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De Havilland Mosquito PR Mk IV

De Havilland Mosquito PR Mk IV

De Havilland Mosquito PR Mk IV

The PR Mk IV was a photo reconnaissance conversion of the Mosquito B Mk IV, a somewhat ironic conversion when one remembers that the first B Mk IVs had originally been ordered as PR aircraft. The first two conversions were performed by the PRU between April and June 1942, at the same time as four PR Mk IIs were converted from the night fighter Mk II. The Mk IV was rather better suited to the PR role – it could carry extra fuel in the bomb bay and under the wings, giving it a potential range of 2,350 miles. In all 31 PR Mk IVs were produced by converting Mosquite B Mk IVs, serving with Nos. 540 and 544 Squadrons after those units were formed by a reorganisation of the PRU on 19 October 1942.


De Havilland DH-98 B/TT Mk. 35 Mosquito

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De Havilland DH-98 B/TT Mk. 35 Mosquito

De Havilland DH-98 B/TT Mk. 35 Mosquito Twin-engine, two-seat, monoplane fighter, bomber, and reconnaissance aircraft. Slate blue upper surface with black underside red, white, and blue rondels on upper wing tips and side fuselage clear plexiglass nose

Officials in the British Air Ministry vehemently resisted building it, but from the day production finally began in 1941 until the war ended, the Royal Air Force never had enough Mosquitoes to perform the amazing variety of missions that air tacticians devised for this outstanding airplane. It excelled at day and night bombing from high or very low altitudes, long-range reconnaissance, air-to-air combat in daylight and darkness, and finding and striking distant targets at sea. No less than forty-two distinct versions of the D. H. 98 entered service. At extreme speeds, Mosquitoes carried heavy loads great distances because of two key design features: a lightweight, streamlined, wooden airframe propelled by powerful, reliable engines. The "Wooden Wonder" was constructed from Alaskan spruce, English ash, Canadian birch and fir, and Ecuadorian balsa glued and screwed together in new, innovative ways, and motivated by the world's finest reciprocating, liquid-cooled power plants, a pair of Rolls Royce Merlins. There has never been a more successful, combat-proven warplane made of wood.

Officials in the British Air Ministry vehemently resisted building it, but from the day production finally began in 1941 until the war ended, the Royal Air Force never had enough Mosquitoes to perform the amazing variety of missions that air tacticians devised for this outstanding airplane. It excelled at day and night bombing from high or very low altitudes, long-range reconnaissance, air-to-air combat in daylight and darkness, and finding and striking distant targets at sea. No less than forty-two distinct versions of the D. H. 98 entered service. At extreme speeds, Mosquitoes carried heavy loads great distances because of two key design features: a lightweight, streamlined, wooden airframe propelled by powerful, reliable engines. The "Wooden Wonder" was constructed from Alaskan spruce, English ash, Canadian birch and fir, and Ecuadorian balsa glued and screwed together in new, innovative ways, and motivated by the world's finest reciprocating, liquid-cooled power plants, a pair of Rolls Royce Merlins. There has never been a more successful, combat-proven warplane made of wood.

The Mosquito descended from civilian, not military designs. In 1934, de Havilland decided to construct a new airplane to compete in the England-Australia Air Race. In only ten months, the firm designed and built three D.H. 88 Comet racers. Pilots raced all three against sixty-four entrants from thirteen countries. A Comet won the 17,710-km (11,000-mile) race in 71 hours and another finished fourth but the third Comet dropped out because of engine trouble. An advanced plywood skin formed the wing and fuselage of these twin-engine airplanes and de Havilland used the same technology to build Mosquito wings.

A more direct ancestor to the D. H. 98 was the de Havilland D.H. 91 Albatross air transport. After much official delay, de Havilland built seven of these four-engine airliners and Imperial Airways bought five and began to fly them on scheduled routes in December 1938. World War II completely overshadowed the world-class speed and economical performance of the Albatross but its impact on Mosquito development was profound. In both airplanes, radiators mounted inside the wings cooled the engines. Thin slots cut into the wing leading edges allowed cooling air to flow through these radiators. This was a significant improvement because on older aircraft such as the Spitfire, the radiators hung beneath the lower wing surface and the drag generated by this arrangement robbed the Spitfire of precious speed. The Mosquito shared another Albatross trait. Design engineer Arthur E. Hagg conceived of a lightweight, strong composite wooden construction technique to build the Albatross fuselage. He left de Havilland in 1937 but the company used his composite construction methods again on Mosquitoes.

Nazi aggression escalated during the late 1930s. With every act of terror, Geoffrey de Havilland (founder and head of the firm) and his design staff became more convinced that they could create an exceptional warplane based on the Comet and Albatross. The members of the Mosquito design team included the chief designer and team leader, R. E. Bishop, Richard M. Clarkson, assistant chief engineer and Mosquito aerodynamicist, C. T. Wilkins, assistant chief designer and the fuselage specialist, W. A. Tamblin, senior designer and the wing specialist, and Fred Plumb who managed constructing the prototype. Their thoughts coalesced in 1938 to focus on the design of a high-speed, unarmed bomber. The new design would weigh thousands of pounds less than conventional bombers armed with enclosed, power-driven turrets and heavy machine guns, its finish smooth and streamlined enough to speed past all pursuers, even the most advanced, single-engine fighters. For two years, de Havilland and the Air Ministry argued over several different designs and government specifications for the new airplane. Doubts racked most ministry officials about committing national resources to build a small, unarmed bomber out of wood. The notion ran counter to aeronautical trends in every other nation worldwide but in addition to speed, de Havilland's idea had other advantages. Wood, and the skilled personnel required to work it, was plentiful while aluminum was in dangerously short supply and aircraft metalworkers were already consumed with producing Spitfires, Hurricanes, and other metal airplanes.

De Havilland finally won a contract to build a prototype five months after Hitler invaded Poland but the Air Ministry, and many people in the British aircraft industry, remained skeptical right up until March 3, 1941. On that day government test pilots, conducting official trials with the Mosquito prototype, published a favorable report on the aircraft. From this time forward, official doubt turned to quiet confidence.

Like the Comet and Albatross wings, de Havilland built Mosquito wings out of shaped pieces of wood and plywood cemented together with Casein glue. Approximately 30,000 small, brass wood screws also reinforced the glue joints inside a Mosquito wing (another 20,000 or so screws reinforced glue joints in the fuselage and empennage). The internal wing structure consisted of plywood box spars fore and aft. Plywood ribs and stringers braced the gaps between the spars with space left over for fuel tanks and engine and flight controls. Plywood ribs and skins also formed the wing leading edges and flaps but de Havilland framed-up the ailerons from aluminum alloy and covered them with fabric. Sheet metal skins enclosed the engines and metal doors closed over the main wheel wells when the pilot retracted the landing gear.

To cover the wing structure and add strength, de Havilland woodworkers built two top wing skins and one bottom skin using birch plywood. The top skins had to carry the heaviest load so the designers also beefed them up with birch or Douglas fir stringers cut into fine strips and glued and screwed between the two skins. The bottom skin was also reinforced with stringers. Together the top and bottom skins multiplied the strength of the internal spars and ribs. A Mosquito wing could withstand rigorous combat maneuvering at high G-loads when the airplane often carried thousands of additional pounds of fuel and weapons. To maintain strength, trim weight, and speed fabrication time, the entire wing was finished as a single piece, wingtip to wingtip, with no break where the wing bisected the fuselage. A finished and painted wing was light and strong with a smooth surface unblemished by drag-inducing nail or rivet heads.

De Havilland engineers and technicians used generally the same techniques to build the Comet, Albatross, and Mosquito wings out of wood and plywood. When they designed and built the fuselage, however, they copied the methods and materials employed to build the Albatross fuselage. This airliner was the product of the brilliant mind of Arthur E. Hagg, de Havilland's Chief Draftsman in 1937. He left the company that same year but his ideas lived on in the Mosquito. Hagg created a light, strong, very streamlined structure by sandwiching 9.5 mm (three-eighths inch) Ecuadorian balsa wood between Canadian birch plywood skins that varied in thickness from 4.5 mm to 6 mm (about ¼ inch). The plywood/balsa/plywood sandwich was formed inside concrete molds of each fuselage half, and each mold held seven birch plywood formers reinforced with spruce blocks, plus bulkheads, floors, and other structural members. As the glue cured, metal clamps held the skin layers tight to the mold. Technicians finished the edge of each half of the fuselage with male and female wedge joints as fitters attached wiring and other equipment to the inner walls. Final fuselage assembly was reminiscent of a typical plastic model airplane kit as the two halves were glued and screwed together. Fabricators completed the final step in building the fuselage when they covered it with Mandapolam.

To build the empennage, workers framed the rudder and elevator out of aluminum and covered them with fabric but they built the vertical and horizontal stabilizers from wood. Although the materials are different, Hagg's composite sandwich construction material is similar to the foam and fiberglass composite sandwich developed by Burt Rutan during the 1970s. Rutan revolutionized the design and construction of homebuilt aircraft when he marketed kits and plans to build the Rutan VariEze (see NASM collection).

The first Mosquito prototype flew on November 24, 1940. Flight trials revealed only minor development problems and de Havilland finished twenty production aircraft before 1941 ended. A photo-reconnaissance D. H. 98 flew the first operational Mosquito sortie to survey the western part of the border between France and Spain on September 17, 1941. Bomber and fighter versions began operating in early 1942 and Mosquitoes soon swept across the length and breadth of Western Europe.

As a bomber, the Mosquito was fast enough to excel at precision attacks against heavily defended targets. Courageous crews often flew these raids at altitudes of 15-50 meters (49-164 feet). Flying this type of raid in a single-engine airplane would border on suicide but the Mosquito's twin Merlins doubled the crew's chances of surviving engine failure. Nonetheless, on numerous occasions, anti-aircraft gunfire or patrolling German fighters splintered Mosquito airframes. Men of No. 105 Squadron set the tone for these pinpoint raids when they attacked Nazi Gestapo headquarters in Oslo, Norway, on September 26, 1942. Four crews flew their Mosquito B. Mk. IV bombers a roundtrip total of 1,770 kilometers (1,100 miles) and the mission lasted four hours and 45 minutes. A BBC news broadcast that followed this raid marked the first official confirmation that the Mosquito existed.

Former Royal Air Force mechanic and Mosquito test technician, David van Vlymen, in his article "Un-Gluing the Mosquito," wrote vividly of his experiences with the Wooden Wonder. Van Vlymen's account illustrates the dangers routinely faced by men operating high-performance aircraft during wartime. After volunteering for the RAF in 1940, van Vlymen became a certified airframe mechanic. In 1943, Mosquitoes built at the Hatfield factory began "piling up waiting for their test flight which de Havilland was unable to perform quickly enough. So large numbers were sent to Henlow for us to pass as serviceable. No. 2 Repair Section got the job and being in the "test flight" section I was lucky, I got to fly!"

"Of course I was fully aware that at some time while flying I may have to bail out and the possibility of a parachute jump was something I should have liked to experience. It was getting out of the Mosquito that was the problem. We were testing the fighter version. The pilot could jettison the panel above his head and then somehow get out, probably breaking his back in doing so, there was no such thing as an ejector-seat in those days. For me in the Navigators seat I had to jettison the side door and dive out head first, right into the propeller, so it was first necessary to feather the prop, an action that took several seconds that seemed like an age! I used to just sit in a Mosquito on the ground and practicing how to get out in a hurry, but fortunately I never had to do so."

"Now the Mosquito had a maximum speed of a little over 400 mph which was moving in those days, and when it went into a vertical dive speed increased dramatically. At around 460 mph a shudder often started, and remember this was an all wooden aircraft. It was my belief that this shudder allowed the metal undercarriage doors to slightly open (they were held shut only by strong springs) and then be whipped off by the air stream and smash into the tail unit demolishing the elevators, thus making it impossible to pull out of the dive. I mentioned this to the powers that be and a positive uplock latch was designed and installed after which, I am pleased to report, our loss of aircraft was substantially reduced."

Copyright 2000, David van Vlymen, Portland, Oregon, e-mail: [email protected], fax: 413-383-3877, from The Mosquito Page website at http://www.mossie.org/mosquito.html.

Unlike Allied heavy and medium bomber crews, Mosquito men routinely operated in daylight at extremely low altitudes. They used this tactic to minimize exposure to anti-aircraft defenses and to insure precise accuracy during bombing and strafing attacks. For their trouble, they experienced a sweeping, personal view of the war in Europe that was not available to any other group of combatants. Wing Commander John Wooldridge, writing in his book "Low Attack," summed up the experience this way:

"It would be impossible to forget … the sensation of looking back over enemy territory and seeing your formation behind you, wing-tip to wing-tip, their racing shadows moving only a few feet below them across the earth's surface or that feeling of sudden exhilaration when the target was definitely located and the whole pack were following you on to it with their bomb doors open, while people below scattered in every direction and the long streams of flak came swinging up or the sudden jerk of consternation of the German soldiers lounging on the coast, their moment of indecision, and then their mad scramble for the guns or the memory of racing across The Hague at midday on a bright spring morning, while the Dutchmen below hurled their hats in the air and beat each other on the back. All these are unforgettable memories. Many of them will be recalled also by the peoples of Europe long after peace has been declared, for to them the Mosquito came to be ambassador during their darkest hours."

Like the bombers, de Havilland built sub-variants of the Mosquito adapted for day and night fighter operations. A Mosquito crew claimed the first air-to-air victory over a Dornier 217 twin-engine bomber on May 29, 1942. Many German fighters were also destroyed. From June 1944 to March 1945, Mosquitoes crews worked to defeat a menace hitherto unseen in warfare, mass attacks by low-flying, robot flying bombs propelled by pulse jet engines, the German V-1 'buzz bomb' vengeance weapons. In operations against shipping, Mosquitoes sank supply ships, and at least ten German U-boats along the French and Norwegian coasts. Mosquito crewmen flew many other unique missions including an unarmed, scheduled airline service between Scotland and Sweden. After the war, Mosquitoes laden with cameras surveyed all of India, Cambodia, and Australia. The last operational combat mission ended on December 21, 1955, when a Mosquito PR. 34A conducted a reconnaissance mission above suspected communist strongholds hidden in the jungles of Malaya.

More than 400 subcontractors built Mosquito components in England. The main factory at Hatfield and several other co-producers assembled these components into finished Mosquitoes. The aircraft was also produced in Canada and Australia and a United States production program was discussed but dropped when Canadian Mosquitoes began to fly. The U. S. did contribute by diverting production of Packard-built Merlin engines to Canada for the D. H. 98. Local deficiencies in labor and materials, and delayed shipments of critical components from England, slowed efforts to set up Mosquito production in Australia and the Royal Australian Air Force did not receive the first airplanes until 1944.

During the war, the United States, South Africa, and the Soviet Union also operated Mosquitoes. After the war ended, Belgium, France, Turkey, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Norway, the Dominican Republic, and Israel flew the D. H. 98. Canada sold 200 Mosquitoes to Nationalist China in 1947. They were disassembled, shipped, and reassembled at Chinese factories.

It often happens that when large numbers of successful aircraft fly, over time, individual airframes stand out. One particular Mosquito is noteworthy because it completed more combat missions than any other Allied aircraft. An unarmed, high-altitude Mosquito B. IX bomber, de Havilland serial number LR503 and Royal Air Force serial number GB-F, flew combat missions first in No. 109 Squadron beginning on May 28, 1943, and later in 105 Squadron. Pathfinder Fighter pilots in these two units flew a total of 213 missions in this aircraft but during a goodwill tour of Canada two days after V-E Day, GB-F was destroyed when it crashed at Calgary Airport, May 10, 1945 (see NASM Martin B-26 "Flak Bait" that completed 207 missions).

The National Air and Space Museum Mosquito, Royal Air Force (RAF) serial number TH 998, was built by the main de Havilland factory at Hatfield as a B. Mk. 35 bomber version in 1945 under Contract number 555/C.23(a). It was part of a batch numbered TH 977-999. On August 24, 1945, the Air Ministry took charge of this airplane and transferred it to No. 27 Maintenance Unit (MU) at RAF Shawbury, Shropshire. Nearly seven years later, TH 998 moved went to Brooklands Aviation Co., Ltd., at Wymeswold Aerodrome, Leicestershire, on May 14, 1952, for conversion to TT. Mark 35 standards.

Conversion was completed four months later and the Mosquito began to tow aerial gunnery targets. On September 30, 1952, TH 998 went to No. 3 Civilian Anti-Aircraft Cooperation Unit (CAAC) at RAF Exeter in Devon and received a new code letter assignment 'AT.' This civilian contractor unit performed target-towing duties for the RAF and had the distinction of operating the last Mosquitoes in Britain. After towing targets for ten years, the type was ready for retirement and ultimately, the scrap yard, but TH 998 was chosen for presentation to the Smithsonian Institution. On March 20, 1962, No. 60 MU at RAF Dishforth received the aircraft and overhauled and painting it for exhibition. On August 17, 1962, TH 998 was transported to the United States. The Mosquito is now in storage at the Museum's Paul Garber Facility and it is slated for display at the new Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center at Dulles International Airport.


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Operational history

The de Havilland Mosquito operated in many roles, performing medium bomber, reconnaissance, tactical strike, anti-submarine warfare and shipping attacks and night fighter duties, until the end of the war. [101] In July 1941, the first production Mosquito W4051 (a production fuselage combined with some prototype flying surfaces (see Prototypes and test flights) was sent to No. 1 Photographic Reconnaissance Unit (PRU), at RAF Benson. [102] The secret reconnaissance flights of this aircraft were the first operational missions of the Mosquito. In 1944, the journal Flight gave 19 September 1941 as date of the first PR mission, at an altitude "of some 20,000 ft". [103]

On 15 November 1941, 105 Squadron, RAF, took delivery at RAF Swanton Morley, Norfolk, of the first operational Mosquito Mk. B.IV bomber, serial no. W4064. [104] Throughout 1942, 105 Squadron, based next at RAF Horsham St. Faith, then from 29 September, RAF Marham, undertook daylight low-level and shallow dive attacks. [105] [nb 16] Apart from the Oslo and Berlin raids, the strikes were mainly on industrial and infrastructure targets in occupied Netherlands and Norway, France and northern and western Germany. [106] The crews faced deadly flak and fighters, particularly Focke-Wulf Fw 190s, which they called snappers. Germany still controlled continental airspace and the Fw 190s were often already airborne and at an advantageous altitude. Collisions within the formations also caused casualties. It was the Mosquito&rsquos excellent handling capabilities, rather than pure speed, that facilitated those evasions that were successful. [107]

The Mosquito was first announced publicly on 26 September 1942 after the Oslo Mosquito raid of 25 September. It was featured in The Times on the 28 September and the next day the newspaper published two captioned photographs illustrating the bomb strikes and damage. [108] [109] On 6 December 1942, Mosquitos from Nos. 105 and 139 Squadrons made up part of the bomber force used in Operation Oyster, the large No. 2 Group raid against the Philips works at Eindhoven.

From mid-1942 to mid-1943, Mosquito bombers flew high-speed, medium or low-altitude daylight missions against factories, railways and other pinpoint targets in Germany and German-occupied Europe. From June 1943, Mosquito bombers were formed into the Light Night Striking Force to guide RAF Bomber Command heavy bomber raids and as "nuisance" bombers, dropping Blockbuster bombs &ndash 4,000 lb (1,800 kg) "cookies" &ndash in high-altitude, high-speed raids that German night fighters were almost powerless to intercept.

As a night fighter from mid-1942, the Mosquito intercepted Luftwaffe raids on Britain, notably those of Operation Steinbock in 1944. Starting in July 1942, Mosquito night-fighter units raided Luftwaffe airfields. As part of 100 Group, it was flown as a night fighter and as an intruder supporting Bomber Command heavy bombers that reduced losses during 1944 and 1945. [110] [nb 17]

The Mosquito fighter-bomber served as a strike aircraft in the Second Tactical Air Force (2TAF) from its inception on 1 Jun 1943. [111] The main objective was to prepare for the invasion of occupied Europe a year later. In Operation Overlord three Mosquito FB VI wings flew close air support for the Allied armies in co-operation with other RAF units equipped with the North American B-25 Mitchell medium bomber. In the months between the foundation of 2TAF and its duties from D day onwards, vital training was interspersed with attacks on V-1 flying bomb launch sites. [112]

In another example of the daylight precision raids carried out by the Mosquitos of Nos. 105 and 139 Squadrons, on 30 January 1943, the 10th anniversary of the Nazis' seizure of power, a morning Mosquito attack knocked out the main Berlin broadcasting station while Commander in Chief Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring was speaking, putting his speech off the air. A second sortie in the afternoon inconvenienced another speech, by Goebbels. [113] Lecturing a group of German aircraft manufacturers, Göring said:

In 1940 I could at least fly as far as Glasgow in most of my aircraft, but not now! It makes me furious when I see the Mosquito. I turn green and yellow with envy. The British, who can afford aluminium better than we can, knock together a beautiful wooden aircraft that every piano factory over there is building, and they give it a speed which they have now increased yet again. What do you make of that? There is nothing the British do not have. They have the geniuses and we have the nincompoops. After the war is over I'm going to buy a British radio set &ndash then at least I'll own something that has always worked. [114]

During this daylight-raiding phase, Nos. 105 and 139 Squadrons flew 139 combat operations and aircrew losses were high. [115] Even the losses incurred in the squadrons' dangerous Blenheim era were exceeded in percentage terms. The Roll of Honour shows 51 aircrew deaths from the end of May 1942 to April 1943. [116] In the corresponding period, crews gained three Mentions in Despatches, two DFMs and three DFCs. The low-level daylight attacks finished on 27 May 1943 with strikes on the Schott glass and Zeiss instrument works, both in Jena. Subsequently, when low-level precision attacks required Mosquitos, they were allotted to squadrons operating the FB.IV version. Examples include the Aarhus air raid and Operation Jericho.

Since the beginning of the year, the German fighter force had become seriously overstretched. [117] In April 1943, in response to "political humiliation" caused by the Mosquito, Göring ordered the formation of special Luftwaffe units (Jagdgeschwader 25, commanded by Oberstleutnant Herbert Ihlefeld and Jagdgeschwader 50, under Major Hermann Graf) to combat the Mosquito attacks, though these units, which were "little more than glorified squadrons", were unsuccessful against the elusive RAF aircraft. [118] Post-war German histories also indicate that there was a belief within the Luftwaffe that Mosquito aircraft "gave only a weak radar signal.". [119] [nb 18]

The first Mosquito Squadron to be equipped with Oboe (navigation) was No. 109, based at RAF Wyton, after working as an experimental unit at RAF Boscombe Down. They used Oboe in anger for the first time on 31 December 1942 and 1 January 1943, target marking for a force of heavy bombers attacking Düsseldorf. [122] [nb 19] . On the 1st. June, the two pioneering Squadrons joined No. 109 Squadron in the re-formed No. 8 Group RAF(Bomber Command). Initially they were engaged in moderately high altitude (about 10,000 ft (3,000 m)) night bombing, with 67 trips during that summer, mainly to Berlin. Soon after, Nos. 105 and 139 Squadron bombers were widely used by the RAF Pathfinder Force, marking targets for the main night-time strategic bombing force.

In what were, initially, diversionary "nuisance raids," Mosquito bombers dropped 4,000 lb Blockbuster bombs or "Cookies." Particularly after the introduction of H2S (radar) in some Mosquitos, these raids carrying larger bombs succeeded to the extent that they provided a significant additional form of attack to the large formations of "heavies." [123] Latterly in the war, there were a significant number of all-Mosquito raids on big German cities involving up to 100 or more aircraft. On the night of 20/21 February 1945, for example, Mosquitos of No. 8 Group mounted the first of 36 consecutive night raids on Berlin. [124]

From 1943, Mosquitos with RAF Coastal Command attacked Kriegsmarine U-boats and intercepted transport ship concentrations. After Operation Overlord, the U-boat threat in the Western Approaches decreased fairly quickly, but correspondingly the Norwegian and Danish waters posed greater dangers. Hence the RAF Coastal Command Mosquitos were moved to Scotland to counter this threat. The Strike Wing at Banff stood up in September 1944 and comprised Mosquito aircraft of No&rsquos 143, 144, 235 and 248 Squadrons Royal Air Force and No.333 Squadron Royal Norwegian Air Force. Despite an initially high loss rate, the Mosquito bomber variants ended the war with the lowest losses of any aircraft in RAF Bomber Command service. [125]

The Mosquito also proved a very capable night fighter. Some of the most successful RAF pilots flew these variants. For example, Wing Commander Branse Burbridge claimed 21 kills, and Wing Commander John Cunningham claimed 19 of his 20 victories at night on Mosquitos.

Mosquitos of No. 100 Group RAF acted as night intruders operating at high level in support of the Bomber Command "heavies", to counter the enemy tactic of merging into the bomber stream, which, towards the end of 1943, was causing serious allied losses. [126] These RCM (radio countermeasures) aircraft were fitted with a device called "Serrate" to allow them to track down German night fighters from their Lichtenstein B/C (low-UHF-band) and Lichtenstein SN-2 (lower end of the VHF FM broadcast band) radar emissions, as well as a device named "Perfectos" that tracked German IFF signals. These methods were responsible for the destruction of 257 German aircraft from December 1943 to April 1945. Mosquito fighters from all units accounted for 487 German aircraft during the war, the vast majority of which were night fighters. [127]

One Mosquito is listed as belonging to German secret operations unit Kampfgeschwader 200, which tested, evaluated and sometimes clandestinely operated captured enemy aircraft during the war. The aircraft was listed on the order of battle of Versuchsverband OKL ' s, 2 Staffel, Stab Gruppe on 10 November and 31 December 1944. However, on both lists, the Mosquito is listed as unserviceable. [128]

The Mosquito flew its last official European war mission on 21 May 1945, when Mosquitos of 143 Squadron and 248 Squadron RAF were ordered to continue to hunt German submarines that might be tempted to continue the fight instead of submarines all the Mosquitos encountered were passive E-boats. [129]

The last operational RAF Mosquitos were the Mosquito TT.35's, which were finally retired from No. 3 Civilian Anti-Aircraft Co-Operation Unit (CAACU) in May 1963. [130]


Other Variants

A total of 10 Mosquito PR Mk Is were built, four of them “long range” versions equipped with a 151 imperial gallons (690 L) overload fuel tank in the fuselage. The contract called for 10 of the PR Mk I airframes to be converted to B Mk IV Series 1s. All of the PR Mk Is, and the B Mk IV Series 1s, had the original short engine nacelles and short span (19 ft 5.5 in) tail-planes. Their engine cowling’s incorporated the original pattern of integrated exhaust manifolds which, after a relatively brief flight time, had a troublesome habit of burning and blistering the cowling panels. The first operational sortie by a Mosquito was made by a PR Mk I, W4055, on 17 September 1941 during this sortie the unarmed Mosquito PR.I evaded three Messerschmitt Bf 109s at 23,000 feet (7,000 m). Powered by two Merlin 21s, the PR Mk I had a maximum speed of 382 miles per hour (615 km/h), a cruise speed of 255 miles per hour (410 km/h), a ceiling of 35,000 feet (11,000 m), a range of 2,180 nautical miles (4,040 km), and a climb rate of 2,850 feet (870 m) per minute.

Over 30 Mosquito B Mk IV bombers were converted into the PR Mk IV photo-reconnaissance aircraft. The first operational flight by a PR Mk IV was made by DK284 in April 1942.

The Mosquito PR Mk VIII, built as a stopgap pending the introduction of the refined PR Mk IX, was the next photo-reconnaissance version. The five VIIIs were converted from B Mk IVs and became the first operational Mosquito version to be powered by two-stage, two-speed supercharged engines, using 1,565 hp (1,167 kW) Rolls-Royce Merlin 61 engines in place of Merlin 21/22s. The first PR Mk VIII, DK324 first flew on 20 October 1942. The PR Mk VIII had a maximum speed of 436 mph (702 km/h), an economical cruise speed of 295 mph (475 km/h) at 20,000ft, and 350 mph (560 km/h) at 30,000ft, a ceiling of 38,000 ft (12,000 m), a range of 2,550 nmi (4,720 km), and a climb rate of 2,500 ft per minute (760 m).

The Mosquito PR Mk IX, 90 of which were built, was the first Mosquito variant with two-stage, two-speed engines to be produced in quantity the first of these, LR405, first flew in April 1943. The PR Mk IX was based on the Mosquito B Mk IX bomber and was powered by two 1,680 hp (1,250 kW) Merlin 72/73 or 76/77 engines. It could carry either two 50 imperial gallons (230 L), two 100 imperial gallons (450 L) or two 200 imperial gallons (910 L) drop-able fuel tanks.

The Mosquito PR Mk XVI had a pressurised cockpit and, like the Mk IX, was powered by two Rolls-Royce Merlin 72/73 or 76/77 piston engines. This version was equipped with three overload fuel tanks, totalling 760 imperial gallons (3,500 L) in the bomb bay, and could also carry two 50 imperial gallons (230 L) or 100 imperial gallons (450 L) drop tanks. A total of 435 of the PR Mk XVI were built. The PR Mk XVI had a maximum speed of 415 mph (668 km/h), a cruise speed of 250 mph (400 km/h), ceiling of 38,500 ft (11,700 m), a range of 2,450 nmi (4,540 km), and a climb rate of 2,900 feet per minute (884 m).

The Mosquito PR Mk 32 was a long-range, high-altitude, pressurised photo-reconnaissance version. It was powered by a pair of two-stage supercharged 1,960 hp (1,460 kW) Rolls-Royce Merlin 113 and Merlin 114 piston engines, the Merlin 113 on the starboard side and the Merlin 114 on the port. First flown in August 1944, only five were built and all were conversions from PR.XVIs.

The Mosquito PR Mk 34 and PR Mk 34A was a very long-range unarmed high altitude photo-reconnaissance version. The fuel tank and cockpit protection armour were removed. Additional fuel was carried in a bulged bomb bay: 1,192 gallons which was the equivalent of 5,419 miles (8,721 km). A further two 200-gallon (910-litre) drop tanks under the outer wings gave a range of 3,600 miles (5,800 km) cruising at 300 mph (480 km/h). Powered by two 1,690 hp (1,260 kW) Merlin 114s first used in the PR.32. The port Merlin 114 drove a Marshal cabin supercharger. A total of 181 were built, including 50 built by Percival Aircraft Company at Luton. The PR.34’s maximum speed (TAS) was 335 mph (539 km/h) at sea level, 405 mph (652 km/h) at 17,000 ft (5,200 m) and 425 mph (684 km/h) at 30,000 ft (9,100 m). All PR.34s were installed with four split F52 vertical cameras, two forward, two aft of the fuselage tank and one F24 oblique camera. Sometimes a K-17 camera was used for air surveys. In August 1945, the PR.34A was the final photo-reconnaissance variant with one Merlin 113A and 114A each delivering 1,710 hp (1,280 kW).

Colonel Roy M. Stanley II, USAF (RET) wrote: “I consider the Mosquito the best photo-reconnaissance aircraft of the war”.


De Havilland Mosquito Mk.IV / PR.Mk.I / IVIncludes two bonus figures - pilot and Navigator- Brand new state of the art tooling.-

Aircraft model De Havilland Mosquito Mk.IV / PR.Mk.I / IVIncludes two bonus figures - pilot and Navigator- Brand new state of the art tooling.- Wingspan 515mm, length 389mm.- Stunning single room bulged bomb bay Optional wing.- & ' Cookie 'bomb.- Decals for three aircraft by Cartograf.

Scale : 1:32
The 1:32 scale is mainly used for model airplanes. A plane on the 1:32 scale will be 32 times smaller than the actual aircraft. For example, If the plane is 10 m long, the model will measure 13 inches / 31.25 cm long (1000/32 = 31.25). The figurines are in the 1:32 scale are about 2 inches / 5.5 cm high.

Type of product : Airplane model kit
To build a plastic model airplane, you'll need a few things :
- a cutter or cutting pliers
- and model glue.
You can also paint the model with brushes(acrylic or enamel).
The model consists of different parts to cut and assemble.
Construction time will vary depending on the number of parts.
An instruction manual is provided for you inside the box.

Paint and glue : To be bought separately
The tools, paints and glue are not provided. You can see our selection with the essential glues and paints or the full range..

Size of the model (inches) : 15.3 x 20.3
To learn more about size and scale, click here.


Sprues

In my view this was always a decent model and representation on the type – certainly a bit on the basic side, especially in the cockpit but you can add as much detail here as you like, especially given the low price of the basic kit. The fit of parts was good from my recollection certainly the end result looks good as you can see from the manufacturer’s photos of the completed model attached to this review.

Probably the best thing to do is show the sprues to you here:

So, what do you think? Well, overall I’m pretty impressed with what’s inside, especially given the relatively low price of the package. The cockpit looks good for detail with most of what is in the original aircraft – instrument panels and side wall panels in particular are good. You get decals for the main instrument panel.


De Havilland Mosquito B Mk.IV/PR Mk.IV

Stavebnice obsahuje plastové výlisky, obtisky a obrázkový stavební návod. Neobsahuje lepidlo ani barvy. Sestavuje se lepením. Doporučený věk: 14+.

Rozměry modelu: d 259mm š 344 mm
Obtiskové verze: 3
Obtížnost: 1, 2, 3 , 4, 5 (1 = nejnižší)

Doporučené barvy Tamiya
spreje:
AS-9 Dark Green - tmavě zelená (lze nahradit barvou XF-81)
AS-10 Ocean Gray - oceánská šedá (lze nahradit barvou XF-82)
AS-11 Medium Sea Gray - střední mořská šeď (lze nahradit barvou XF-83)
AS-12 Bare-Metal Silver - kovová - stříbrná (lze nahradit barvou X-11)
AS-19 Intermediate Blue - střední modrá (lze nahradit barvou XF-18)
TS-6 Matt Black - matná černá (lze nahradit barvou XF-1)

akrylové barvy:
X-11 Chrome Silver / metalíza - chromově stříbrná
X-18 Semi Gloss Black / polomatná - černá
X-23 Clear Blue / průhledná - modrá
X-27 Clear Red / průhledná - červená
XF-1 Flat Black / matná - černá
XF-2 Flat White / matná - bílá
XF-3 Flat Yellow / matná - žlutá
XF-5 Flat Green / matná - zelená
XF-7 Flat Red / matná - červená
XF-9 Hull Red / matná - základní tmavě červená
XF-15 Flat Flesh / matná - tělová
XF-16 Flat Aluminum / matná - hliníková
XF-21 Sky / matná - nebeská
XF-23 Light Blue / matná - světle modrá
XF-24 Dark Grey / matná - tmavě šedá
XF-27 Black Green / matná - černo zelená
XF-52 Flat Earth / matná - zemitá
XF-56 Metallic Grey / šedá metalíza
XF-57 Buff / matná - kožená
XF-64 Red Brown / matná - červenohnědá
XF-65 Field Grey / matná - polní šedá

Související produkty

Mosquito B.Mk.IV/PR Mk.IV (1:48 Tamiya)

Mosquito - Fenders (1:48 Tamiya)

Mosquito - Exhaust (1:48 Tamiya)

Zeptejte se na produkt Zeptejte se na produkt: De Havilland Mosquito B Mk.IV/PR Mk.IV

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  • Měřítko 1:32
  • Měřítko 1:48
  • Měřítko 1:72
  • Vojenská pozemní technika
  • Měřítko 1:35
  • Měřítko 1:48
  • Motorky
  • Měřítko 1:12
  • Auta
  • Měřítko 1:12
  • Měřítko 1:20
  • Měřítko 1:24
  • Lodě
  • Měřítko 1:350
  • Měřítko 1:35
  • Figurky
  • Měřítko 1:12
  • Měřítko 1:16
  • Měřítko 1:24
  • Měřítko 1:35
  • Měřítko 1:48
  • Vesmírná technika
  • Měřítko 1:100
  • Dinosauři
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  • Letadla
  • Měřítko 1:72
  • Bojová a pozemní technika
  • Měřítko 1:35
  • Měřítko 1:48
  • Figurky
  • Motorky
  • Měřítko 1:12
  • Auta
  • Měřítko 1:20
  • Měřítko 1:24
  • Plastové profily a destičky
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  • TS spreje - základní řada
  • AS spreje - letadla
  • PS spreje RC modely - na lexanové karoserie
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  • Měřítko 1:35
  • Trumpeter
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  • Měřítko 1:24
  • Měřítko 1:32
  • Měřítko 1:35
  • Měřítko 1:48
  • Měřítko 1:72
  • Vojenská pozemní technika
  • Měřítko 1:16
  • Měřítko 1:35
  • Měřítko 1:72
  • Lodě a ponorky
  • Měřítko 1:200
  • Měřítko 1:350
  • Měřítko 1:700
  • Figurky
  • Měřítko 1:16
  • Měřítko 1:35
  • Auta
  • Měřítko 1:12
  • Doplňky ke stavebnicím
  • Letadla a vrtulníky
  • Měřítko 1:32
  • Vojenská pozemní technika
  • Měřítko 1:35
  • Nářadí, pomůcky
  • Warslug
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  • Měřítko 1:35
  • Wheelliant
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  • Předobjednávky
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  • Auta
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  • Dárkové sety s barvami, štětci a lepidlem
  • Auta
  • Měřítko 1:24
  • Letadla
  • Měřítko 1:48
  • Měřítko 1:72
  • Letadla a vrtulníky
  • Měřítko 1:18
  • Měřítko 1:18
  • Měřítko 1:24
  • Měřítko 1:32
  • Měřítko 1:35
  • Měřítko 1:48
  • Měřítko 1:72
  • Měřítko 1:144
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  • Měřítko 1:48
  • Měřítko 1:72
  • Lepty a resiny
  • Měřítko 1:32
  • Měřítko 1:35
  • Měřítko 1:48
  • Měřítko 1:72
  • Měřítko 1:144
  • Kovové doplňky
  • Měřítko 1:32
  • Měřítko 1:35
  • Měřítko 1:48
  • Měřítko 1:72
  • Masky
  • Měřítko 1:32
  • Měřítko 1:48
  • Měřítko 1:72
  • Ostatní
  • Vojenská pozemní technika
  • Měřítko 1:16
  • Měřítko 1:18
  • Měřítko 1:35
  • Měřítko 1:48
  • Měřítko 1:72/76
  • Diorama
  • Měřítko 1:35
  • Doplňky
  • Kovové a resinové doplňky
  • Resinové odlévané díly
  • Měřítko 1:35
  • Kombinované doplňkové sydy
  • Měřítko 1:35
  • Měřítko 1:35
  • Měřítko 1:48
  • Vykrývací masky
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  • Zimmerit
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  • Ostatní
  • Měřítko 1:35
  • Lodě, ponorky
  • Měřítko 1:35
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  • Měřítko 1:72/75
  • Měřítko 1:200
  • Měřítko 1:350
  • Měřítko 1:400
  • Měřítko 1:550
  • Měřítko 1:600
  • Měřítko 1:700
  • Ostatní
  • Lepty, resiny, obtisky atd.
  • Kovové hlavně
  • Měřítko 1:35
  • Měřítko 1:200
  • Měřítko 1:350
  • Měřítko 1:400
  • Leptané kovové díly
  • Měřítko 1:35
  • Měřítko 1:72
  • Měřítko 1:200
  • Měřítko 1:350
  • Měřítko 1:700
  • Motorky
  • Měřítko 1:12
  • Doplňky
  • Měřítko 1:12
  • Auta, drážní vozidla
  • Měřítko 1:12
  • Měřítko 1:20
  • Měřítko 1:24
  • Měřítko 1:32/35
  • Plechy, resiny, obtisky atd.
  • Měřítko 1:24
  • Stavební a zemědělské stroje
  • Měřítko 1:35
  • Figurky a busty
  • Měřítko 1:12
  • Měřítko 1:16
  • Měřítko 1:24
  • Měřítko 1:35
  • Měřítko 1:48
  • Měřítko 1:72/76
  • Dinosauři
  • Vesmírná technika
  • Barvy, spreje
  • Akrylové barvy
  • Ammo
  • Shader řada
  • Gunze Sangyo
  • C - Mr.Color
  • H - Aqueous Hobby Color
  • MC - Mr.Metal Color
  • GX - Mr.Color
  • Sady barev
  • Tamiya
  • Akrylátové barvy (na lihové bázi)
  • Lakerové barvy (na akrylátové bázi)
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  • Měřítko 1:16
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  • Diorama - doplňky
  • Měřítko 1:20/24
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  • Měřítko 1:48
  • Stavební materiál - doplńky
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  • Modelovaci hmoty
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  • Publikace
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  • Katalogy
  • DVD
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Modelartikl.cz

Dodáváme plastikové modely letadel, lodí, ponorek, aut, tanků a vojenské techniky mnoha světových výrobců a značek. Dále nabízíme barvy, lepidla, tmely, obtisky a další příslušenství pro plastikové modely.


De Havilland Mosquito B-Mk.IV

The versatile Mosquito stood with the Spitfire fighter and Lancaster bomber and earned the respect of British pilots during World War II. In 1939, the De Havilland company envisioned the plane to be an unarmed high-speed bomber, and had experience with the Comet, which was a wooden racing plane. Except for the engine and landing gear, the Mosquito was comprised of wood, offering strategic advantages. The Air Ministry was reluctant to adopt the wooden aircraft, but placed orders for 50 planes in March 1940 for reconnaissance use.

In November 1940, the Mosquito reached speeds of 630km/h during test flights, demonstrating its potential and quickly promoting additional orders of 150 planes. The Mosquito PR Mk.I reconnaissance plane was first deployed in July 1941 the B Mk.IV bomber started deployment in the Spring of 1942. On May 31, 1942, the Mosquitoes led a daylight raid on Caim. In September 1942, the Gestapo headquarters in Oslo was bombed. German officials delivering a daytime speech in Berlin were attacked on January 30, 1943.

These events demonstrated the Mosquito's ability to carry heavy loads and deliver low altitude surprise attacks with accuracy. The camera equipped PR Mk. IV reconnaissance plane discovered the German Battleship Tirpitz in the Artic Circle and scouted V2 rocket facilities. The Mosquitoes performed their duties with minimal losses, displaying their remarkable abilities.

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Watch the video: Kit Review - 1:32 De Havilland MOSQUITO Revell (January 2022).