried five times with ancestors. The doorway to Tunui's whare was never taken away from Waimarama but was buried between the mountains Rangitoto and Matanginui. The name Waimarama was given by Tunui after seeing the reflection of an approaching war party, who were walking along the Kaiwhakapiri ridge, in the pool known as Te Puna Whakaaata. Tunui and his people boarded their canoes and rowed to their island refuge, Motukura. Tunui named the pool Waimarama, 'the explaining waters', after this event.

"It was during the time of Tunui's descendant, Kopare, that Ngati Kahungunu from Turanganui (Gisborne), under the great warriors Taraia and Te Aomatarahi, defeated the Ngati Ira people of Waimarama. Kopare, chief of the great fighting pa [fortress] Hakikino, sent the women, children and old people into the hills to hide in a cave, under the mana (influence) of his sister, Hinengatiira. Kopare and his warriors fought hard to keep their homes and mana intact but were finally overthrown by the might of these Ngati Kahungunu warriors. Te Aomatarahi sent his son Rongomairaukura to find the women, children and old people. When he found them hiding in a cave they were brought back to the pa. Peace was made with the Kahungunu warriors, with Kopare gifting his sister Hinengatiira to Te Aomatarahi's youngest son, Rongomaipureora, as a wife, sealing the peace treaty between these two factions."

During the time of Tamariki, great grandson of Te Aomatarahi, most of the people migrated from Waimarama to the Wairarapa region, except for Tamariki and his two sisters, Poua and Huiariki. Tumapuhi-a-rangi, a descendant of Tunui, and a grandson of the peace treaty liaison of Hinengatiira and Rongomaipureora, became the eponymous ancestor of the Ngai Tumapuhi-a-rangi tribe of Wairarapa.


Watch the video: The Mummified Maori Head Returned Home. Tete Maori. Timeline (May 2022).