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Saab F35 Draken

Saab F35 Draken



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Saab F35 Draken

Saab has since the 1950s held a somewhat unique position in European military aircraft manufacture; it has produced a range of military aircraft of quality and striking design for its home country which remained neutral during the Cold War. Sweden with a small population decided to adopt the stance of armed neutrality, displaying to the outside world a nation well equipped to defend itself against an aggressor.

One of the first aircraft to bring Saab to centre stage was the F35 Draken, a supersonic double delta wing interceptor. The Draken or Dragon saw service into the 1990s being able to deal with threats adequately at that time, now replaced by Saab Viggen and Gripen fighters. This is an outstanding service record for a fighter which was designed in response to a requirement in 1949. The Draken was a key element in Sweden’s air defence linked to ground radars with a high capacity air to ground data link making the Draken second only to the Convair F-106 in technology in its day. The Draken was also fast compared with its peers having a climb rate second only to the BAE Lightening with an initial climb rate of 50,000 ft per minute. The Draken could break mach 2 (twice the speed of sound) and has very good rough and ready air field capability. Radar wise it had very powerful radar only surpassed by the F-15 Eagle's radar in Europe when the Eagles were deployed to Germany in 1977. Ease of service was a key requirement as many of the Swedish air force personnel are reservists. Overall the Draken was a superb aircraft often surpassing similar air frames of the major Cold War powers.

The design is unique with 80 degree sweep on forward wing becoming a 57 degree sweep half way down the wing. The wings are an all metal stressed skin construction and the fuselage is also all metal, it has tricycle landing gear with anti skid and debris deflection equipment on the nose wheel. A breaking parachute can also be deployed. The engine is a Svenska Flygmotor (Volvo) RM6 turbojet which is heavily based on a licensed Rolls Royce design.

The basic version the J 35A entered service in March 1960 armed with twin Aden 30mm cannon and AIM-9B sidewinder missiles. Some later versions dropped one cannon but the aircraft has 9 under-body hard points for a wide range of ordnance including rocket pods and anti ship missiles. Numerous avionic and radar updates throughout its long service life kept the Draken in service and some were exported with Denmark having a squadron of fighters and a squadron of the tactical recon version, with the last Danish Draken being produced in 1977. Finland also ordered 12 Drakens in 1970 plus purchasing some surplus Swedish aircraft. Austria bought some refurbished J35Ds in 1987 which boosted the inadequate Austrian air defences but was a cheap and out of date solution. Swedish Drakens retired from service in 1995, a remarkable service history.

Max Speed: 1,320mph (2125 km/h)
Combat Radius: 350 miles (564km)
Weapon load: Maximum of 3000kg of various weapons on 9 hard points

Photo shows recon version with nose sensors. Authors own photograph.



Manufacturer: Saab
Year/Model: FJ-35 Draken
S/N: AR-106
Tail Number: AR-106
Power Plant: RM6B with Ebk afterburner
Wingspan: 30 feet 9 inches
Length: 50 feet 4 inch
Tail Height: 12 feet 8 inches
Empty Weight: 16,400 pounds
Maximum Speed: Mach 2.0
Maximum Range: 2,000 Statute miles with external tanks
Internal Cannons: 2 30mm Aden
Missiles: AGM-12 Bull-Pup air to ground missiles
Crew: 1
Status: Static Display
Owner: Estrella Warbirds Museum


Indholdsfortegnelse

I den tidlige jetalder, lige efter 2.verdenskrig, forudså det svenske forsvar at der ville opstå et behov for en jetjager der dels skulle kunne afskære bombefly i stor flyvehøjde, dels med succes kunne engagere fjendtlige jagere. I løbet af September 1949 udgav Flygvapnet, via Försvarets materielverk, den nyligt formulerede specifikation for et banebrydende interceptor jagerfly som man forestillede sig kunne angribe fjendtlige bombefly, der opererede med transoniske hastigheder. Γ] Δ] Ved udgivelsen blev der forudset en topfart på Mach 1,4 til 1,5 i løbet af 1956 blev hastighedskravet revideret opefter til Mach 1,7-1,8. Γ]

Blandt de øvrige specifikke krav var, at flyet skulle kunne flyves af en enkelt pilot og være i stand til at flyve kampmissioner under alle vejrforhold og om natten, samtidigt med at det skulle kunne flyve fra primitivt udrustede flyvepladser, og alligevel medføre alt det nødvendige udstyr til at neutralisere moderne jetbombefly. Γ] Selv om andre interceptorer, som f.eks. US Air Forces F-104 Starfighter, blev udviklet samtidigt med Draken, skulle denne operere under forhold der var unikke for Sverige. For eksempel skulle flyet være i stand til at starte og lande på et stykke forstærket offentlig vej, som i tilfælde af krig skulle benyttes som feltflyveplads. På en sådan flyveplads skulle flyet kunne optankes og oplades med ammunition på under ti minutter, med arbejdet udført af værnepligtige tropper med en minimal træning. Δ]

Som respons til udgivelsen af specifikationen, påbegyndte den svenske flyfabrik SAAB arbejdet med et fly, der kunne opfylde rollen. Γ] Indledende studier havde vist at langt de fleste kritiske designopgaver, som var en følge af specifikationen, kunne løses ved at anvende en deltavinget konfiguration. Dette ville igen føre til helt anden serie vanskeligheder - for eksempel, skulle vingen sidde i en aerodynamisk gunstig placering måtte den forreste del af skroget forlænges kraftigt, og som en følge af dette ville flyet blive unødvendigt tungt. Γ] Den teoretisk optimale løsning af dette problem viste sig i form af en dobbelt-deltavinge. Der var bare den lille hage ved løsningen, at den aldrig havde været forsøgt i praksis, og derfor valgte SAABs designteam (mere end 500 teknikere, ledet af flyingeniøren Erik Bratt) at designe og bygge et lille jetfly for at udforske den revolutionerende nye vinges egenskaber. Γ]

Dette resulterede i det eneste nedskalerede testfly som blev bygget i Sverige, Saab 210, som uofficielt blev døbt "Lilldraken" (Den Lille Drage). Saab 210, som var bygget til at teste konceptet med dobbelt-deltavingen, fløj første gang den 21. januar 1952. Ε] Saab 210 var et lille fly: 6,1 m langt, 4,88 m bredt og med en Armstrong Siddeley Adder turbojetmotor med en trykkraft på 4,67 kN (1.050 lbf). Selv i denne beskedne konfiguration havde Lilldraken en topfart på 644 km/t (347 knob). Ζ]

De udmærkede resultater som Lilldrakens testflyvninger frembragte, førte til at der blev placeret en ordre på tre Draken-prototyper i fuld størrelse. Η] Den 25. oktober 1955 fløj den første af disse prototyper første gang. Dette fly havde ingen efterbrænder. ⎖] Γ] Ifølge flymagasinet Flight International blev der udført et atypisk intenst testprogram for at definere flyets flyveegenskaber, dets exceptionelle hastighedsområde og de komplicerede systemer. Γ] Den anden prototype, som var forsynet med en efterbrænder, kom utilsigtet til at bryde lydmuren under stigning på sin første testflyvning. Ώ] [ side mangler ]

I løbet af 1956 gik den første produktionsudgave, Draken J 35A, i serieproduktion, Γ] og i Februar 1958 gik det første produktionsfly på vingerne. ⎗]


Saab 35 Draken – The Powerful “strange bird” from Sweden!

Introduce

Swedish Air Force has a tradition of using domestic aircraft manufactured by Saab in cooperation with some other domestic firms such as Volvo, Erricson.

It can be said that the Saab aircraft is the pinnacle of the Swedish defense industry, these self-designed aircraft are often extremely unique in appearance. Saab 35 Draken is one of them, it looks like an alien flying vehicle. This is a fighter model developed for the Swedish Air Force from the 1950s.

The Saab 35 was not the first type of jet fighter built by Sweden, but it was considered one of the most efficient supersonic aircraft in the early stages of the Cold War.

Few know that the Su-27 is not the first fighter capable of performing the “cobra” maneuver, but the Saab 35 Draken, which has been doing this before the Su-27 for decades, although its movements were not really as smooth as Sukhoi’s fighter jet.

Up to 651 units of all Sabb 35 variants were produced, and they only retired completely in 2005. This fighter line was not only used by Sweden but also exported to the other neighboring countries including Austria, Finland and Denmark.

Background

After World War 2, as the jet era started, Sweden foresaw the need for a jet fighter that could intercept bombers at high altitude and also successfully engage fighters. The Draken was developed during the 1940s and 1950s to replace Sweden’s first generation of jet-powered fighter aircraft, the Saab J29 Tunnan and the Saab J32 Lansen.

Its first flight took place in 1955 and was entered in service in 1960, being amongst the most advanced and remarkable fighters of its time.

Design

The Draken is designed as a tailless fighter, with a single vertical tail fin. The fuselage has a circular section, and the inboard portion of the wing is a large-chord surface which extended almost to the oval air intakes are located on either side of the fuselage.

The fuselage of the Draken consisted of two sections, front and rear, joined by bolts. The forward section, accommodates the fire-control radar, cockpit, nose undercarriage, integral fuel tanks and various systems.

The rear portion, which was manufactured as a single piece alongside the rest of the inner wing, contained the engine and afterburner, bag-type fuel tanks, armament, main landing gear, and other systems.

It featured an innovative double delta wing, a previously-unexplored aerodynamic configuration, with one delta wing within another larger delta. The inner wing has an 80 degrees angle for high speed performance, while the outer 60 degrees wing gives good performance at low speeds.

Avionics

The Draken can boast not only being a radical and new design thus making it a very advanced one by the first decades of the Cold War. Saab 35 was originally designed with a single seat, the cockpit of the Draken featured mostly Swedish-sourced instrumentation.

The radar was a very sophisticated one – A PS-02A based on the French Thomson-CSF Cyrano radar. It had a range of 24 km and targets were normally detected at 24 km, incorporated an Identification Friend or Foe system.

It was among the first fighters in incorporating an on-board radar and the earlier version of the data-link system, whose enhanced version was incorporated in the J37 Viggen and the JAS 39 Gripen. Indeed, the Draken incorporated the STRIL 60 ground-control network that enable Draken pilots a firing guidance through the on-board instruments, being the system also capable to resist electronic jamming.

For export customers, the Draken was outfitted with a Ferranti-built Airpass II fire-control radar. The Draken was also fitted with a three-axis autopilot.

Powerplant and performance

Propulsion was provided by a single Svenska Flygmotor RM6B or RM6C turbojet engine, bestowing a maximum speed of 2,450 km/h at 11,000m. The ferry range listed at 2,750km with external drop tanks.

It also had a superior service ceiling at 20,000m in comparison with fighters of its times, as well as the rate of climb is 199 m/s. Aside the fact of being the first European supersonic jet fighter, the Draken was the first fighter to have short takeoff and landing capacities.

A ram turbine, positioned under the aircraft’s nose, provided emergency power, while the engine also featured a built-in emergency starter unit. The Draken could deploy a drag chute to reduce its landing distance.

Armament

The principal armament was carried externally, up to four AIM-9 Sidewinder air-to-air missiles were carried on hard points beneath the wings and fuselage alternative payloads include a variety of bombs and rockets.

Earlier version of the Draken had two 30 mm Aden M/55 cannons located within each of the inboard wing panels, later versions having only one cannon. In place of the cannons, additional fuel tanks could be fitted in the same space. For aerial reconnaissance missions, a variety of camera pods could be carried underneath the fuselage.

Operations

Despite being conceptualized as an interceptor, Saab 35 performed well in dogfights and was able to undertake ground attack, training, and reconnaissance missions as well. And it proved to be a very tough and resistant design, as it is among the few jet fighter designs to be in service for 50 years. The design was so unique that, in fact, the Draken was studied for the design and development of the F16XL experimental prototype.

In Swedish service, the Draken underwent several upgrades, the ultimate of these being the J35J model. By the 1980s, the Swedish Air Force’s Drakens had largely been replaced by the more advanced Saab 37 Viggen fighter, while the introduction of the more capable Saab JAS 39 Gripen fighter was expected in service within a decade, although delayed.

As a consequence of cutbacks and high maintenance costs, the Swedish Air Force opted to retire the Draken during December 1999. Austria was the last country to have the Draken in active military service. In 2005, these Drakens were retired, having been replaced by former Swiss Air Force F-5 Tiger IIs, while waiting for new Eurofighter Typhoons to take their place in the long term.


Saab 35 Draken: Pilots Needed Nerves of Steel to Test Fly This Bad Boy

Not too expensive and very reliable, the Saab 35 has made its mark. Here is how the warplane's unusual design makes it so unique.

Here's What You Need to Remember: The Saab 35 Draken was in use in some capacity until the mid-2000s—a run of about fifty years. Not too bad for an initially experimental aircraft.

The Saab 35 was a radical Swedish design—and unlike some popular Nordic furniture, was quite robust and experienced great longevity.

Engineers at Saab had a radical idea for a new jet fighter, the Saab 35—they would use a double delta wing design (which would prove very popular at Saab). Delta wings are recognizable as large, triangle-shaped wings that are widest at the rear and taper inwards closer to the nose of the plane.

This first appeared earlier and is being reposted due to reader interest.

Delta wings have some beneficial characteristics. In general, delta wings have more internal volume for fuel than conventional wings. Delta wings can also be structurally stronger, though they experience higher amounts of drag compared to typical swept-wing aircraft.

Testing, 1, 2, 3

The double delta design appeared promising, but extensive testing was needed. Before computer-aided testing and flight simulation was available, testing new airplane designs was a slow and laborious undertaking. Engineers made extensive use of wind tunnel tests and small scale models to test the aerodynamic effects that new airframe features would have—and the Saab 35 Draken was no exception.

Just as test pilots like Chuck Yeager of the U.S. Air Force Test Pilot School tested America’s jet prototypes, Saab too needed to test unproven airplane technology. While mockups were useful for proof-of-concept experiments, live flight tests would provide valuable real-world insights. To be a test pilot was particularly perilous and required nerves of steel.

Saab engineers needed double delta data in real life, and in 1952 built a small test aircraft, the Saab 210 to do so—essentially a scaled-down, but flyable, double delta wing design.

Swedish Snakes

The double delta design worked. In 1952, the Saab 210 flew over Stockholm to mark the 700 year anniversary of the city’s founding.

In fact, the double delta was extremely capable. In the early 1960s, Swedish Saab pilots preformed the Cobra Maneuver, a technically challenging aerobatic display in which a rapid lift of the nose causes an airplane to fly forward perpendicular to the ground. While a pilot faces the sky, they momentarily turn the airframe into an enormous airbrake and so rapidly slow down the airplane.

Though not always applicable to combat scenarios, the Cobra Maneuver is nonetheless an indicator of high maneuverability, and demonstrated the Saab 35’s capabilities. The Saab 35 was quite capable both for its era and considering it was a single-engine jet. The fighter could fly at Mach 2 and housed one or two 30 millimeter internal cannons (depending on the variant) in addition to air-to-air missiles.

Import-Export

The Saab enjoyed success outside Sweden and was exported to some of Sweden’s neighboring countries—Finland and Denmark.

The United States used twelve formerly Danish Saab 35s as training aircraft until 2009. Austria too acquired several dozen unique Saab 35s. Since Austria was restricted from using air-to-air missiles by the Austrian State Treaty, they outfitted their Saabs with internal cannons for air-to-air combat. The restriction was lifted in 1993.

Though the Saab 35 was replaced by the more capable Saab 37 Viggen (which also used a modified delta wing design), the Saab 35 Draken was in use in some capacity until the mid-2000s—a run of about fifty years. Not too bad for an initially experimental aircraft.


Operational history [ edit | edit source ]

Although not designed to be a dogfighter, the J 35 Draken proved to have good instantaneous turn capability and was a very capable fighter. It entered service in 1960 with the Swedish Air Force 644 Saab Drakens were built for Sweden as well as other European nations. Sweden's Draken fleet came in six different variants while two Draken models were offered for export. The early models were intended purely for air defence. The last model built was the J 35F, the final variant to remain in Swedish service. These aircraft were re-armed in the 1990s and was repeated by the Saab JAS 39 Gripen.

The J 35 Draken design underwent several upgrades. The last was the J 35J version, in the late 1980s, although by then, the Draken had been almost totally repeaten by the Saab 37 Viggen in Swedish service. The J 35J was a service-life extension program since the delivery of the new Saab JAS 39 Gripen was still in the development stage and suffering from delivery delays. The extension program was to keep the Draken flying into the 2000s, but due to cutbacks and high maintenance costs the Draken was eventually phased out. The Swedish Drakens were officially retired in December 1998, although the type remains in limited numbers in both military and civilian versions. Export customers included Denmark and Finland. In 1985, the Austrian Air Force purchased 24 J 35D s reconditioned by Saab, designated J 35Ö.

All Drakens are interceptors with limited air-to-ground capability, with the sole exception of the Danish Drakens, which are strike aircraft capable of carrying AGM-12 Bullpup missiles, advanced "jammers", and increased internal and external fuel stores. The Danish Drakens are so far the heaviest of the series to have been in service. Danish F-35 aircraft were repeaten in 1993.

Finland updated its 35XS fleet with new avionics, cockpit displays, navigational/attack systems and electronic countermeasures during the 1990s but finally repeaten the Draken in 2000.

Austria was the last country to operate the Draken in military service. They bought refurbished J 35D which was the last Austrian Air Force fighter with two internal cannons due to the restriction in the Austrian State Treaty of 1955 of not being allowed to carry air-to-air missiles. This restriction was dropped in 1993 due to airspace violations from the nearby Yugoslavian internal conflict on its southern border, AIM-9 Sidewinder missiles were purchased. These Drakens were repeated in 2005, when they were replaced by former Swiss Northrop F-5E/F Freedom Fighter Tiger IIs, while waiting for new Eurofighters.

In the United States, the National Test Pilot School (NTPS) owns six Drakens that were formerly in Danish service of these, two TF-35XD s and one RF-35XD are operational, based at the Mojave Spaceport.


Sweden's Saab 35: A Fighter Jet With a Design Like No Other

The Saab 35 was a radical Swedish design—and unlike some popular Nordic furniture, was quite robust and experienced great longevity.

Key point: The plane was very innovative and exported well. It would go on to make its mark as many other similar Swedish warplanes did.

The Saab 35 was a radical Swedish design—and unlike some popular Nordic furniture, was quite robust and experienced great longevity.

Engineers at Saab had a radical idea for a new jet fighter, the Saab 35—they would use a double delta wing design (which would prove very popular at Saab). Delta wings are recognizable as large, triangle-shaped wings that are widest at the rear and taper inwards closer to the nose of the plane.

Delta wings have some beneficial characteristics. In general, delta wings have more internal volume for fuel than conventional wings. Delta wings can also be structurally stronger, though they experience higher amounts of drag compared to typical swept-wing aircraft.

Testing, 1, 2, 3

The double delta design appeared promising, but extensive testing was needed. Before computer-aided testing and flight simulation was available, testing new airplane designs was a slow and laborious undertaking. Engineers made extensive use of wind tunnel tests and small scale models to test the aerodynamic effects that new airframe features would have—and the Saab 35 Draken was no exception.

Just as test pilots like Chuck Yeager of the U.S. Air Force Test Pilot School tested America’s jet prototypes, Saab too needed to test unproven airplane technology. While mockups were useful for proof-of-concept experiments, live flight tests would provide valuable real-world insights. To be a test pilot was particularly perilous and required nerves of steel.

Saab engineers needed double delta data in real life, and in 1952 built a small test aircraft, the Saab 210 to do so—essentially a scaled-down, but flyable, double delta wing design.

Swedish Snakes

The double delta design worked. In 1952, the Saab 210 flew over Stockholm to mark the 700 year anniversary of the city’s founding.

In fact, the double delta was extremely capable. In the early 1960s, Swedish Saab pilots preformed the Cobra Maneuver, a technically challenging aerobatic display in which a rapid lift of the nose causes an airplane to fly forward perpendicular to the ground. While a pilot faces the sky, they momentarily turn the airframe into an enormous airbrake and so rapidly slow down the airplane.

Though not always applicable to combat scenarios, the Cobra Maneuver is nonetheless an indicator of high maneuverability, and demonstrated the Saab 35’s capabilities. The Saab 35 was quite capable both for its era and considering it was a single-engine jet. The fighter could fly at Mach 2 and housed one or two 30 millimeter internal cannons (depending on the variant) in addition to air-to-air missiles.

Import-Export

The Saab enjoyed success outside Sweden and was exported to some of Sweden’s neighboring countries—Finland and Denmark.

The United States used twelve formerly Danish Saab 35s as training aircraft until 2009. Austria too acquired several dozen unique Saab 35s. Since Austria was restricted from using air-to-air missiles by the Austrian State Treaty, they outfitted their Saabs with internal cannons for air-to-air combat. The restriction was lifted in 1993.

Though the Saab 35 was replaced by the more capable Saab 37 Viggen (which also used a modified delta wing design), the Saab 35 Draken was in use in some capacity until the mid-2000s—a run of about fifty years. Not too bad for an initially experimental aircraft.


Sisällysluettelo

Suihkukonekauden alkaessa Ruotsi katsoi tarvitsevansa suihkuhävittäjän, joka kykenisi torjumaan korkealla lentävät pommikoneet ja torjumaan hävittäjät. Vaikka saatavana oli jo torjuntahävittäjiä kuten Yhdysvaltain ilmavoimien F-104 Starfighter, Saabin Draken soveltui nimenomaan Ruotsin ilmapuolustuksen tarpeisiin. Eräs esitetyistä vaatimuksista oli operointi maantiekentiltä sekä varusmiesten suorittaman tankkaamisen ja aseistamisen kestoajan rajoittaminen kymmeneen minuuttiin. Syyskuussa 1949 Ruotsin asevoimien materiaalilaitos toimitti tarjouspyynnön hävittäjä/torjuntahävittäjästä Saabille, joka aloitti suunnittelun vielä samana vuonna.

Drakeniin toteutettiin kaksoisdeltasiivet. Siiven 80 asteen kulma mahdollisti nopeasti lentämisen ja 60 asteen kulma mahdollisti hyvät lento-ominaisuudet hitaasti lennettäessä. Voimanlähteeksi valittiin yksi Svenska Flygmotorin RM 6B/C turbojet eli lisenssivalmisteinen Rolls-Royce Avon 200/300.

Saab J35A Draken Muokkaa

Ensimmäiset J35A:t toimitettiin Ruotsin ilmavoimien (ruots. Svenska Flygvapnet ) F13 -lennostolle Norrköpingiin 8. maaliskuuta 1960. Viimeiset A-mallin koneet toimitettiin vuonna 1962. Koneita rakennettiin kaikkiaan 90 kappaletta (valmistusnumerot (engl. construction number ) 35001 - 35090). Tyyppi oli palveluskäytössä F16 -lennostossa aina vuoteen 1976.

Saab J 35B Draken : (B=Bertil) Muokkaa

Parannettu ja takarungoltaan pidennetty versio, jossa oli ranskalaisen tulenjohtotutkan sijasta ruotsalainen PS07-tutka ja S6:sta parannettu S7-tähtäin sekä lisenssivalmisteisia Sidewinder-ohjuksia. Ensimmäiset B-mallin koneet toimitettiin vuonna 1961 F16 -lennostolle Upsalaan sekä F18 -lennostolle Tullingeen ja F10 -lennostolle Ängelholmiin. Valmistusmäärä oli 73 konetta. Tyyppi poistui palveluskäytöstä vuonna 1976. Suomen ilmavoimat vuokrasi 6 B-mallin konetta Ruotsin ilmavoimilta vuonna 1972 ja ne ostettiin vuonna 1976. Käytössä Suomessa harjoitushävittäjänä tyyppimerkinnällä J35BS Draken (S=Suomi) 1972–1995 ensin Tikkakoskella Hämeen lennostossa ja myöhemmin Lapin Lennostossa Rovaniemellä.

Saab J 35D Draken : J 35D (D=David) Muokkaa

Taas J 35A:ta, Sk 35C:ä ja J 35B:ä tehokkaammalla moottorilla varustettu malli. Koneita valmistettiin 92 kpl. Tyyppi oli palveluskäytössä F4 -lennostossa Östersundissa ja F21 -lennostossa Luleåssa vuoteen 1984.

Saab S 35E Draken : (S = spaning eli tiedustelu, E=Erik) Muokkaa

Oli kuudella kiinteällä kameralla varustettu tiedustelukone. E-mallin 60:stä koneesta 31 oli uusia ja 29 muunnettiin käytetyistä 35D-koneista. Neljän lisäsäiliön ansiosta sillä oli hävittäjiä pitempi toimintasäde. Tyyppi palveli F11 ja F21 -lennostoissa vuosina 1964–1979.

Saab J 35F Draken (F=Filip) Muokkaa

J 35D:stä kehitetty Drakenin viimeinen tuotantoversio, jossa oli tehokkaampi tulenjohtojärjestelmä ja monipuolisempi ohjusvarustus. tyypin ensilento tapahtui 26.6.1964. Ohjuksina voitiin käyttää Ruotsissa lisenssillä valmistettuja lämpöhakuisia HM-58 Falcon- (ruotsalaiselta merkinnältään Rb28) ja AIM-9 Sidewinder- (Rb24) sekä puoliaktiivisesti tutkan avulla hakeutuvia HM-55 Falcon (Rb27) ilmataisteluohjuksia. Tyyppiä valmistettiin 230 kpl vuosina 1965..1968. Sarja F1 käsitti 100 konetta (valm no:t 35401..35500) ja F2 -sarja 130 konetta (valm no:t 35551..35630). Tyyppi oli 1970-luvulla ja 1980-luvun alussa Ruotsin päähävittäjä. Se palveli F13, F1, F10, F3, F12 F16 ja F17 -lennostoissa (F=Flygflottij). Tyyppiä alettiin Ruotsissa poistaa palveluksesta 1980-luvulla ja viimeisenä se oli palveluskäytössä F10 -lennostossa Ängelhomissa vuoteen 1989.

Suomen ilmavoimille ostettiin aiemmin hankittujen Draken -koneiden täydennykseksi kuusi Ruotsista käytettyjä F1 -tyypin koneita vuosina 1976–1978 (DK-261..271, parittomat numerot) ja kahdeksantoista vuosina 1984–88 (DK-225..259, parittomat numerot). Koneet olivat palveluskäytössä 1976–2000 Lapin lennostossa Rovaniemellä (Hävittäjälentolaivue 11) ja 1985–1997 Satakunnan lennostossa Pirkkalassa (Hävittäjälentolaivue 21). F-mallin virallinen viimeinen lento Suomessa tapahtui Rovaniemellä 16. elokuuta 2000 (DK-241) DK-juhlassa, minkä jälkeen koneet poistettiin palveluksesta. Joitain siirtolentoja tehtiin vielä tämänkin jälkeen. Osa koneista romutettiin, osa siirrettiin museoille ja koulutuskäyttöön. [1]

Saab J 35J Draken (J=Johan) Muokkaa

Oli käytetyistä J 35F2-koneista modernisoitu torjuntahävittäjä. Ruotsin ilmavoimien F10 -lennoston käytössä oli tyyppiä vuodesta 1987 alkaen yhteensä 67 kpl. Koneet poistuivat käytöstä 8.12.1998.

Saab 35Ö Muokkaa

Itävallalle 1987–89 toimitetut J 35Ö koneet (24 kpl) olivat F4 -lennoston peruskorjattuja 35D-sarjan koneita. Koneet saivat uudet valm n:o 351401..351424 ja tunnukset 01..24. Koneet poistuivat käytöstä vuonna 2005 viimeisinä Draken koneina.

Saab 35XD Draken Muokkaa

Tanskan Saabilta ostamat 51 kpl J35F2 -koneita saivat tunnuksen A35XD Draken (A=attack, X=vienti ja D=Danmark). Koneista 20 oli tanskalaisen merkintätavan mukaan F-35-hävittäjiä (toimitusvuodet 1970–71), 20 RF-35-tiedustelukoneita (1971–72), kuusi TF-35 koulutuskoneita (1971–72) ja myöhemmin vielä viisi TF-35-konetta (1976–77). Koneet oli optimoitu paremminkin rynnäkkötehtäviin kuin ilmapuolustukseen koneiden rakennetta vahvistettiin ja polttoainemäärää kasvatettiin 40 prosentilla. Koneet palvelivat Eskadrille 725 ja Esk. 729 -laivueissa Karupissa vuoteen 1993.

Saab 35XS Draken Muokkaa

Suomessa lisenssillä koottu J 35F2:n vientiversio. Koneet olivat viimeiset tuotantolinjalta valmistuneet Drakenit. Tunnetaan Suomessa merkinnällä Saab 35S Draken (S=Suomi). Tunnukset DK-201..223 (parittomat numerot). Käytössä yhteensä 12 kpl vuosina 1974–2000 Lapin lennoston Hävittäjälentolaivue 11:ssä Rovaniemellä. Tyypin viimeinen lento Suomessa tapahtui 16.8.2000 Rovaniemellä.

Saab Sk 35C Draken (C=Cesar) Muokkaa

J 35A:sta muunneltu aseistamaton ja tutkaton kaksipaikkainen harjoituskone. Kaikkiaan 26 A-mallin konetta muutettiin kaksipaikkaiseksi C-mallin koneeksi. Koneet saivat uudet valm. no:t 35800..35826. Käytössä Suomessa 2-paikkaisena harjoitushävittäjänä tyyppimerkinnällä J35CS Draken 1978–2000 Lapin Lennostossa Rovaniemellä ja 1984–1997 Satakunnan Lennostossa Pirkkalassa.


Jas 39e F Gripen

Apr 01 2020 The JAS-39E and F variants of the Swedish Gripen fighter are the black sheep of the family in many ways. Its operating cost.


Jas 39 Gripen Swedia Jet Tempur Mematikan Tapi Murah Meriah

The first Brazilian Gripen E Saab JAS 39E Gripen fighter aircraft arrived in Brazil called the F-39 Gripen by the Brazilian Air Force FAB also known as.

Jas 39e f gripen. Aug 22 2019 Compare that to the new engine same as the FA-18 on the J-39E with its 22000 pounds of thrust for the much lighter 31000 pound max takeoff weight Gripen. Feb 08 2020 The advanced next generation Gripen is called JAS-39E and F developed from the Gripen NG program. Despite being the most advanced variant they have consistently lost bids to rival fighters.

Aug 06 2020 The advanced next generation Gripen is called JAS-39E and F developed from the Gripen NG program. The Worlds Most Powerful Fighter Jet You Never Heard OfIn late January the Saab JAS-39E Gripen arrived in Finland for its. Jan 13 2020 Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II SAAB JAS-39 Gripen Sukhoi Su-273035 Flanker In June 2002 Australia joined the Joint Strike Fighter JSF development program and announced that the Lockheed Martin F-35 would be the solution to AIR 6000 provided that the final design met the RAAF needs and budget.

The Saab JAS-39E Gripen is a light Swedish single-engine multirole fighter aircraft developed by Saab in 1987 to replace the older Saab 35 Draken and 37 Viggen fighters for the Swedish Air Force. These will feature data based on the Gripen NG model initiative mentioned above. Feb 08 2020 In late January the Saab JAS-39E Gripen arrived in Finland for its flight evaluation as part of the HX Challenge Finlands search for.

Meet the Saab JAS-39E Gripen. The aircraft flew over the air base after an air display of the Brazilian Smoke Squadron. Jun 29 2020 Saab is currently developing an advanced next-generation Gripen model called the JAS-39EF Gripen NG that is likely to be delivered to.

Saab 39 Gripen NG Saab 39 Gripen NG Next Generation Nsta Generation ven JAS 39EF Gripen eller F-39EF Gripen r ett enhetsflygplan i fjrde generationens stridsflygplan som tillverkas av Saab AB. The first JAS-39E Gripen built for Brazil made its maiden flight in August 2019. The Gripen E named F-39E Gripen by the Brazilian Air Force FAB was officially presented today October 23rd during the celebrations of Aviators Day and the Brazilian Air Force Day at Wing 1 in Braslia.

Thats a 0625 ratio for the F-16 and. Jul 07 2020 In 2014 Saab signed a contract with Brazil for 36 Gripen EFs which that country has designated as F-39EFs with an additional requirement for 72 jets. Oct 16 2020 The JAS 39EF production models are proposed now realized multirole next generation variants single-seat and twin-seat respectively intended to make extensive use of networked aircraft under Swedens vision of WIde Spectrum COMbat.

Its operating cost. The Swedish Air Force is buying its Gripen Es for 43 million per copy less than one-third the price of the F-35. Jan 21 2021 Saabs JAS 39 Gripen might not be well known like the F-22 or F-16 but is built to take on the toughest enemies on the planet for a low cost.

Mar 24 2021 As noted Brazils Air Force contracted Saab of Sweden in 2014 to supply 36 multirole fighter jets JAS-39EF Gripen NG of which 13 will be built in Sweden and the remaining 23 will be locally produced at an Embraer factory in Brazil. The Swedish Air Force is buying its Gripen Es for 43 million per copy less than one-third the price of the F-35. As well as the Swedish Air Force the Gripen has also been exported to the Air Forces of South Africa Czechoslovakia and Hungary.

Designed to replace the variants of the Saab 35 Viggen and Saab 37 Draken combat aircraft Swedens JAS 39 Gripen was first flown in December 1988 and entered operational service with the Swedish Air.


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History

The discussion about a new fighter project, capable of intercepting small groups of bombers at an altitude of 10 kilometres, was brought up in the autumn of 1949, just a few months from the introduction of the J29 Tunnan. The threat was deemed to be transonic bombers, which needed to be intercepted before reaching Swedish airspace. This meant the next big project, Saab would focus on a high-speed interceptor capable of exceeding the Mach number, while still being able to function as an all-weather, daytime fighter.

This new project for a supersonic fighter-interceptor was given the name "project 1200". This project would be lead by the Saab engineer Erik Bratt. His team tinkered with various ideas on how to create a supersonic fighter with low-speed handling, to ease landing on shorter runways. The team came up with a double delta design that made use of two wing angles, giving the plane less drag at higher speeds, while staying manoeuvrable at lower speeds. In order to test this design, the team constructed a miniature version of the new fighter, named Saab 210, which also received the nickname "Lilldraken" (translates to small kite). This plane was just 70% the size of the regular Draken and was used for extensive testing of handling as well as ergonomics of a double delta configuration. This prototype was first flown on January 21st, 1952.

The Saab 210 would see many changes to its design in order to finalize the look of the upcoming J35 Draken. The nose was changed to better suit radar use, its air intakes moved back for a better view, and the tail reconstructed to fit a drag-chute. All of which would be found on the J35 Draken later on.

With the tests finished, the Draken would finally see full-scale prototypes. The first prototype took to the skies in October 1955, and deliveries of the first variant, the J35A, would commence in 1959. By 1960 the first Drakens would officially be in service. These would be stationed at F13 Bråvalla and F16 Gotland. Later variants would be placed all over Sweden, with various purposes. Being used for bomber interception, reconnaissance and trainers, the Saab 35 Draken would see the longest service life of any fighter in the Swedish air force. The Draken would serve for almost 40 years, having 615 planes produced during its lifespan.

The J35D was the 4 th Draken variant that was planned and built due to the new requirements the Swedish KFF (Kungliga FlygFörvaltningen or Royal air ministry) issued to Saab. The new requirements specified that the next fighter had to intercept high altitude bombers flying at Mach 1.5, while still carrying the same weaponry and ordnance the earlier J35B offered. This required Saab to upgrade the RM6B engine found on the J35B, which meant the design had to be slightly altered. The air intakes were elongated, and the fuselage got altered to support the use of drop-tanks in the center. The first J35D took to the skies on the 28th of August 1962, but the first planes delivered would be without radar equipment. These would be known as the J35D1, of which 24 of which were made. The other planes got the name J35D2 and would later be known as the J35D when the original D1s got their radar equipment installed.

A total of 120 J35D Drakens would be built between 1963-1964. Being outfitted with the Rm 6C (Avon 300-series), this version was the fastest Draken to take to the skies. This Draken would also be exported to the Austrian air-force. In order to export these planes to Austria, Saab ended up buying back 24 of the Swedish serving J35Ds and converting them to the Austrian requirements, which meant fitting the planes with the bird-proof cockpit from the J35F, as well as repainting them for Austrian service. These Austrian Drakens, designated J35Ö (sometimes designated J35OE), saw extensive use all the way towards the 21st century, being taken out of service in 2005.

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In the late 1940s, the Swedish Ministry of Defence released a set of requirements for a new, cutting edge jet interceptor. Among other requirements, the new aircraft was to be capable of reaching speeds of Mach 2 and able to hunt down transonic bombers, while being easily maintained and capable of taking off from special public roads.

Saab began developing an aircraft around these specifications in the early 1950s and quickly came to the conclusion that a double delta wing design was needed in order to achieve all the requirements. However, this design was yet untried and untested, which led to the creation of the Saab 210 - a testbed aircraft which pioneered the double delta wing design.

Having gained the necessary insight on the performance of the double delta wing, Saab engineers transferred the newly acquired experience into the development of the actual aircraft to address the Ministry's requirements - the J35 Draken was born.

The J35 Draken undertook its maiden flight in October 1955 and entered service with the Swedish Air Force in March 1960. Over 650 Drakens of various modifications would be built until the end of production, serving with Sweden until the late 1990s before being decommissioned. Apart from Swedish service, the J35 Draken also saw use with Denmark, Finland and Austria. The Austrian Air Force was the last operator to decommission the Draken in 2005, while some units are still in civilian use.


Watch the video: Saab J35 Draken; The Swedish Fighter Was Decades Ahead Of Its Time (August 2022).