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Scientists claim meteorite fossils indicate extraterrestrial life

Scientists claim meteorite fossils indicate extraterrestrial life

Scientists published a paper on January 10 in the online Journal of Cosmology in which they claim that a meteorite discovered in Sri Lanka contains evidence of extraterrestrial life.

The paper, titled “Fossil Diatoms in a New Carbonaceous Meteorite,” asserts that microscopic fossilized diatoms (algae) were detected in the meteorite, and therefore provides “strong evidence to support the theory of cometary panspermia.” Business Day explains that the lead scientist on the paper, the director of the University of Buckingham’s Centre for Astrobiology, Professor Chandra Wickramasinghe, “was the co-developer of the theory of panspermia, which holds that life exists across the universe and is spread by asteroids and meteoroids.”

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    Extraterrestrial life

    Extraterrestrial life is defined as life which does not originate from planet Earth. The word "extraterrestrial" is derived from the Latin extra ("outside", "outwards") and terrestris ("earthly", "of or relating to the Earth"). The existence of such life is theoretical and all assertions about it remain disputed.

    Hypotheses regarding the origin(s) of extraterrestrial life, if it exists, are as follows: one proposes that it may have emerged, independently, from different places in the universe. An alternative hypothesis is panspermia or exogenesis, which holds that life emerges from one location, then spreads between habitable planets. These two hypotheses are not mutually exclusive. The study and theorization of extraterrestrial life is known as astrobiology, exobiology or xenobiology. Speculated forms of extraterrestrial life range from life with the simplicity of bacteria to sapient or sentient beings which are more advanced than humans.

    Suggested locations which might have once developed, or presently continue to host life similar to our own, include the planets Venus [ 1 ] and Mars, moons of Jupiter and Saturn (e.g. Europa, [ 2 ] Enceladus and Titan) and Gliese 581 c and d, recently discovered to be near Earth-mass extrasolar planets apparently located in their star's habitable zone, and with the potential to have liquid water. [ 3 ]

    To date, no credible evidence of extraterrestrial life has been discovered which has been generally accepted by the mainstream scientific community.

    All other proposals, including beliefs that some UFOs are of extraterrestrial origin (see extraterrestrial hypothesis) and claims of alien abduction, are considered hypothetical by most scientists. UFO sightings are sightings of unidentified flying objects that may or may not be connected with extraterrestrial intelligent life. Most of these sightings can be dismissed as sightings of Earth based aircraft or known astronomical objects, or perpetration of hoaxes. Some sightings have remained unexplained, in some cases having been reported by trained professionals.

    In 2006, New Scientist published a list of ten controversial pieces of evidence that extraterrestrial life exists, [ 4 ] but scientists do not consider them credible since no direct observational evidence has been encountered. Many scientists [citation needed] , such as the late Carl Sagan, believe that it is nearly impossible for no other intelligent life to exist in the universe.


    Loess and life out of Earth?

    Loess is a homogeneous, typically nonstratified, porous, friable, slightly coherent, often calcareous, fine-grained, silty, pale yellow, wind blown (aeolian) and often by water reworked sediment that is distributed on continents world-wide. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of biological loess crusts in trapping and transforming aeolian material into loess and also in prevention from wind and water erosion of deposited material.

    Some planets and satellites in our solar system are characterized by conditions comparable to those related to loess formation in terrestrial environments. Given the requirements for loess deposition on Earth, this study aims to ask the following questions: 1) if loess-like sediment formation is possible outside Earth, what are the mechanisms of sediment deposition and preservation 2) could the possible loess-like sediments be stabilized through the activity of extraterrestrial equivalents of biological loess crusts found on Earth? As loess formation on Earth is related to biological activity, we propose a new direction in the search for extraterrestrial life: evidence about extraterrestrial loess might indicate extraterrestrial life connected to loess formation.

    On the basis of comparative analysis of some astrophysical conditions of seven celestial bodies, we propose Mars and Titan, and possibly Venus and Io, to be assessed for evidence of loess deposition and the possible presence of related life forms and their biomarkers. Following recent advances in our understanding of terrestrial loess deposition we propose new indicators of extraterrestrial life research – biomarkers in loess (cyanobacterial and other microbial).


    Why Should You Be Skeptical about Ancient Aliens: Declassified?

    For those who are unfamiliar with Ancient Aliens, it is a History Channel show that is focused on the pseudo-scientific speculation that there were aliens who visited the Earth in ancient times. Generally speaking, this means claiming that the accomplishments of various ancient cultures should be attributed to alien intervention, with examples including but not limited to the Sphinx, the Pyramids, and the Nazca Lines. Amusingly, when Ancient Aliens ran out of material for its titular topic, it showed no hesitation whatsoever in seeking out even more pseudoscience that could be repurposed to support its premise, with an excellent example being the use of Creationism in an episode that claimed that aliens exterminated dinosaurs to make way for humans.

    The “science” presented in support of Ancient Aliens: Declassified‘s speculation isn’t very good to say the least. In fact, one can describe it as a kind of Gish Galloping, which is a debate tactic that seeks to win on pure style rather than the truth of the matter. Essentially, the tactic consists of throwing out so many arguments with no regard for either their accuracy or their persuasiveness in the hopes that the opponent will respond by debunking them one by one, thus causing them to be buried beneath a pile of nonsense because debunking garbage claims takes a great deal more time and effort than making them in the first place.

    To get an idea of the kind of arguments made on Ancient Aliens: Declassified, consider the episode that claimed that aliens exterminated dinosaurs to make way for humans, which can be found in Season 4. For starters, the episode can’t even keep its own claim straight, which is why at one point, one of its supposed experts Franklin Ruehl made the claim that the continuing existence of the coelacanth is reason to believe that non-avian dinosaurs could have made it into human times as well. This is promptly forgotten by the episode itself, which soon tosses out a claim that aliens turned dinosaurs into smaller animals such as the coelacanth and then a second claim that the coelacanth became extinct but was revived by the aliens millions and millions of years later.

    Naturally, all three of these claims are lacking in substance. The first claim is flawed because the coelacanth fossils are rare, not least because they are so difficult to distinguish from other things. In contrast, the fossils of non-avian dinosaurs share no such problem, meaning that if they had continued to exist past what is believed to be their extinction dates, their fossils should have turned up in the appropriate strata. Meanwhile, the second claim is nonsensical because coelacanths existed more than 360 million years ago, meaning that they actually predated even the earliest dinosaurs by more than 130 million years. As for the third, well, that raises the question of why the aliens would even bother. Never mind the fact that we have evidence showing that modern coelacanths have continued to evolve over time, meaning that modern specimens are not identical to their prehistoric counterparts. In other words, we have pretty good reason to believe that coelacanths have been continuing to evolve and thus continuing to exist for a very, very long time.


    Possible basis of extraterrestrial life

    Biochemistry

    All life on Earth is based on the building block element carbon with water as the solvent in which biochemical reactions take place. This carbon and water combination may have formed other creatures on other planets with roughly the same make up. Due to the fact that Earth (and subsequently, all life on Earth) is made up of "star dust" or rather mass formed from stars which have gone supernova, it is apparent that the millions of other stars which can even be seen from Earth have been formed by the same sorts of particles. The combination of carbon and water in the chemical form (CH2O)n, is the chemical form of the sugars, which as well as providing the energy on which animal life depends (largely through the oxidation of glucose, a six carbon sugar), also provides structural elements for life (such as the sugar ribose, a five carbon sugar, in the molecules DNA and RNA). Plants derive energy through the conversion of light energy into chemical energy via photosynthesis. Life requires carbon in both reduced (methane derivatives) and partially-oxidized (carbon oxides) states. It also requires nitrogen as a reduced ammonia derivative in all proteins, sulfur as a derivative of hydrogen sulfide in some necessary proteins, and phosphorus oxidized to phosphates in genetic material and in energy transfer. Adequate water as a solvent supplies adequate oxygen as constituents of biochemical substances.

    Pure water is useful because it has a neutral pH, due to its continued dissociation between hydroxide and hydronium ions. As a result, it can dissolve both positive metallic ions and negative non-metallic ions with equal ability. Furthermore, the fact that organic molecules can be either hydrophobic (repelled by water) or hydrophilicmembranes. The fact that solid water (ice) is less dense than liquid water also means that ice floats, thereby preventing Earth's oceans from slowly freezing solid. Additionally, the Van der Waals forces between water molecules give it an ability to store energy with evaporation, which upon condensation is released. This helps moderate climate, cooling the tropics and warming the poles, helping to maintain a thermodynamic stability needed for life. (soluble in water) creates the ability of organic compounds to orient themselves to form water-enclosing

    Carbon is fundamental to terrestrial life for its immense flexibility in creating covalent chemical bonds with a variety of non-metallic elements, principally nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen. Carbon dioxide and water together enable the storage of solar energy in sugars, such as glucose. The oxidation of glucose releases biochemical energy needed to fuel all other biochemical reactions.

    The ability to form organic acids (–COOH) and amine bases (–NH2) gives it the possibility of neutralisationpolymer peptides and catalytic proteins from monomer amino acids, and with phosphates to build not only DNA, the information storing molecule of inheritance, but also adenosine triphosphate (ATP) the principal energy "currency" of cellular life. dehydrating reactions to build long

    Given their relative abundance and usefulness in sustaining life it has long been assumed that life forms elsewhere in the universe will also utilize these basic components. However, other elements and solvents might be capable of providing a basis for life. Silicon is usually considered the most likely alternative to carbon, though this remains improbable. Silicon life forms are proposed to have a crystalline morphology, and are theorized to be able to exist in high temperatures, such as on planets which are very close to their star. Life forms based in ammonia [3] rather than water are also considered, though this solution appears less optimal than water.

    Indeed, technically life is little more than any self-replicating reaction, which could arise in a great many conditions and with various ingredients, though carbon-oxygen within the liquid temperature range of water seems most conducive. Suggestions have even been made that self-replicating reactions of some sort could occur within the plasma of a star, though it would be highly unconventional.

    Several pre-conceived ideas about the characteristics of life outside of Earth have been questioned. For example, NASA scientists believe that the color of plant pigments on extrasolar planets could be non-green. [4]

    Evolution and morphology

    Along with the biochemical basis of extraterrestrial life, there remains a broader consideration of evolution and morphology. Science fiction has long shown a bias towards humanoid and/or reptilian forms. The classical alien is light green or grey skinned, with a large head, and the typical four limb and two to five digit structure—i.e., it is fundamentally humanoid with a large brain to indicate great intelligence. Other subjects from animal mythos such as felines and insects have also featured strongly in fictional representations of aliens.

    A division has been suggested between universal and parochial (narrowly restricted) characteristics. Universals are features which have evolved independently more than once on Earth (and thus presumably are not difficult to develop) and are so intrinsically useful that species will inevitably tend towards them. These include flight, sight, photosynthesis and limbs, all of which have evolved several times here on Earth with differing materialization. There is a huge variety of eyes, for example, many of which have radically different working schematics as well as different visual foci: the visual spectrum, infrared, polarity and echolocation. Parochials, by contrast, are essentially arbitrary evolutionary forms which often serve little inherent utility (or at least have a function which can be equally served by dissimilar morphology) and probably will not be replicated. Parochials include the five digits of humans and the curious and often fatal conjunction of the feeding and breathing passages found within many animals, although it is possible this conjunction allowed for the evolution of human speech. [citation needed]

    A consideration of which features are ultimately parochial challenges many taken-for-granted notions about morphological necessity. Skeletons, which are essential to large terrestrial organisms according to the experts of the field of Gravitational biology, are almost assuredly to be replicated elsewhere in one form or another, yet the vertebrate spine—while a profound development on Earth—is just as likely to be unique. Similarly, it is reasonable to expect some type of egg laying amongst off-Earth creatures but the mammary glands which set apart mammals might be a singular case.

    The assumption of radical diversity amongst putative extraterrestrials is by no means settled. While many exobiologists do stress that the enormously heterogeneous nature of Earth life foregrounds even greater variety in space, others point out that convergent evolution may dictate substantial similarities between Earth and off-Earth life. These two schools of thought are called "divergionism" and "convergionism", respectively. [5]


    India Panspermia?

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    This article is marked as 'retired'. The information here may be out of date, incomplete, and/or incorrect.

    On July 25th, 2001 a strange rain began to fall over Kerala, India. For three months intermittent reports of colored rains came in from a several hundred kilometer long strip of coastal India. Just prior to the first reported cases of red rains, reports of sonic booms in the Kerala region suggested that perhaps a comet or asteroid had disintegrated high in the atmosphere, a phenomenon known as an airburst. Two scientists, Godfrey Louis and A. Santhosh Kumar, collected samples of the red rain and reported that the red coloration came from some unidentified particle which showed biological activity. Did Louis and Kumar uncover the first hard evidence of alien life here on Earth?

    The notion that extraterrestrial life is occasionally transported to Earth, or perhaps even originally seeded life on Earth itself, is known as panspermia. The philosophical concept of panspermia has an ancient history, but it gained some scientific credentials with the support of Lord Kelvin in the late 19th century. He and others noted that meteorites often contained organic material that could only be explained by biologic activity. In the early 20th century, the Nobel-prize winning chemist Svante Arrhenius calculated that seeds or spores could be transferred from Earth to Mars in a few days, and to our nearest stellar neighbor Alpha Centauri in just under 10,000 years. A few decades later, one of the world’s premier astronomers, Fred Hoyle, advanced the panspermia cause with his view that periodic infusions of extraterrestrial life helped to advance genetic evolution of life on Earth.

    But panspermia fell out of favor, as did many ideas about extraterrestrial life, when Mariner 9 returned images of Mars showing it to be a rocky, desolate wasteland. For two decades panspermia was not not widely supported, but gradually over the last decade panspermia has become scientifically fashionable again. Astronomers have discovered increasingly complex organic molecules in interstellar clouds, and in 1996 geologists announced the discovery of structures within a Martian meteorite that appeared to of biologic origin. That claim has since been largely refuted, but just last week another Martian meteorite was announced that supposedly contains unusual compounds and structures that indicate extraterrestrial life activity.

    So did alien life rain down over Kerala during July of 2001? Louis and Kumar have published three scientific articles in peer-reviewed journals supporting their claim. They note that the pattern of colored rain reports matches what would be expected if a meteorite released tiny spores that gradually rained down over the land. Also, they report that the spores can be induced to reproduce and grow, and that higher temperatures cause higher growth rates.

    But scientists are a skeptical lot, and extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence. So far, Louis and Kumar are alone in their publications. Other scientists have presented evidence that dust storms around the Horn of Africa and in the Middle East lofted thousands of tons of dust and fungal spores into the atmosphere that traveled over to India and were washed out by the monsoonal rains. Louis and Kumar have criticized this hypothesis, but have not yet conclusively demonstrated the extraterrestrial origin of their red rain spores.

    Though scientists are sometimes insular and overly-conservative, if firm evidence of extraterrestrial life exists it would have been promptly published. After all, such a publication would assure eternal fame for both the scientists and the journal itself. Until more convincing evidence emerges, panspermia will remain an idea slightly on the fringes of science, but firmly within the mainstream of the paranormal.


    Contents

    Several theories have been proposed about the possible basis of alien life from a biochemical, evolutionary or morphological viewpoint.

    Alien life, such as bacteria, has been theorized by scientists such as Carl Sagan to exist in our solar system and quite possibly throughout the universe although no samples have been found.

    Biochemistry

    All life on Earth requires carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur and phosphorus as well as numerous other elements in smaller amounts, notably minerals it also requires water as the solvent in which biochemical reactions take place. Sufficient quantities of carbon and the other major life-forming elements, along with water, may enable the formation of living organisms on other planets with a chemical make-up and average temperature similar to that of Earth. Because Earth and other planets are made up of "star dust", i.e. relatively abundant chemical elements formed from stars which have ended their lives as supernovae, it is very probable that other planets may have been formed by elements of a similar composition to the Earth's. The combination of carbon and water in the chemical form of carbohydrates (e.g. sugar) can be a source of chemical energy on which life depends, and can also provide structural elements for life (such as ribose, in the molecules DNA and RNA, and cellulose in plants). Plants derive energy through the conversion of light energy into chemical energy via photosynthesis. Life, as currently recognized, requires carbon in both reduced (methane derivatives) and partially-oxidized (carbon oxides) states. It also appears to require nitrogen as a reduced ammonia derivative in all proteins, sulfur as a derivative of hydrogen sulfide in some necessary proteins, and phosphorus oxidized to phosphates in genetic material and in energy transfer. Adequate water as a solvent supplies adequate oxygen as constituents of biochemical substances.

    Pure water is useful because it has a neutral pH due to its continued dissociation between hydroxide and hydronium ions. As a result, it can dissolve both positive metallic ions and negative non-metallic ions with equal ability. Furthermore, the fact that organic molecules can be either hydrophobic (repelled by water) or hydrophilic (soluble in water) creates the ability of organic compounds to orient themselves to form water-enclosing membranes. The fact that solid water (ice) is less dense than liquid water also means that ice floats, thereby preventing Earth's oceans from slowly freezing. Without this quality, the oceans could have frozen solid during the Snowball Earth episodes. Additionally, the hydrogen bonds between water molecules give it an ability to store energy with evaporation, which upon condensation is released. This helps to moderate the climate, cooling the tropics and warming the poles, helping to maintain the thermodynamic stability needed for life.

    Carbon is fundamental to terrestrial life for its immense flexibility in creating covalent chemical bonds with a variety of non-metallic elements, principally nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen. Carbon dioxide and water together enable the storage of solar energy in sugars, such as glucose. The oxidation of glucose releases biochemical energy needed to fuel all other biochemical reactions.

    The ability to form organic acids (–COOH) and amine bases (–NH2) gives rise to the possibility of neutralization dehydrating reactions to build long polymer peptides and catalytic proteins from monomer amino acids, and with phosphates to build not only DNA (the information-storing molecule of inheritance), but also ATP (the principal energy "currency" of cellular life).

    Due to their relative abundance and usefulness in sustaining life, many have hypothesized that lifeforms elsewhere in the universe would also utilize these basic materials. However, other elements and solvents could also provide a basis for life. Silicon is most often deemed to be the probable alternative to carbon. Silicon lifeforms are proposed to have a crystalline morphology, and are theorized to be able to exist in high temperatures, such as on planets which are very close to their star. Life forms based in ammonia (rather than water) have also been suggested, though this solution appears less optimal than water. [ 5 ]

    When looked at from a chemical perspective, life is fundamentally a self-replicating reaction, but one which could arise under a great many conditions and with various possible ingredients, though carbon-oxygen within the liquid temperature range of water seems most conducive. Suggestions have even been made that self-replicating reactions of some sort could occur within the plasma of a star, though it would be highly unconventional. [ 6 ]

    Several pre-conceived ideas about the characteristics of life outside of Earth have been questioned. For example, NASA scientists believe that the color of photosynthesizing pigments on extrasolar planets might not be green. [ 7 ]

    Evolution and morphology

    In addition to the biochemical basis of extraterrestrial life, many have also considered evolution and morphology. Science fiction has often depicted extraterrestrial life with humanoid and/or reptilian forms. Aliens have often been depicted as having light green or grey skin, with a large head, as well as four limbs—i.e. fundamentally humanoid. Other subjects, such as felines and insects, etc., have also occurred in fictional representations of aliens.

    A division has been suggested between universal and parochial (narrowly restricted) characteristics. Universals are features which are thought to have evolved independently more than once on Earth (and thus, presumably, are not too difficult to develop) and are so intrinsically useful that species will inevitably tend towards them. These include flight, sight, photosynthesis and limbs, all of which are thought to have evolved several times here on Earth. There is a huge variety of eyes, for example, and many of these have radically different working schematics and different visual foci: the visual spectrum, infrared, polarity and echolocation. Parochials, however, are essentially arbitrary evolutionary forms. These often have little inherent utility (or at least have a function which can be equally served by dissimilar morphology) and probably will not be replicated. Intelligent aliens could communicate through gestures, as deaf humans do, or by sounds created from structures unrelated to breathing, which happens on Earth when, for instance, cicadas vibrate their wings, or crickets rub their legs.

    Attempting to define parochial features challenges many taken-for-granted notions about morphological necessity. Skeletons, which are essential to large terrestrial organisms according to the experts of the field of gravitational biology, are almost assured to be replicated elsewhere in one form or another. Many also conjecture as to some type of egg-laying amongst extraterrestrial creatures, but mammalian mammary glands might be a singular case.

    The assumption of radical diversity amongst putative extraterrestrials is by no means settled. While many exobiologists do stress that the enormously heterogeneous nature of life on Earth foregrounds an even greater variety in space, others point out that convergent evolution may dictate substantial similarities between Earth and extraterrestrial life. These two schools of thought are called "divergionism" and "convergionism" respectively. [ 6 ]


    In 2005, Rebecca Hardcastle taught a non-credit exopolitical class at Scottsdale Community College called Extraterrestrial Reality. [8] [9]

    • British rock band Muse have a song titled "Exo-Politics" on the album Black Holes and Revelations, which Matthew Bellamy says is, "about the possibility of an orchestrated alien invasion created by the New World Order". [10]
    • Various exopolitical frameworks exist in science fiction, as for example in Isaac Asimov's Foundation Trilogy.Galactic empires are a fairly common theme in science fiction, as are forms of galactic confederacies in the mode of the United Nations. Other examples include the Galactic Republic in Star Wars and the United Federation of Planets in Star Trek.

    Scientists claim meteorite fossils indicate extraterrestrial life - History

    We already have some understanding of how interstellar travel could work without breaking the laws of physics

    Lol, understanding what? this is a sci-fi article from 2014 using other articles from the 90's.

    The last word at the official NASA site on warp drives was 5 years ago: for the near future, warp drive remains a dream.

    There are two certain things about UFO's

    1) there has never been one shred of proof of evidence provided by any worldwide country leader ever, zero! This must be best kept global secret known to mankind.

    2) lots of people are making big $$ on the story's about them.

    Seriously though, it's one thing to believe other intelligent life forms exist on other planets but to think they broke all laws of physics to visit us is beyond belief.

    I mean, you bring a smartphone to people in the 19th century and they'd accuse you of witchcraft.

    The people of north sentinel island who have remained isolated from the rest of the world for 10,000 years probably look up at aircraft flying overhead and can't comprehend what they're seeing. They've attacked helicopters when they've flown nearby, likely out of fear of disruption to their island and way of life, and when they retreat, the people just go back into the jungle and not bother to venture out and gain an understanding of what they're seeing.

    Now just extrapolate that to a larger scale with us living in the twenty first century. Could we not be doing the same thing?

    What if we don't know everything about physics and harnessing those laws with tech? And what if that is the equivalent of a drone to something else out there. Who knows, but you can't write it off definitively until someone comes out and busts it. But that footage has been out there for a year and no one has.

    We just might be those people observing something that exists but is not yet within our understanding.

    People do tend to be uncomfortable with change in perspective to their little bubble worlds of they prefer to box themselves into

    Which is exactly why many laugh and scold the notion of it all. Because they've arrogant enough to believe that people know everything there is to know about the universe. And that what can exist ends at what the US/Russia/China can come up with. And yet our perspective and knowledge is expanding all the time, and we're completely reevaluating things every few decades.

    The universe is a very, very big place. And if we can exist here and have accomplished and built what we have in this tiny amount of time in the vast scale of time, what else can exist out there in a universe 14 billion years old that got a massive head start on technology development?

    Just don't know. But to rule it out is simply ignorance.

    It's not sci fi, x-files chatter really, it's just being realistic and looking at the probability that such things can exist in such an expansive place we occupy yet are only beginning to understand/explore.

    Anyways, fun conversation to be had.

    Not one I expected to be touching on but 2020 is proving to be a special kind of enigma.

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