History Podcasts

Force -AM-445 - History

Force -AM-445 - History


Power, strength.

Force (AM-99) was redesignated PC-1608 (q.v.) on 1 June 1944.

Force II

(AM-445: dp. 620; 1. 172'; b. 36': dr. 10'; s. 16 k.;
cpl. 74; a. 1 40 mm.; cl. Agile)

The second Force (AM-445) was launched 26 June 1953 by J. M. Martinae Shipbuilding Corp., Tacoma, Wash.; sponsored by Mrs. T. D. Wilson; and commissioned 4 January 1955, Lieutenant J. W. Boller in command. She was redesignated MSO 445 on 7 February 1955.

Force reported to Mine Force, Pacific Fleet, at Long Beach, Calif., 20 January 1955, and sailed along the California coast in training exercises until 1 May 1956. She departed then for her first tour of duty in the Far East, during which she made a good will cruise of ports in the northern islands of Japan, as well as training with ships of the Chinese Nationalist Navy. Damaged by typhoons in August, she was repaired at Sasebo and Yokosuka, and returned to Long Beach 15 November.

Special operations took Force to the Canal Zone between 30 August 1957 and 6 December. She returned to Long Beach for exercises and preparations for her next deployment to the 7th Fleet, completed between 3 November 1958 and 1 June 1959. During this time, she again trained with Chinese ships, as well as the Korean and Thai navies. On 2 November, she sailed with her division and Greer County (LST-799) for combined amphibious and minesweeping exercises out of Kodiak, Alaska; in these operations her group was joined by ships of the Royal Canadian Navy. During these maneuvers Force collected hydrographic data, and served as home base for an explosive ordnance demolition team. She returned by way of Vancouver, British Columbia, and San Francisco to Long Beach 16 December 1959. In February 1960 Force was on station for missile nose cone recovery duty and during the balance of the year participated in exercise "Steeple Jack," a "Phiblex 60" exercise and local operations.

Air Force ROTC History

Since 1947, the United States Air Force has defended this country in air, space, and cyberspace through the skill and bravery of American Airmen.

The story of the United States Air Force begins well before its inception as a separate military service. The dawn of the new century witnessed man take to the air for the first time in a heavier-than-air -powered aircraft conceived and flown by two Ohio bicycle salesmen. Their maiden flight on that cold, windy day on December 17th, 1903, and the subsequent aeronautical innovations that followed, helped propel air power to fantastic limits in the decade to come.

For centuries, war was reserved for the battlefields and the high seas. When World War I broke out in Europe on July 28, 1914, the untouched skies quickly knew the ravages of armed conflict. Soon, fixed-wing aircraft began conducting ground attacks and taking part in aerial dogfights with the U.S. poised to take the lead.

When World War II drew in over 30 countries and all the world’s superpowers into the deadliest conflict in human history, and there was no battleground more vital to victory than the skies above. Beginning with Japan attacking Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, and ending with the U.S. dropping two atomic bombs on Japanese cities almost four years later, the skies became the ultimate high ground for America’s Air Forces.

It was a time of relative peace, but not idle times. The lessons learned during World War II propelled the country to push the envelope of what was possible both technologically and organizationally, including the creation of the United States Air Force as a branch of service. In the process, transforming the country into the world’s foremost air power.

After war had broken out on the Korean Peninsula, the United States found itself once again in the midst of a devastating multi-national conflict on the far side of the world. Air power played crucially in helping recapture South Korea by forcing the communist forces north. After over three long years of fighting, an armistice was agreed to between the two sides, leading to the current division of the Korean Peninsula into two countries.

The decade that separated the Korean and Vietnam wars bore witness to many achievements of the human spirit. Suddenly the skies were no longer high enough, as man began reaching for the stars. During this time, Airmen continued to test the boundaries of the human body by flying faster, higher, and longer than anyone ever had before.

The battle to halt the spread of communism drew the country back to Southeast Asia once more and into a conflict unlike any other: the Vietnam War. Over the course of the campaign, the importance of air superiority and the use of new tactics and more sophisticated weapons systems would forever change the way wars are fought.

After nearly a decade of fighting a devastating war overseas, the United States experienced an era of relative peace that saw new breakthroughs in technology and service. In the years that followed the Vietnam War, the many contributions by women and minorities in the Air Force were being recognized and new opportunities were being opened.

As the 20th century came to a close, the United States cemented its role as the most most technologically advanced and capable combat air force in the world with its display of air power during the liberation of Kuwait, the activation of the GPS system and the launching of the first unmanned aerial vehicle, which would once again change the way battles are fought from the skies.

Shortly after the world celebrated the birth of a new century, the United States was plunged into its longest war ever after it was attacked on September 11, 2001. The war on terror is an ongoing conflict against an enemy without traditional borders and established the emergence of remotely piloted aircraft as a dominant player in the country’s arsenal. As our adversaries advance, the United States Air Force must continue to progress to maintain our supremacy in air, space, and cyberspace, and we will constantly need new and innovative officers to lead the way!

AFA History

When the United States entered World War I, it was the eighth-ranked nation in airpower. As other forces prioritized the impact of airpower, the U.S. Air Service drastically cut 6,000 of its 10,000 pilots in just nine days back in 1919. This did not sit well with Army General Billy Mitchell. He fought long and hard for the importance of airpower and the need for a strong national defense.

Today, we know Mitchell as the father of the United States Air Force. After his passing in 1936, General Henry H. "Hap" Arnold, the commander of World War II Army Forces, succeeded Mitchell as the leading voice for airpower. Nearly a decade later, General Arnold’s advocacy for an independent civilian organization was incorporated as the Air Force Association. Our first national president was noted aviation pioneer and Medal of Honor recipient, General Jimmy Doolittle, who spent AFA’s inaugural year establishing chapters across the country. While we have evolved over the decades to uphold the military’s standards, national security and the preservation of world peace has remained our core focus for members.


Obi-Wan Kenobi taught Luke Skywalker that the Force was an energy field created by all living things.

The Force was the energy field that bound the galaxy together. Mystics and scholars had long debated the origins of the Force, such as where and when civilizations first became aware of its power, resulting in many answers and none that were considered definitive. Different species had their own names for the Force as well as their own metaphors for how they perceived it and techniques for learning its powers. Ζ] Force-sensitive children without training were often skilled with one aspect of the Force instead of many. ⎟]

The Force existed in two forms: the Living Force and the Cosmic Force. The Living Force represented the energies of all lifeforms, and those energies were fed into the Cosmic Force, which bound the galaxy together and communicated the will of the Force through midi-chlorians. ⎠] Though only certain individuals were Force-sensitive, the Force resided within all living things and could be extracted. ⎡] Because of this, Force-sensitives could feel a "disturbance in the Force" whenever there was a great loss of life. Droids, however, being mechanical creations, and thus possessing no midi-chlorians, could never sense the Force. ⎢]

The ability to use the Force could run in a family line. The twins Leia Organa and Luke Skywalker, children of the powerful Anakin Skywalker, were both Force-sensitive. ⎣] Organa later bore a Force-sensitive child, Ben, with Han Solo, who was not Force-sensitive. ⎤] Despite this, most Force-sensitives—who were born during the age of the Jedi Order—came from those who could not use the Force due to the Jedi Code's stance against attachment and relationships. ⎥] It was possible for siblings born to normal parents to not share a talent for Force sensitivity. Such was the case with Zare and Dhara Leonis. While Dhara from an early age could always sense her brother's presence, Zare never had this talent, nor any special abilities that could be attributed to the Force. ⎦]

The Success Of John Force Racing

Winning races quickly became an obsession for John Force, and from 1993 to 2002, the racing team won 10 straight world titles. All with John Force behind the wheel. This was a miraculous recovery after the 1992 season, which was largely filled with failure and fires.

Thanks to that dominance, John Force Racing became the first team to put multiple cars on the track. With so much history behind him, Force decided it was time to let others earn some glory in his name. In 2003, Tony Pedregon became the first NHRA Funny Car championship winner for JFR, who wasn't named John Force.

The wins would keep on racking up for John Force throughout the years, ensuring his name would go down in history. Force alone has 16 NHRA championships which means he has more than earned his spot in the Motorsport Hall of Fame.

The racing team leader was inducted into the Motorsport Hall of Fame in 2008 but didn't rest on his laurels. He won two more world championships after his induction despite more than earning his retirement. Earning a spot in the Hall of Fame is just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to John Force's accolades, however.

In 1996, the iconic racer was the first-ever drag star to be honored with the 'Driver of the Year' award as voted for by a panel of journalists. He also became the first driver with 100 wins in final rounds under their belt and the first NHRA drag racer to record 1,000 elimination round victories.

Force was the first Funny Car drag racer to set a quarter-mile time of under five seconds thanks to his amazing 4.996 run in 1993. His ten consecutive championships are also a record, as are his 161 number one event qualifications. Of course, we're sure Force would admit that he hasn't achieved it all on his own, and his team is an essential part of his success.


Gaines, Larry. Victor Kappeler, and Joseph Vaughn, Policing in America (3rd ed.), Cincinnati, Ohio: Anderson Publishing Company, 1999.

Harring, Sidney, Policing in a Class Society: The Experience of American Cities, 1865-1915, New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1983.

Lundman, Robert J., Police and Policing: an Introduction, New York, New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1980.

Lynch, Michael, Class Based Justice: A History of the Origins of Policing in Albany, Albany, New York: Michael J. Hindelang Criminal Research Justice Center, 1984.

Platt, Tony, "Crime and Punishment in the United States: Immediate and Long-Term Reforms from a Marxist Perspective, Crime and Social Justice 18 (1982).

Reichel, Philip L., "The Misplaced Emphasis on Urbanization in Police Development," Policing and Society 3 no. 1 (1992).

Spitzer, Stephen, "The Rationalization of Crime Control in Capitalist Society," Contemporary Crises 3, no. 1 (1979).

Spitzer, Stephen and Andrew Scull, "Privatization and Capitalist Development: The Case of the Private Police," Social Problems 25, no. 1 (1977).

Walker, Samuel, The Police in America: An Introduction, New York, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996.

Modern Mass Armies

Conscription allowed Napoleon to put an unprecedented 2.5 million Frenchmen in uniform between 1800 and 1815.[8] Over the next century, Europe’s increasingly modern and industrialized militaries would expand considerably, setting the stage for the prolonged bloodbath that was the First World War.

Early Use of the Chevron

Originally, officers also wore chevrons, but this practice began to phase out in 1829. Despite this 10-year use of chevrons by officers, most people think only of enlisted grades when chevrons are mentioned.

The direction a chevron points alternated through the years. Originally, they pointed down, and on some uniforms, covered almost the entire width of the arm. In 1847, the point reversed to an "up" position, which lasted until 1851. Service chevrons, commonly called "hash marks" or "service stripes," were established by George Washington to show completion of three years service. After the American Revolution, they fell into disuse and it wasn't until 1832 before the idea was reinstituted. They have been authorized in one form or another ever since.

Vietnam War [ edit | edit source ]

A U.S. B-66 Destroyer and four F-105 Thunderchiefs dropping bombs on North Vietnam in 1966

The USAF was heavily deployed during the Vietnam War. The first bombing raids against North Vietnam occurred in 1964, following the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. In March 1965, a sustained bombing campaign began, code-named Operation Rolling Thunder. This campaign's purpose was to destroy the will of the North Vietnamese to fight, destroy industrial bases and air defences, and to stop the flow of men and supplies down the Ho Chi Minh Trail, while forcing North Vietnam into peace negotiations. The USAF dropped more bombs in all combat operations in Vietnam during the period 1965-68 than it did during World War II, ⎖] and the Rolling Thunder campaign lasted until the U.S. presidential election of 1968. Except for heavily damaging the North Vietnamese economy and infrastructure, Rolling Thunder failed in its political and strategic goals.

The USAF also played a critical role in defeating the Easter Offensive of 1972. The rapid redeployment of fighters, bombers, and attack aircraft help the South Vietnamese Army repel the invasion. Operation Linebacker demonstrated to both the North and South Vietnamese that even without significant U.S. Army ground forces, the United States could still influence the war. The air war for the United States ended with Operation Linebacker II, also known as the "Christmas Bombings." These helped to finalize the Paris peace negotiations.

The insurgent nature of combat operations early in the war, and the necessity of interdicting the North Vietnamese regular army and its supply lines in third-party countries of Southeast Asia led to the development of a significant special operations capability within the USAF. Provisional and experimental concepts such as air commandos and aerial gunships, tactical missions such as the partially successful Operation Ivory Coast deep inside enemy territory, and a dedicated Combat Search and Rescue mission resulted in development of operational doctrines, units, and equipment.

1 - Police Use of Force: The History of Research

the difficulties associated with conducting research on a group such as the police that, historically, has had great power and autonomy should not be underestimated. As we have seen, the role of the police in society is one of authority with the right to use force. The right of the police to use force to fulfill their responsibilities and the fact that they work in an environment without direct supervision contribute to making abuse of this power all too easy. Unfortunately, these considerations also make it very difficult to study the police and their possible abuse of power. Given the unquestionable relevance of these issues to our society, researchers have attempted to understand and explain the phenomenon of police use and abuse of force. This book proposes a new conceptual framework for examining and assessing the use of force, a framework discussed at length in Chapter 8. A brief survey of prior research on police use-of-force is therefore both necessary and useful to demonstrate the progress that has been made in police use-of-force research, and to highlight the obstacles that remain to attaining a more complete understanding of when and why force is used in law enforcement.

An Imperfect World: Necessary Force

Since the beginning of law enforcement, people have been concerned about the use of force by the police. As early as 1215 English barons ordered restrictions placed on all sheriffs and constables to curb abuses of power by the forces of law and order.

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